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# Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and

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Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and most staunch defenders, as well as an influential naturalist in his own right, first observed the many similarities between reptiles and birds. Huxley noted, for example, that the wings of a bird hid reptilian fingers. Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. Hundreds of structural similarities exist, including elongated arms, large eye openings, swiveling wrists, three forward-facing toes, and hollow bones.

The most diverse theropod group is the coelurosaurs, a carnivorous bipedal group that includes the Tyrannosaurus rex and the Velociraptor, the latter of which is quite similar to the oldest known bird, the Archaeopteryx. Coelurosauria, in fact, is the clade that contains all theropods more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs, and all coelurosaurs have been thought to possess feathers.

However, a recent find of what seems to be an entirely new—and apparently featherless—coelurosaur has complicated the subject. Several suggestions have been made as to why this particular chicken-sized dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period lacked feathers.

One possibility is that, in some creatures, feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for warmth, recognition of family members, or mating rituals—uses that feathers were thought to have had for dinosaurs that did not fly. It is also possible that some coelurosaurs had feathers in only certain geographic areas. Another idea is that this particular coelurosaur was so young that it had not yet grown feathers.

A more fundamentally profound alternative is that, contrary to conventional scientific thought, birds and feathered dinosaurs developed feathers independently of each other rather than from a common ancestor. This would certainly not be the first case of what is known as convergent evolution. Fish and certain mammals can swim,but have evolved this attribute separately. Likewise, insects have wings, but developed them independently from birds. Luckily, the new fossil of what has been named a Juravenator is well-preserved almost in its entirety. More insights into why it did not have feathers will likely lead to new insights into how other animals did develop this trait.

1. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in:

(A) presenting possible solutions to a problem that has troubled scientists for years
(B) providing background information and possible explanations for a curious discovery
(C) answering critics of a controversial theory that is supported by a new finding
(D) showing how an established idea can become too entrenched in conventional scientific thought
(E) presenting historical background to a current phenomenon
OA - B

2. According to the passage, the Archaeopteryx _______________________ .

(A) had feathers but did not fly
(B) is the oldest known coelurosaur
(C) was approximately the size of a chicken
(D) shares some similarities with carnivorous dinosaurs
(E) and the Juravenator developed feathers from a common ancestor
OA - D

3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .

(A) were not used for flight
(B) were not always present at birth
(C) were first noted by Huxley
(D) might have evolved from scales
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs
OA - D

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) All adult coelurosaurs possessed feathers.
(B) Coelurosaurs who did not need feathers for warmth or mating rituals shed those feathers for scales.
(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs are evolutionarily linked.
(D) Thomas Henry Huxley believed in the idea of convergent evolution.
OA - C

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Originally posted by souvik101990 on 29 Jul 2014, 02:33.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 20 Aug 2019, 00:45, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (220).
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2014, 14:49
5
souvik101990 wrote:
Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and most staunch defenders, as well as an influential naturalist in his own right, first observed the many similarities between reptiles and birds. Huxley noted, for example, that the wings of a bird hid reptilian fingers. Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. Hundreds of structural similarities exist, including elongated arms, large eye openings, swiveling wrists, three forward-facing toes, and hollow bones.
The most diverse theropod group is the coelurosaurs, a carnivorous bipedal group that includes the Tyrannosaurus rex and the Velociraptor, the latter of which is quite similar to the oldest known bird, the Archaeopteryx. Coelurosauria, in fact, is the clade that contains all theropods more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs, and all coelurosaurs have been thought to possess feathers.
However, a recent find of what seems to be an entirely new—and apparently featherless—coelurosaur has complicated the subject. Several suggestions have been made as to why this particular chicken-sized dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period lacked feathers.
One possibility is that, in some creatures, feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for warmth, recognition of family members, or mating rituals—uses that feathers were thought to have had for dinosaurs that did not fly. It is also possible that some coelurosaurs had feathers in only certain geographic areas.
Another idea is that this particular coelurosaur was so young that it had not yet grown
feathers.
A more fundamentally profound alternative is that, contrary to conventional scientific thought, birds and feathered dinosaurs developed feathers independently of each other rather than from a common ancestor. This would certainly not be the first case of what is known as convergent evolution. Fish and certain mammals can swim,but have evolved this attribute separately. Likewise, insects have wings, but developed them independently from birds. Luckily, the new fossil of what has been named a Juravenator is well-preserved almost in its entirety. More insights into why it did not have feathers will likely lead to new insights into how other animals did develop this trait.
1. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in:
(A) presenting possible solutions to a problem that has troubled scientists
for years
(B) providing background information and possible explanations for a
curious discovery
(C) answering critics of a controversial theory that is supported by a new
finding
(D) showing how an established idea can become too entrenched in
conventional scientific thought
(E) presenting historical background to a current phenomenon

OA - B

2. According to the passage, the Archaeopteryx _______________________ .
(A) had feathers but did not fly
(B) is the oldest known coelurosaur
(C) was approximately the size of a chicken
(D) shares some similarities with carnivorous dinosaurs
(E) and the Juravenator developed feathers from a common ancestor

OA - D

3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .
(A) were not used for flight
(B) were not always present at birth
(C) were first noted by Huxley
(D) might have evolved from scales
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs

OA - D

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) All adult coelurosaurs possessed feathers.
(B) Coelurosaurs who did not need feathers for warmth or mating rituals
shed those feathers for scales.
(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs
(D) Thomas Henry Huxley believed in the idea of convergent evolution.

OA - C

OA to question 3 doesn't seem right.

3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .
(A) were not used for flight
(B) were not always present at birth
(C) were first noted by Huxley
(D) might have evolved from scales
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs

OA - D while the passage says quite the opposite : One possibility is that, in some creatures, feathers were replaced by scales

instead option B fits perfectly based on this line : Another idea is that this particular coelurosaur was so young that it had not yet grown
feathers.

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##### General Discussion
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2014, 20:59
for this passage I find it easy to understand the structure . but when answering the question, I find it hard to realize the relevant part which yielding the answers. did I read too fast?

I should read more slowly because reading that way I can find out the relevant part more easily than reading fast.

is that right?
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2014, 21:05
B
A
A
B
this is not very hard question and passage. is that right?
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2014, 21:24
1. B
2. D
3. B
4. C
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2014, 21:25
Dear Souvik,
Thanks
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2014, 21:27
B
D
B
E
but I took a bit more time for this one(10-11 mins approx)
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2014, 22:41
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2014, 04:01
1
souvik101990 wrote:

Hello Souvik

Can you please clarify the 3rd Question.
The OA says :

feathers on dinosaurs .
- might have evolved from scales (option d)

As per my understanding if the passage - Scales evolved from feathers & Not the other way round.
Also the Question mentions Dinosaurs in general & not coelurosaur .

Am i overthinking

Thank you
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2014, 00:00
3
Responding to the questions one at a time.

First let's discuss the over all idea of the passage:

The passage discusses Huxley and his observation of the similarities between reptiles and birds.
It then discusses coelurosaurs to show this similarity and then discusses an exception (featherless coelurosaurs ) that has caused complications.

Some explanations for this contrast is provided.
Another alternate explanation that opposes the original premise (that feathers = similarity) is provided.
Authors perspective: with more study and understanding we can get a better idea about how close reptiles and birds are.

I've merely paraphrased here : the map above serves as a good reference point of what the passage discusses,
Let's go to question 1

1. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in:

(A) presenting possible solutions to a problem that has troubled scientists
for years. Irrelevant: Doesn't talk about presenting "solutions" to problems
(B) providing background information and possible explanations for a
curious discovery. Maybe: Although not the best possible description of the passage - it isn't wrong!
(C) answering critics of a controversial theory that is supported by a new
finding NO: I have a problem with the word "controversial" suggests that the author thinks that the theory isn't correct (in some way) - this isn't the case
(D) showing how an established idea can become too entrenched in
conventional scientific thought No: Again the option picks up a tone / opinion that is not supported by the author / passage
(E) presenting historical background to a current phenomenon NO: What current phenomenon?

Option B is the most reasonable response - sure it doesn't look too appealing, but few correct options seldom do!
Remember

1. Don't look for an answer that does exactly what you think the correct answer should do
2. Rather- go through each option looking for something incorrect in each - if you find even one point / perspective incorrect; get rid of that option
3. Look out for the author's tone / opinion - ensure that the answer option doesn't go away / against it (if the questions is within that scope).

Hope that helps!
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2014, 00:08
1
Question 2

According to the passage, the Archaeopteryx _______________________ .

The scope for this is in the second paragraph - so let me read that scope and find out what the passage says about it.

The most diverse theropod group is the coelurosaurs, a carnivorous bipedal group that includes the Tyrannosaurus rex and the Velociraptor, the latter of which is quite
similar to the oldest known bird, the Archaeopteryx.
Coelurosauria, in fact, is the clade that contains all theropods more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs, and all
coelurosaurs have been thought to possess feathers.

Archaeopteryx is a Bird and the Velociraptor a reptile (dinosaur) was similar to this bird.

(A) had feathers but did not fly - We have no idea if it did or didn't (remember NOT to bring background information into RC passages)
(B) is the oldest known coelurosaur Nope this was a bird!
(C) was approximately the size of a chicken We have no idea
(D) shares some similarities with carnivorous dinosaurs YES!
(E) and the Juravenator developed feathers from a common ancestor No Idea!

For such question that ask for specific info about something discussed - read the scope (the place where that entity is discussed)
and make sure that the options don't expect you to speculate - answer only based on what the passage suggests.
Remember NOT to bring background info into RC passages; respond only based on what the passage says and NOTHING else!

Hope that helps,
Ajeeth Peo
Verbal Trainer - CrackVerbal
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 05 Aug 2014, 01:18
2
3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .
(A) were not used for flight - NO! We don't know this for sure
(B) were not always present at birth NO! We don't know this for sure
(C) were first noted by Huxley NO! the passage never says that it was FIRST noted by Huxley
(D) might have evolved from scales Perhaps: scope is her - "One possibility is that, in some creatures, feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for warmth, recognition of family members, or mating rituals—uses that feathers were thought to have had for dinosaurs that did not fly."
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs ALL coelurosaurs? we don't know for sure

Option D therefore is the most reasonable response
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Originally posted by CrackVerbalGMAT on 05 Aug 2014, 00:20.
Last edited by CrackVerbalGMAT on 05 Aug 2014, 01:18, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2014, 01:13
3
4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) All adult coelurosaurs possessed feathers.
ALL possessed feathers? Can't say for sure: Eliminate
(B) Coelurosaurs who did not need feathers for warmth or mating rituals
shed those feathers for scales.
May Be
(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs
Proof: Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs.
YES! The proof lies here : Today, [b]few scientists challenge
not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs.
[/b]
(D) Thomas Henry Huxley believed in the idea of convergent evolution.
Maybe

The key to doing well on an inference question to is to ensure that the answer statement is 100% true ALL THE TIME!
Avoid answer options that are MAYBEs!

Hope that helps!

Ajeeth Peo
Verbal Trainer - CrackVeral
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2014, 03:51
The 3rd question really stumps me. As discussed earlier by other posters, it is written in the passage that the feathers were *replaced* by scales. It doesn't say that feathers *went back* to being scales. The "replace" word can also suggest that there were no scales to begin with!
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2014, 07:37
1
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .
(A) were not used for flight - NO! We don't know this for sure
(B) were not always present at birth NO! We don't know this for sure
(C) were first noted by Huxley NO! the passage never says that it was FIRST noted by Huxley
(D) might have evolved from scales Perhaps: scope is her - "One possibility is that, in some creatures, feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for warmth, recognition of family members, or mating rituals—uses that feathers were thought to have had for dinosaurs that did not fly."
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs ALL coelurosaurs? we don't know for sure

Option D therefore is the most reasonable response

I have a problem with this.
The article states the opposite: feathers were shed for scales.... This means that scales evolved from feathers and not the other way around...?

Also for B :"Another idea is that this particular coelurosaur was so young that it had not yet grown feathers."

Can you explain a little more?
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2014, 13:44
1
The answer to Q3 does not make sense at all! CrackVerbalGMAT, in the five options you mention, you have used not sure for 4 options and perhaps for D.
No way, you can conclude that D is the answer.
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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05 Nov 2014, 23:17
Can anyone explain the Q3 ?
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 08 Nov 2015, 08:28

According to the passage, convergent evolution____________
(A) had not been thought to apply to a common trait found in birds and other animals prior to the discovery of the Juravenator fossil
(B) has not been shown to apply to humans
(C) was not always thought to apply to birds and coelurosaurs
(D) was first noticed by Thomas Henry Huxley
(E) explains why some dinosaurs developed feathers for warmth

Originally posted by Nevernevergiveup on 08 Nov 2015, 02:43.
Last edited by Nevernevergiveup on 08 Nov 2015, 08:28, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2015, 08:23
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) All adult coelurosaurs possessed feathers.
ALL possessed feathers? Can't say for sure: Eliminate
(B) Coelurosaurs who did not need feathers for warmth or mating rituals shed those feathers for scales. May Be
(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs are evolutionarily linked.
Proof: Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs.
YES! The proof lies here : Today, [b]few scientists challenge
not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. [/b]
(D) Thomas Henry Huxley believed in the idea of convergent evolution. Maybe

The key to doing well on an inference question to is to ensure that the answer statement is 100% true ALL THE TIME!
Avoid answer options that are MAYBEs!

Hope that helps!
Ajeeth Peo
Verbal Trainer - CrackVeral

Hello Ajeeth,

scientists just challenged. how can you say that they reached a consensus? please explain?

Also explain option D as well. And the reason behind its elimination.

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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2015, 13:15
2
My two cents to add up to debate :

1. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in:
(A) presenting possible solutions to a problem that has troubled scientists for years
No (Is there any problem that troubled scientists for many years )

(B) providing background information and possible explanations for a curious discovery
Might Be ( a recent find of what seems to be an entirely new—and apparently featherless—coelurosaur has complicated the subject.)
and we got three possible explanations following this paragraph

(C) answering critics of a controversial theory that is supported by a new finding
(Tone is not supported by passage : "critics of controversial theory" and is we refer to the scientists who challenge evolution theory , they are never answered in passage)

(D) showing how an established idea can become too entrenched in conventional scientific thought
(Again tone is not supported : was the idea established ? did it become entrenched in conventional thought)

(E) presenting historical background to a current phenomenon
(which current phenomenon ? )

2. According to the passage, the Archaeopteryx _______________________ .
(B) is the oldest known coelurosaur (It is a bird not a coelurosaur, it is similar though)
(C) was approximately the size of a chicken (Its size is nowhere given)
(D) shares some similarities with carnivorous dinosaurs (Yes one for sure and that is presence of feathers)
(E) and the Juravenator developed feathers from a common ancestor (No link mentioned anywhere)

3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .
(A) were not used for flight (were not always used for flight might be worth thinking , this line means they were never used for flight and that is wrong)
(B) were not always present at birth (Yes for sure) (Another idea is that this particular coelurosaur was so young that it had not yet grown feathers.)
(C) were first noted by Huxley (Huxley was only mentioned in first paragraph)
(D) might have evolved from scales (scales might have evolved from feathers not the other way round)
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs (All is a strong word, we know one recent discovery this particular chicken-sized dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period lacked feathers

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) All adult coelurosaurs possessed feathers. (They were thought to have but now we have one exception, we don't know it was adult or not)
(B) Coelurosaurs who did not need feathers for warmth or mating rituals shed those feathers for scales. (It is one of possibility and not sure)
(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs are evolutionarily linked. (No Consensus till now, research is still on)
(D) Thomas Henry Huxley believed in the idea of convergent evolution. (No convergent evolution means "evolution of attributes separately" this was not his line of thought )
(E) Coeulurosaurs that did not have feathers instead had scales. Only option, tricky one though
1. All Coelurosaurs were thought to have feathers
2. Now, We know one exception
3. Possible explanation of this exception is that if feather was not required it was replaced by scales
4. Therefore this one exceptional case had scales.
Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and   [#permalink] 14 Nov 2015, 13:15

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