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To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of

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To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2018, 13:17
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Question Stats:

42% (01:42) correct 58% (01:51) wrong based on 408 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Day 49 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of experiments conducted in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze a large number of experiments in the next few years.

A) in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze

B) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a field newer than others, researchers have to analyze

C) these days in the relatively new field of initiated DNA alteration, researchers will have to analyze

D) in initiated DNA alteration, a field relatively newer than these days, researchers will have to analyze

E) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field, researchers have to analyze



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To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 26 Dec 2018, 10:34
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I've just started my GMAT preparation form SC.
So I've tried my best to analyze this question, please correct me if I am wrong somewhere.
Hope for GMATClub support.

To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of experiments conducted in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze a large number of experiments in the next few years.

Meaning analysis:
Sentence try to comunicate that in oderer to achieve some statistical confidence researchers have to analyze something.

Error analysis:
1. "to achieve" first clause must be followed by doer of this action.
2. "a relatively new field these days" wrong modifier placement, seems that new filed has to do something to achive statistical confidence
3. these days illogically modifiyes new field

A) in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze
(eliminated as per error analysis)

B) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a field newer than others, researchers have to analyze


C) these days in the relatively new field of initiated DNA alteration, researchers will have to analyze

D) in initiated DNA alteration, a field relatively newer than these days, researchers will have to analyze

E) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field, researchers have to analyze

So I think answer choice C is correct one.
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Originally posted by GKomoku on 26 Dec 2018, 03:54.
Last edited by GKomoku on 26 Dec 2018, 10:34, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 26 Dec 2018, 04:11
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A) in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze---Wrong, future tense to be used to repsresent future aspect

B) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a field newer than others, researchers have to analyze--- wrong, changes meaning ,

C) these days in the relatively new field of initiated DNA alteration, researchers will have to analyze-- correct

D) in initiated DNA alteration, a field relatively newer than these days, researchers will have to analyze--Wrong comparison, changes meaning

E) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field, researchers have to analyze---changes meaning, wrong

IMO C
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Re: To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2018, 04:40
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To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of experiments conducted in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze a large number of experiments in the next few years.


Meaning Analysis: To achieve confidence in X, researchers have to Y.


A) in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze
Since the first sentence is a modifier, it expects doer of "To achieve"

B) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a field newer than others, researchers have to analyze
Same error as the first sentence.

C) these days in the relatively new field of initiated DNA alteration, researchers will have to analyze

D) in initiated DNA alteration, a field relatively newer than these days, researchers will have to analyze
Same error as A

E) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field, researchers have to analyze
Future tense required for last statement.
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To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2018, 21:58
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Project SC Butler: Day 49 Sentence Correction (SC1)



To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of experiments conducted in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze a large number of experiments in the next few years.

A) in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze
B) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a field newer than others, researchers have to analyze
C) these days in the relatively new field of initiated DNA alteration, researchers will have to analyze
D) in initiated DNA alteration, a field relatively newer than these days, researchers will have to analyze
E) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field, researchers have to analyze

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

My annotations are in blue typeface.

• If the experiments are conducted now and the analysis will happen
in the future, we are looking for a conditional:

not have to analyze, but will have [to analyze].

Eliminate Answers A, B, and E

• D makes a wrong comparison: field newer than these days

• Answer C is logical and is the correct answer

A hypothetical conditional does not always use the word "if."

In cases that involve cause and effect, we should look for the correct verb structure.

COMMENTS

First, welcome GKomoku, Yash312 and and sm86 - glad to have you posting here

This question is about verb tense, the logic of causation, modifiers, and cutting through the fluff to get to the core of the sentence.

Although the words IF and THEN do not appear in the sentence, this statement is a conditional.

The statement is about cause and effect.

To achieve = in order to achieve = wanting a particular result
In this context, results do not come immediately.
Results will be achieved later. Scientists will[/i] conduct experiments and [u]will analyze the experiments.

IF scientists want to achieve ABC, THEN . . .

• Strip the sentence.

To achieve [reasonable statistical confidence in the results of experiments conducted in initiated DNA alteration[X], a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze a large number of experiments in the(Xs) next few years.

To achieve statistical confidence in the results of X, researchers [have to analyze? WILL have to analyze?] many Xs in the next few years.

People learn conditionals in many ways. This site and
its explanation of conditionals and tenses is among the best I have found. The linked material is excellent.

Issue: is this sentence supposed to be a zero conditional (general truth), or a Type 1 conditional (predictive, probable result)?

Zero conditional? A general truth.
IF this thing happens (present tense), then that thing happens (present tense).

Type 1 conditional? A possible condition and its probable result.

If this thing happens (present tense), then that thing will happen (simple future tense).

• a zero conditional is used to express general facts or truths. If X, then Y is always true. If a chemist mixes ammonia and chlorine, she produces toxic gas.

-- The IF clause is in present tense. The MAIN clause (result) is also in present tense.

-- Zero conditionals often use the words if and then, but there really is no doubt about outcome.
-- If it rains, the pavement will get wet.
-- The time frame is now and always
-- IF this thing happens, then that thing happens.

• Type 1 conditionals*
-- express a possible condition and its probable result
-- IF clause is in present tense; MAIN clause is in future tense
-- time frame: present or future
-- situation? Not hypothetical. Real. But the outcome is not certain. The outcome is a probable or likely result.
-- IF this thing happens, then that thing will happen

(see the linked site for other kinds of conditionals)

The biggest clue that we need to use FUTURE tense
(i.e., that this statement is a Type 1 conditional) comes from the phrase "in the next few years."

There will be a few years between now (condition) and the time that the desired result might arrive (probable result).

We need FUTURE tense for this RESULT. Scientists want statistical confidence. They do not possess that confidence now. Scientists who wish (now, present tense) to achieve something will require time because they will have to analyze experiments over time.

Answers A, B, and E are traps.

All three use the simple present tense verb "have."

• In spoken English, it is very common for people not to use the future tense
for situations such as this one in which the future tense is required.

Wrong: Based on my experience, if you want to get to Los Angeles by tomorrow night and you leave tomorrow morning, given likely Friday traffic, you need to travel at an average of at least 60 miles per hour.
No. "You" is not traveling today. The speaker cannot guarantee that his prediction is correct.
Correct: Based on my experience, if you want to get to Los Angeles by tomorrow night and you leave tomorrow morning, given likely Friday traffic, you WILL need to travel at an average of at least 60 miles per hour.
The speaker cannot be sure.

• If the only difference between two answers is the placement of a phrase such as "these days,"
look for a different split.
Some short phrases or single words will make a huge difference.
The placement of a phrase that means "at present" or "now" is not such a phrase.

• Tip: the moment you see reference to measures of time—
minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years, decades, centuries—
be prepared for verbs to be tested.
I kept wondering why "these days" was included, because
I nearly forgot to read the end of the sentence, "in the next few years."

Eliminate A, B, and E. This conditional is a Type 1 and needs the future tense "will have to"
The OE is correct; (D) has a modifier error.

(C) is correct.

GKomoku , you are off to a good start!
I liked that you and sm86 stated the meaning of the sentence:

-- in order to achieve some statistical confidence researchers have to analyze something.
-- To achieve confidence in X, researchers will have to Y.

I posted this question yesterday, on Christmas Day.

I think it is fitting that all three posters have a correct answer. Kudos to all.


*"These sentences [Type 1 conditionals] are based on facts, and they are used to make statements about the real world, and about particular situations." From the linked source in the post.
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Re: To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jan 2019, 22:27
Thanks Generis for the explanation, it was really helpful.

However just have a doubt, would you mind clarifying the same

Lets change all the options from have to will have
X) in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers will have to analyze
"a relatively new field these days" modifies DNA alteration

Y) these days in the relatively new field of initiated DNA alteration, researchers will have to analyze
changes the meaning to new field of DNA alteration (DNA alteration a old subject but there is a new field in that)

Z) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field, researchers will have to analyze
changes the meaning to experiments thesedays but researchers will have to (something in future)...

Which one out of X,Y, Z will you select?



generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 49 Sentence Correction (SC1)




To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of experiments conducted in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze a large number of experiments in the next few years.

A) in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze
B) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a field newer than others, researchers have to analyze
C) these days in the relatively new field of initiated DNA alteration, researchers will have to analyze
D) in initiated DNA alteration, a field relatively newer than these days, researchers will have to analyze
E) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field, researchers have to analyze

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

My annotations are in blue typeface.

• If the experiments are conducted now and the analysis will happen
in the future, we are looking for a conditional:

not have to analyze, but will have [to analyze].

Eliminate Answers A, B, and E

• D makes a wrong comparison: field newer than these days

• Answer C is logical and is the correct answer

A hypothetical conditional does not always use the word "if."

In cases that involve cause and effect, we should look for the correct verb structure.

COMMENTS

First, welcome GKomoku, Yash312 and and sm86 - glad to have you posting here

This question is about verb tense, the logic of causation, modifiers, and cutting through the fluff
to get to the core of the sentence.

• Strip the sentence.

To achieve [reasonable statistical confidence in the results of experiments conducted in initiated DNA alteration[X], a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze a large number of experiments in the(Xs) next few years.

To achieve statistical confidence in the results of X, researchers [have to analyze?] many Xs in the next few years.

People learn conditionals in many ways. This site and
its explanation of conditionals and tenses is among the best I have found. The linked material is excellent.

• a zero conditional is used to express general facts or truths
IF clause = present, MAIN clause = present
-- Zero conditionals almost always use the words if and then, but there really is no doubt about outcome.
-- If it rains, the pavement will get wet.
-- The time frame is now and always
-- IF this thing happens, then that thing happens.
• Zero conditionals, incidentally, can and do frequently use the word WHEN, which
does not refer to a specific time. It does not have to. The condition is always true.
-- When it rains, the pavement will get wet.

• Type 1 conditionals
-- express a possible condition and its probable result:
IF clause = present; MAIN clause = future
-- time frame: present or future
-- situation? Not hypothetical. Real.
-- IF this thing happens, then that thing will happen

(see the linked site for other kinds of conditionals)

The biggest clue that we need to use future tense is "in the next few years."

Answers A and E are traps.

A) in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field these days, researchers have to analyze a large number of experiments in the next few years

E) these days in initiated DNA alteration, a relatively new field, researchers have to analyze a large number of experiments in the next few years.

• In spoken English, it is very common for people not to use the future tense
for situations such as this one in which the future tense is required.

Wrong: If you leave in the morning, to get to Los Angeles by tomorrow night, you have to travel at an average of 60 miles per hour.
Correct: If you leave in the morning, to get to Los Angeles by tomorrow night, you WILL have to travel at an average of 60 miles per hour

• If the only difference between two answers is the placement of a phrase such as "these days,"
look for a different split.
Some short phrases or single words will make a huge difference.
The placement of a phrase that means "at present" or "now" is not such a phrase.

• Tip: the moment you see reference to measures of time—
minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years, decades, centuries—
be prepared for verbs to be tested.
I kept wondering why "these days" was included, because
I nearly forgot to read the end of the sentence, "in the next few years."

GKomoku , you are off to a good start!
I liked that you and sm86 stated the meaning of the sentence:

-- in order to achieve some statistical confidence researchers have to analyze something.
-- To achieve confidence in X, researchers have to Y.

I notice that both of you arrived at the correct answer.
I am pleased that you wrote meaning statements.
And notice: you both wrote in the present tense:
. . . . researchers HAVE to analyze . . . .

This habit of thinking in conditionals without a future tense is deeply ingrained, even for non-native speakers.
This question is a heads up, a reminder that the future tense often seems subtle,
because without the verb tense problem,
the only answer that is absolutely correct is D.

I posted this question yesterday, on Christmas Day.

I think it is fitting that all three posters have a correct answer. Kudos to all.
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Re: To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2019, 21:25
what if the option C "will" is replaced with "would". It will still present a conditional right. Will it be correct?

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Re: To achieve reasonable statistical confidence in the results of   [#permalink] 26 Jan 2019, 21:25
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