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Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of t

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New post 29 Jan 2016, 04:34
stormbind wrote:
Complete Question is discussed at the below mentioned link
two-recent-publications-offer-different-assessments-of-the-146026.html


Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. A book by Anne Summers seeks to debunk the idealizations and present a reality at odds with Nightingale's heroic reputation. According to Summers Nightingale's importance during the Crimean War has been exaggerated: not until near the war's end did she become supervisor of the female nurses. Additionally, Summers writes that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of the wounded was at best marginal. The prevailing problems of military medicine were caused by army organizational practices, and the addition of a few nurses to the medical staff could be no more than symbolic. Nightingale's place in the national pantheon, Summers asserts, is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary newspaper reporters.

By contrast, the editors of a new volume of Nightingale's letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses' training hospital in London. Even in administrative matters, the editors assert her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army's medical services were still using the cost-accounting system she had devised in the 1860's.

I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation she sounds like a modern educator. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers

In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with...
A. Summarizing...
B. Refuting...
C. Analyzing...
D. Citing...
E. Correcting...

The answer is D. Citing...Can you please explain where the citation is?

My understanding of citing is to quote an authority to support an opinion. I see opinions and statements in the final paragraph, but I do not see a single supportive quote or reference. I was confident D. Citing... cannot be the answer!

GMATPrep's explanation is that the author cites Nightingale's letters. I see a reference to those letters, but a reference does not automatically qualify as a citation. For example, in which of her historic letters does Nightingale describe herself as being like a future educator? Clearly I do not currently agree with the answer, but I would really like to. Can someone please flesh out the explanation?



what I understand citation means 'acknowledgement' hence answer shloud be D.

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New post 14 May 2016, 08:30
In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.


Why option A is incorrect in question 7.

isn't bold part summarizes first para?

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New post 24 May 2016, 21:51
vaidhaichaturvedi wrote:
Can someone please explain Q6


I found Ron's explanation (by using Negation Technique) in previous page is very useful - have you try to comprehend it?
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New post 26 May 2016, 22:00
13 mins and 10 seconds - All correct except second one .
CAADCAD
Took a lot of time to answer sixth question :? , it was tricky .
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New post 14 Jul 2016, 18:53
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Good Passage. In q6 i am still not convinced how D is incorrect. Options are very close though


I have the same doubt, can someone please explain why D is incorrect??
Option D states: "Until Nightingale began her work, there was no concept of organized help for the needy in nineteenth-century Britain."

The author states: Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers.

It says that the approach she used is similar to the approach being used by modern social workers, implying this approach was new for her era.

Using negation doesn't really help, as I have A & D as the correct ans using negation.
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New post 01 Jan 2017, 08:02
PrashantPonde wrote:

4. The passage suggests which of the following about sanitary conditions in Britain after the Crimean War?
(A) While not ideal, they were superior to those in other parts of the world.
(B) Compared with conditions before the war, they had deteriorated.
(C) They were more advanced in rural areas than in the urban centers.
(D) They were worse in military camps than in the neighboring civilian populations.
(E) They were uniformly crude and unsatisfactory throughout England.



In the question above, why is option B wrong? I agree that D is correct but B isn't wrong either if you look at the line below. Moreover, the example of the army barracks further suggests that sanitary conditions had become worse.

They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war

If sanitary conditions had to be "reformed", it indicates that they became a lot worse post the war than they were before the war

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New post 23 May 2017, 04:09
raddy wrote:
PrashantPonde wrote:

4. The passage suggests which of the following about sanitary conditions in Britain after the Crimean War?
(A) While not ideal, they were superior to those in other parts of the world.
(B) Compared with conditions before the war, they had deteriorated.
(C) They were more advanced in rural areas than in the urban centers.
(D) They were worse in military camps than in the neighboring civilian populations.
(E) They were uniformly crude and unsatisfactory throughout England.



In the question above, why is option B wrong? I agree that D is correct but B isn't wrong either if you look at the line below. Moreover, the example of the army barracks further suggests that sanitary conditions had become worse.

They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war

If sanitary conditions had to be "reformed", it indicates that they became a lot worse post the war than they were before the war


Hi,

IMHO, the problem here is that you're making an assumption. When something doesn't happen after the war, it could happen either before the war or during the war. Therefore, this passage may imply that EITHER pre-war or during-war sanitary conditions are better than post-war conditions. However, you just assume that only pre-war sanitary conditions are better than post-war conditions.

While option (D) is clearly correct, option (B) needs an assumption to be correct. That's why (D) is better.

Hope this helps.

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New post 11 Jun 2017, 04:59
Hi,
There is another meaning for citing .
praise (someone, typically a member of the armed forces) in an official report for a courageous act.
"he has been cited many times for his contributions in the intelligence area" .

Because author is praising her. I guess the GMAT is testing over this meaning.

Hence, Answer should be D.

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New post 10 Sep 2017, 22:14
hi GMATNinja

Can you let us know your thoughts on Q7?

7. In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) summarizing the arguments about Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs
(B) refuting the view of Nightingale's career presented in the preceding paragraph
(C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence presented elsewhere in the passage
(D) citing evidence to support a view of Nightingale's career
(E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of the works under review

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pikolo2510 wrote:
hi GMATNinja

Can you let us know your thoughts on Q7?

7. In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) summarizing the arguments about Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs
(B) refuting the view of Nightingale's career presented in the preceding paragraph
(C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence presented elsewhere in the passage
(D) citing evidence to support a view of Nightingale's career
(E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of the works under review


Hi pikolo2510,

7.In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with

(A) summarizing the arguments about Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs - The author presents new evidence to support Nightingale's work -- which also was praised in second para but summers in first para tried to debunk Nightingale and stated that her contribution was marginal
(B) refuting the view of Nightingale's career presented in the preceding paragraph - The author does not mention refute Summers' view
(C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence presented elsewhere in the passage - No weakness in earlier evidence is mentioned
(D) citing evidence to support a view of Nightingale's career - Correct
(E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of the works under review - The author does not correct any factual errors .

Answer D
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New post 23 Sep 2017, 09:17
pikolo2510 wrote:
hi GMATNinja

Can you let us know your thoughts on Q7?

7. In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) summarizing the arguments about Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs
(B) refuting the view of Nightingale's career presented in the preceding paragraph
(C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence presented elsewhere in the passage
(D) citing evidence to support a view of Nightingale's career
(E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of the works under review

Nice explanation, Skywalker18! pikolo2510, did that take care of your question?
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New post 06 Oct 2017, 05:16
talismaaniac wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 73 ~ 79
Page: 344

Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of the famous British nurse Florence Nightingale. A book by Anne Summers seeks to debunk the idealizations and present a reality at odds with Nightingale's heroic reputation. According to Summers Nightingale's importance during the Crimean War has been exaggerated: not until near the war's end did she become supervisor of the female nurses. Additionally, Summers writes that the contribution of the nurses to the relief of the wounded was at best marginal. The prevailing problems of military medicine were caused by army organizational practices, and the addition of a few nurses to the medical staff could be no more than symbolic. Nightingale's place in the national pantheon, Summers asserts, is largely due to the propagandistic efforts of contemporary newspaper reporters.

By contrast, the editors of a new volume of Nightingale's letters view Nightingale as a person who significantly influenced not only her own age but also subsequent generations. They highlight her ongoing efforts to reform sanitary conditions after the war. For example, when she learned that peacetime living conditions in British barracks were so horrible that the death rate of enlisted men far exceeded that of neighboring civilian populations, she succeeded in persuading the government to establish a Royal Commission on the Health of the Army. She used sums raised through public contributions to found a nurses' training hospital in London. Even in administrative matters, the editors assert her practical intelligence was formidable: as recently as 1947 the British Army's medical services were still using the cost-accounting system she had devised in the 1860's.

I believe that the evidence of her letters supports continued respect for Nightingale's brilliance and creativity. When counseling a village schoolmaster to encourage children to use their faculties of observation she sounds like a modern educator. Her insistence on classifying the problems of the needy in order to devise appropriate treatments is similar to the approach of modern social workers. In sum, although Nightingale may not have achieved all other goals during the Crimean War, her breadth of vision and ability to realize ambitious projects have earned her an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers.
In the last paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with

(A) summarizing the arguments about Nightingale presented in the first two paragraphs
(B) refuting the view of Nightingale's career presented in the preceding paragraph
(C) analyzing the weaknesses of the evidence presented elsewhere in the passage
(D) citing evidence to support a view of Nightingale's career
(E) correcting a factual error occurring in one of the works under review



This question asks you to identify the author's primary concern in the last paragraph of the passage.

The best answer is D. In the last paragraph, the author cites examples of Nightingale's achievements to support the author's conclusion that Nightingale's achievements to support the author's conclusion that Nightingale is worthy of respect and has earned "an eminent place among the ranks of social pioneers".
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Re: Two recent publications offer different assessments of the career of t [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2017, 01:34
VeritasPrepRon wrote:
pr90 wrote:
Can someone please explain the strategy to answer question 6 here?


6. Which of the following is an assumption underlying the author's assessment of Nightingale's creativity?
Original:
(A) Educational philosophy in Nightingale's day did not normally emphasize developing children's ability to observe.
(B) Nightingale was the first to notice the poor living conditions in British military barracks in peacetime.
(C) No educator before Nightingale had thought to enlist the help of village schoolmasters in introducing new teaching techniques.
(D) Until Nightingale began her work, there was no concept of organized help for the needy in nineteenth-century Britain.
(E) The British army's medical services had no cost- accounting system until Nightingale devised one in the 1860's.

Hi PR90, there are some good questions in this passage. Since you specifically asked for question 6, let's review how to attack assumption questions. The best strategy is to employ the Assumption Negation Technique, whereby you negate the stated assumptions and discover which cause the entire argument to fall down. If the argument still stands, then the assumption wasn't necessary. This is the best way to evaluate assumptions that all seem reasonable at first glance.

Negated:
A) Educational philosophy in Nightingale's day DID normally emphasize developing children's ability to observe: Negated, this destroys the entire premise that Nightingale had a heightened sense of creativity. In effect, every child already was subjected to what Nightingale proposed, hence her creativity was somewhere between bland and non-existant.
B) Nightingale was NOT the first to notice the poor living conditions in British military barracks in peacetime: Others had noticed before, but no one did anything. Argument still stands.
C) SOME educators before Nightingale had thought to enlist the help of village schoolmasters in introducing new teaching techniques: Some people already had done this, but what techniques? Same as Nightingale? Different techniques? Could easily be true and the argument holds.
D) Until Nightingale began her work, there WAS already the concept of organized help for the needy in ninteenth century Britain: There was a concept but Nightingale expanded upon it, argument still holds.
E) The British army's medical services had AN cost-accounting system until Nightingale designed one in 1860s: They had one, but Nightingale's was better. Same concept as D.

Once you negate all the options, it becomes clear that only A is required for Nightingale's creativity to be praised. The others could be false and her creativity could still be highly lauded. In assumption questions, the wording used can often be more important than how much the assumption strengthens the text. You're looking for the necessary assumption, not the strongest.
Hope this helps!
-Ron


Hey thanks a lot I was really doubtful regarding this anwer

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