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# Unless negotiations begin soon, the cease-fire will be violated by one

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Joined: 25 Jul 2009
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Unless negotiations begin soon, the cease-fire will be violated by one  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 08 Sep 2018, 02:13
1
00:00

Difficulty:

75% (hard)

Question Stats:

48% (02:22) correct 52% (02:33) wrong based on 54 sessions

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Unless negotiations begin soon, the cease-fire will be violated by one of the two sides to the dispute. Negotiations will be held only if other countries have pressured the two sides to negotiate; an agreement will emerge only if other countries continue such pressure throughout the negotiations. But no negotiations will be held until international troops enforcing the cease-fire have demonstrated their ability to counter any aggression from either side, thus suppressing a major incentive for the two sides to resume fighting.

If the statements above are true, and if negotiations between the two sides do begin soon, at the time those negotiations begin each of the following must also be true EXCEPT:

(A) The cease-fire has not been violated by either of the two sides.

(B) International troops enforcing the cease-fire have demonstrated that they can counter aggression from either of the two sides.

(C) A major incentive for the two sides to resume hostilities has been suppressed.

(D) Other countries have exerted pressure on the two sides to the dispute.

(E) The negotiations’ reaching an agreement depends in part on the actions of other countries.

Originally posted by angel2009 on 30 Jan 2010, 11:08.
Last edited by Bunuel on 08 Sep 2018, 02:13, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic, edited the question and added the OA.
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Re: Unless negotiations begin soon, the cease-fire will be violated by one  [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2010, 11:41
2
Hey All,

Wow! This is a tough question. I've never seen it before, and I risk going out on a limb and being wrong, but I'm afraid I disagree with what you've all said. I believe the answer is A, for reasons I'll lay out. I'll make use of quotes from the passage to defend my answer.

(A) The cease-fire has not been violated by either of the two sides.
ANSWER: Though the passage says "Unless negotiations begin soon, the cease-fire will be violated by one of the two sides to the dispute." This does NOT imply that negotiations CANNOT happen if the cease-fire is violated. This makes it the correct answer.

(B) International troops enforcing the cease-fire have demonstrated that they can counter aggression from either of the two sides.
PROBLEM: "No negotiations will be held until international troops have demonstrated their ability to counter any aggression from either side."

(C) A major incentive for the two sides to resume hostilities has been suppressed.
PROBLEM: "...thus suppressing a major incentive for the two sides to resume fighting." This is a continuation of B. If that happens, then the incentive will have been suppressed.

(D) Other countries have exerted pressure on the two sides to the dispute.
"Negotiations will only be held only if other countries have pressured the two sides to negotiate."

(E) The negotiations’ reaching an agreement depends in part on the actions of other countries.
"...an agreement will emerge only if other countries continue such pressure throughout the negotiations." I think many of you thought this was the answer because the passage asks "at the time those negotiations begin...", which made you think that the agreement doesn't matter yet. But if every word in the passage is true (as the question stem says is the case), then even at the start of the negotiation, agreement can only be reached through the actions of other countries.

I'm up for argument, as I've never seen this question before, but I think my logic is sound.

Hope that helps!
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Re: Unless negotiations begin soon, the cease-fire will be violated by one  [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2010, 23:20
angel2009 wrote:
Unless negotiations begin soon, the cease-fire will be violated by one of the two sides to the dispute. Negotiations will be held only if other countries have pressured the two sides to negotiate; an agreement will emerge only if other countries continue such pressure throughout the negotiations. But no negotiations will be held until international troops enforcing the cease-fire have demonstrated their ability to counter any aggression from either side, thus suppressing a major incentive for the two sides to resume fighting.

If the statements above are true, and if negotiations between the two sides do begin soon, at the time those negotiations begin each of the following must also be true EXCEPT:
(A) The cease-fire has not been violated by either of the two sides.
(B) International troops enforcing the cease-fire have demonstrated that they can counter aggression from either of the two sides.
(C) A major incentive for the two sides to resume hostilities has been suppressed.
(D) Other countries have exerted pressure on the two sides to the dispute.
(E) The negotiations’ reaching an agreement depends in part on the actions of other countries.

try to diagram every sentence in an "if -> then" statement (and also diagram the contra positive)

Unless negotiations begin soon, the cease-fire will be violated by one of the two sides to the dispute

1a. if cease fire will not be violated by either side -> then negotiations began soon
1b. if negotiations did not begin soon -> then cease fire was violated by one of the 2 sides

Negotiations will be held only if other countries have pressured the two sides to negotiate;

2a. if negotiations will be held -> then other countries pressured 2 sides
2b. if other countries did not pressure both sides -> then negotiations will not be held

an agreement will emerge only if other countries continue such pressure throughout the negotiations.

3a. if agreement will emerge-> then other countries continued pressure
3b. if other countries do not continue pressure -> then agreement will not emerge

But no negotiations will be held until international troops enforcing the cease-fire have demonstrated their ability to counter any aggression from either side,

4a. if negotiations will be held -> then international troops demonstrated ability to counter aggression
4b. if troops did not demonstrate ability to counter -> no negotiations will be held

next, take the bold part as true, and follow the logical chain:
5. if negotiations begin soon --> (int'l troops demonstrated ability to counter aggression) AND (other countries pressured both sides)

we got this by looking at statements 4a and 2a. since we know that everything in statement 5 is true, then B and D are automatically out. we're left with A,C and E. E states that the agreement is dependent in part on the actions of other countries. we know from 3a. that the agreement is linked to other countries exerting pressure, so E is also true.

we're left with A and C. A is tricky, since you can put it before statement 5 and make it true. however, it doesn't have to be true, and the question only talks about statements that have to be true (i.e. statements that would come after statement 5, not before it). between A and C, i'd pick A to be the one that doesn't have to be true, so i'd guess A as my answer.
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Re: Unless negotiations begin soon, the cease-fire will be violated by one  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2018, 02:02
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Unless negotiations begin soon, the cease-fire will be violated by one   [#permalink] 08 Sep 2018, 02:02
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