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Until recently, it was thought that the Cherokee, a Native American tr

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Until recently, it was thought that the Cherokee, a Native American tr  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2019, 09:44
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 249, Date : 05-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Until recently, it was thought that the Cherokee,
a Native American tribe, were compelled to
assimilate Euro-American culture during the 1820s.
During that decade, it was supposed, White
(5) missionaries arrived and, together with their
part Cherokee intermediaries, imposed the benefits
of “civilization” on Cherokee tribes while the
United States government actively promoted
acculturalization by encouraging the Cherokee to
(10) switch from hunting to settled agriculture. This
view was based on the assumption that the end of a
Native American group’s economic and political
autonomy would automatically mean the end of its
cultural autonomy as well.

(15) William G. McLoughlin has recently argued that
not only did Cherokee culture flourish during and
after the 1820s, but the Cherokee themselves
actively and continually reshaped their culture.
Missionaries did have a decisive impact during
(20) these years, he argues, but that impact was far
from what it was intended to be. The missionaries’
tendency to cater to the interests of an acculturating
part-Cherokee elite (who comprised the bulk of
their converts) at the expense of the more
(25) traditionalist full-Cherokee majority created great
intratribal tensions. As the elite initiated reforms
designed to legitimize their own and the Cherokee
Nation’s place in the new republic of the United
States, antimission Cherokee reacted by fostering
(30) revivals of traditional religious beliefs and
practices. However, these revivals did not,
according to McLoughlin, undermine the elitist
reforms, but supplemented them with popular,
traditionalist counterparts.

(35) Traditionalist Cherokee did not reject the elitist
reforms outright, McLoughlin argues, simply
because they recognized that there was more than
one way to use the skills the missionaries could
provide them. As he quotes one group as saying,
(40) “We want our children to learn English so that the
White man cannot cheat us.” Many traditionalist
Cherokee welcomed the missionaries for another
reason: they perceived that it would be useful to
have White allies. In the end, McLoughlin asserts,
(45) most members of the Cherokee council, including
traditionalists, supported a move which preserved
many of the reforms of the part-Cherokee elite but
limited the activities and influence of the
missionaries and other White settlers. According to
(50) McLoughlin, the identity and culture that resulted
were distinctively Cherokee, yet reflected the larger
political and social setting in which they flourished.

Because his work concentrates on the nineteenth
century, McLoughlin unfortunately overlooks
(55) earlier sources of influence, such as
eighteenth-century White resident traders and
neighbors, thus obscuring the relative impact of the
missionaries of the 1820s in contributing to both
acculturalization and resistance to it among the
(60) Cherokee. However, McLoughlin is undoubtedly
correct in recognizing that culture is an ongoing
process rather than a static entity, and he has made
a significant contribution to our understanding of
how Cherokee culture changed while retaining its
(65) essential identity after confronting the missionaries.


1. Which one of the following best states the main idea of the passage?

(A) McLoughlin’s studies of the impact of missionaries on Cherokee culture during the 1820s are fundamentally flawed, since McLoughlin ignores the greater impact of White resident traders in the eighteenth century.
(B) Though his work is limited in perspective, McLoughlin is substantially correct that changes in the Cherokee culture in the 1820s were mediated by the Cherokee themselves rather than simply imposed by the missionaries.
(C) Although McLoughlin is correct in asserting that cultural changes among the Cherokee were autonomous and so not the result of the presence of missionaries, he overemphasizes the role of intratribal conflicts.
(D) McLoughlin has shown that Cherokee culture not only flourished during the 1820s, but that changes in Cherokee culture during this time developed naturally from elements already present in Cherokee culture.
(E) Although McLoughlin overlooks a number of relevant factors in Cherokee culture change in the 1820s, he convincingly demonstrates that these changes were fostered primarily by missionaries.



2. Which one of the following statements regarding the Cherokee council in the 1820s can be inferred from the passage?

(A) Members of the Cherokee council were elected democratically by the entire Cherokee Nation.
(B) In order for a policy to come into effect for the Cherokee Nation, it had to have been approved by a unanimous vote of the Cherokee council.
(C) Despite the fact that the Cherokee were dominated politically and economically by the United States in the 1820s, the Cherokee council was able to override policies set by the United States government.
(D) Though it did not have complete autonomy in governing the Cherokee Nation, it was able to set some policies affecting the activities of White people living in tribal areas.
(E) The proportions of traditionalist and acculturating Cherokee in the Cherokee council were determined by the proportions of traditionalist and acculturating Cherokee in the Cherokee population.



3. Which one of the following statements regarding the attitudes of traditionalist Cherokee toward the reforms that were instituted in the 1820s can be inferred from the passage?

(A) They supported the reforms merely as a way of placating the increasingly vocal acculturating elite.
(B) They thought that the reforms would lead to the destruction of traditional Cherokee culture but felt powerless to stop the reforms.
(C) They supported the reforms only because they thought that they were inevitable and it was better that the reforms appear to have been initiated by the Cherokee themselves.
(D) They believed that the reforms were a natural extension of already existing Cherokee traditions.
(E) They viewed the reforms as a means of preserving the Cherokee Nation and protecting it against exploitation.



4. According to the passage, McLoughlin cites which one of the following as a contributing factor in the revival of traditional religious beliefs among the Cherokee in the 1820s?

(A) Missionaries were gaining converts at an increasing rate as the 1820s progressed.
(B) The traditionalist Cherokee majority thought that most of the reforms initiated by the missionaries’ converts would corrupt Cherokee culture.
(C) Missionaries unintentionally created conflict among the Cherokee by favoring the interests of the acculturating elite at the expense of the more traditionalist majority.
(D) Traditionalist Cherokee recognized that only some of the reforms instituted by a small Cherokee elite would be beneficial to all Cherokee.
(E) A small group of Cherokee converted by missionaries attempted to institute reforms designed to acquire political supremacy for themselves in the Cherokee council.



5. Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously undermine McLoughlin’s account of the course of reform among the Cherokee during the 1820s?

(A) Traditionalist Cherokee gained control over the majority of seats on the Cherokee council during the 1820s.
(B) The United States government took an active interest in political and cultural developments within Native American tribes.
(C) The missionaries living among the Cherokee in the 1820s were strongly in favor of the cultural reforms initiated by the acculturating elite.
(D) Revivals of traditional Cherokee religious beliefs and practices began late in the eighteenth century, before the missionaries arrived.
(E) The acculturating Cherokee elite of the 1820s did not view the reforms they initiated as beneficial to all Cherokee.



6. It can be inferred from the author’s discussion of McLoughlin’s views that the author thinks that Cherokee acculturalization in the 1820s

(A) was reversed in the decades following the 1820s
(B) may have been part of an already-existing process of acculturalization
(C) could have been the result of earlier contacts with missionaries
(D) would not have occurred without the encouragement of the United States government
(E) was primarily a result of the influence of White traders living near the Cherokee



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 18 (December 1992)
  • Difficulty Level: Will update after 30+ timer attempts

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Re: Until recently, it was thought that the Cherokee, a Native American tr  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2019, 21:19
1
1. Which one of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
(A) McLoughlin’s studies of the impact of missionaries on Cherokee culture during the 1820s are fundamentally flawed, since McLoughlin ignores the greater impact of White resident traders in the eighteenth century.; incorrect as his studies may overlook earlier sources of influence but aren't fundamentally flawed.
(B) Though his work is limited in perspective, McLoughlin is substantially correct that changes in the Cherokee culture in the 1820s were mediated by the Cherokee themselves rather than simply imposed by the missionaries.; correct as "not only did Cherokee culture flourish during and after the 1820s, but the Cherokee themselves actively and continually reshaped their culture. Missionaries did have a decisive impact during these years, he argues, but that impact was far from what it was intended to be."
(C) Although McLoughlin is correct in asserting that cultural changes among the Cherokee were autonomous and so not the result of the presence of missionaries, he overemphasizes the role of intratribal conflicts.; incorrect as there was a slight influence of the missionaries and the white traders living in tha area.
(D) McLoughlin has shown that Cherokee culture not only flourished during the 1820s, but that changes in Cherokee culture during this time developed naturally from elements already present in Cherokee culture.; incorrect as this part of the passage, but not the main idea
(E) Although McLoughlin overlooks a number of relevant factors in Cherokee culture change in the 1820s, he convincingly demonstrates that these changes were fostered primarily by missionaries.; incorrect as he doesn't "overlooks a number of relevant factors in Cherokee culture change in the 1820s" but rather he overlooks the influences before the 1820s.

2. Which one of the following statements regarding the Cherokee council in the 1820s can be inferred from the passage?
(A) Members of the Cherokee council were elected democratically by the entire Cherokee Nation.; definitely incorrect
(B) In order for a policy to come into effect for the Cherokee Nation, it had to have been approved by a unanimous vote of the Cherokee council.; incorrect as no mention of a voting taking place.
(C) Despite the fact that the Cherokee were dominated politically and economically by the United States in the 1820s, the Cherokee council was able to override policies set by the United States government.; incorrect the Cherokee weren't politically and economically dominated by the US government.
(D) Though it did not have complete autonomy in governing the Cherokee Nation, it was able to set some policies affecting the activities of White people living in tribal areas.; correct because rest were incorrect by process of elimination
(E) The proportions of traditionalist and acculturating Cherokee in the Cherokee council were determined by the proportions of traditionalist and acculturating Cherokee in the Cherokee population.; incorrect as there is no mention of this in the passage

3. Which one of the following statements regarding the attitudes of traditionalist Cherokee toward the reforms that were instituted in the 1820s can be inferred from the passage?
(A) They supported the reforms merely as a way of placating the increasingly vocal acculturating elite.; incorrect as their intent was not to placate the acculturating elite.
(B) They thought that the reforms would lead to the destruction of traditional Cherokee culture but felt powerless to stop the reforms.; incorrect as the Cherokee did not feel powerless.
(C) They supported the reforms only because they thought that they were inevitable and it was better that the reforms appear to have been initiated by the Cherokee themselves.; incorrect as the reforms were not entirely initiated by the Cherokee's themselves and they participated in creating the reforms, the reforms were not being imposed on them.
(D) They believed that the reforms were a natural extension of already existing Cherokee traditions.; incorrect as they believed that "As the elite initiated reforms designed to legitimize their own"
(E) They viewed the reforms as a means of preserving the Cherokee Nation and protecting it against exploitation.; correct as "Traditionalist Cherokee did not reject the elitist reforms outright, McLoughlin argues, simply because they recognized that there was more than one way to use the skills the missionaries could provide them. As he quotes one group as saying, “We want our children to learn English so that the White man cannot cheat us.” Many traditionalist Cherokee welcomed the missionaries for another reason: they perceived that it would be useful to have White allies."

4. According to the passage, McLoughlin cites which one of the following as a contributing factor in the revival of traditional religious beliefs among the Cherokee in the 1820s?
(A) Missionaries were gaining converts at an increasing rate as the 1820s progressed.; factually incorrect
(B) The traditionalist Cherokee majority thought that most of the reforms initiated by the missionaries’ converts would corrupt Cherokee culture.; incorrect, they were welcoming the missionaries so that they may have White allies.
(C) Missionaries unintentionally created conflict among the Cherokee by favoring the interests of the acculturating elite at the expense of the more traditionalist majority.; correct as traditionalist thought not ALL reforms would be good for all Cherokee was not as a big a factor in reviving older, religious beliefs. But as the Elite initiated reforms that would legitimize Cherokee nation within the US construct, it increased the friction between them and traditionalists, which was not the intention of the missionaries.
(D) Traditionalist Cherokee recognized that only some of the reforms instituted by a small Cherokee elite would be beneficial to all Cherokee.; incorrect, as this was not the main reason for the revival of traditional religious beliefs.
(E) A small group of Cherokee converted by missionaries attempted to institute reforms designed to acquire political supremacy for themselves in the Cherokee council.; incorrect as it's not mentioned anywhere in the passage.

5. Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously undermine McLoughlin’s account of the course of reform among the Cherokee during the 1820s?
(A) Traditionalist Cherokee gained control over the majority of seats on the Cherokee council during the 1820s.; incorrect as it doesn't undermine the author's account
(B) The United States government took an active interest in political and cultural developments within Native American tribes.; incorrect as it doesn't undermine the author's account
(C) The missionaries living among the Cherokee in the 1820s were strongly in favor of the cultural reforms initiated by the acculturating elite.; incorrect as it doesn't undermine the author's account
(D) Revivals of traditional Cherokee religious beliefs and practices began late in the eighteenth century, before the missionaries arrived.; correct since " his work concentrates on the nineteenth century, McLoughlin unfortunately overlooks earlier sources of influence, such as eighteenth-century White resident traders and neighbors, thus obscuring the relative impact of the missionaries of the 1820s in contributing to both acculturalization and resistance to it among the Cherokee."
(E) The acculturating Cherokee elite of the 1820s did not view the reforms they initiated as beneficial to all Cherokee.; incorrect as it doesn't undermine the author's account rather supports his account.

6. It can be inferred from the author’s discussion of McLoughlin’s views that the author thinks that Cherokee acculturalization in the 1820s
(A) was reversed in the decades following the 1820s; incorrect as Cherokee acculturization thrived even after the 1820s
(B) may have been part of an already-existing process of acculturalization; correct as "but the Cherokee themselves actively and continually reshaped their culture." So the missionaries may have provide the push they required and also "Because his work concentrates on the nineteenth century, McLoughlin unfortunately overlooks earlier sources of influence, such as eighteenth-century White resident traders and neighbors, thus obscuring the relative impact of the missionaries of the 1820s in contributing to both acculturalization and resistance to it among the Cherokee."
(C) could have been the result of earlier contacts with missionaries; incorrect as it was already happening and missionaries came in the 1820s not before that.
(D) would not have occurred without the encouragement of the United States government; incorrect as missionaries were not sent by the US government
(E) was primarily a result of the influence of White traders living near the Cherokee; incorrect as it was also partially influenced by the missionaries in the 1820s.
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Re: Until recently, it was thought that the Cherokee, a Native American tr  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2019, 21:51
1
All correct in 12 mins 30 seconds, including 5 mins 30 seconds to read.

Para 1- View until recently- Cherokee were compelled to assimilate Euro-American culture during the 1820s.
Para 2- McLoughlin- not only did Cherokee culture flourish during and after the 1820s, but the Cherokee themselves actively and continually reshaped their culture.
part-Cherokee elite vs traditionalist full-Cherokee majority --> intratribal tensions
Para 3- Traditionalist Cherokee wanted to use the skills that missionaries could provide
Para 4- McLoughlin unfortunately overlooks earlier sources of influence


1. Which one of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
(A) McLoughlin’s studies of the impact of missionaries on Cherokee culture during the 1820s are fundamentally flawed, since McLoughlin ignores the greater impact of White resident traders in the eighteenth century.- incorrect, McLoughlin’s studies are not fundamentally flawed but he does overlook earlier influences
(B) Though his work is limited in perspective, McLoughlin is substantially correct that changes in the Cherokee culture in the 1820s were mediated by the Cherokee themselves rather than simply imposed by the missionaries.- Correct
(C) Although McLoughlin is correct in asserting that cultural changes among the Cherokee were autonomous and so not the result of the presence of missionaries, he overemphasizes the role of intratribal conflicts.- incorrect, he does not overemphasize the role of intratribal conflicts, also we can't completely discount the presence of missionaries
(D) McLoughlin has shown that Cherokee culture not only flourished during the 1820s, but that changes in Cherokee culture during this time developed naturally from elements already present in Cherokee culture.- incorrect
(E) Although McLoughlin overlooks a number of relevant factors in Cherokee culture change in the 1820s, he convincingly demonstrates that these changes were fostered primarily by missionaries.
- incorrect, he does ignore the influence of earlier sources but the changes were shaped by Cherokee themselves

2. Which one of the following statements regarding the Cherokee council in the 1820s can be inferred from the passage?

(A) Members of the Cherokee council were elected democratically by the entire Cherokee Nation.- incorrect, how the councils were elected is not stated
(B) In order for a policy to come into effect for the Cherokee Nation, it had to have been approved by a unanimous vote of the Cherokee council.- incorrect
(C) Despite the fact that the Cherokee were dominated politically and economically by the United States in the 1820s, the Cherokee council was able to override policies set by the United States government.- incorrect
(D) Though it did not have complete autonomy in governing the Cherokee Nation, it was able to set some policies affecting the activities of White people living in tribal areas.- Correct
most members of the Cherokee council, including traditionalists, supported a move which preserved many of the reforms of the part-Cherokee elite but limited the activities and influence of the
missionaries and other White settlers.
(E) The proportions of traditionalist and acculturating Cherokee in the Cherokee council were determined by the proportions of traditionalist and acculturating Cherokee in the Cherokee population.- incorrect, how the proportions on council were determined is not stated


3. Which one of the following statements regarding the attitudes of traditionalist Cherokee toward the reforms that were instituted in the 1820s can be inferred from the passage?
(E) They viewed the reforms as a means of preserving the Cherokee Nation and protecting it against exploitation.
“We want our children to learn English so that the White man cannot cheat us.” Many traditionalist Cherokee welcomed the missionaries for another reason: they perceived that it would be useful to have White allies.


4. According to the passage, McLoughlin cites which one of the following as a contributing factor in the revival of traditional religious beliefs among the Cherokee in the 1820s?
(C) Missionaries unintentionally created conflict among the Cherokee by favoring the interests of the acculturating elite at the expense of the more traditionalist majority.- Correct
The missionaries’ tendency to cater to the interests of an acculturating part-Cherokee elite (who comprised the bulk of their converts) at the expense of the more traditionalist full-Cherokee majority created great intratribal tensions. As the elite initiated reforms designed to legitimize their own and the Cherokee Nation’s place in the new republic of the United States, antimission Cherokee reacted by fostering revivals of traditional religious beliefs and practices.

5. Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously undermine McLoughlin’s account of the course of reform among the Cherokee during the 1820s?
(D) Revivals of traditional Cherokee religious beliefs and practices began late in the eighteenth century, before the missionaries arrived.
As the elite initiated reforms designed to legitimize their own and the Cherokee Nation’s place in the new republic of the United States, antimission Cherokee reacted by fostering revivals of traditional religious beliefs and practices.
McLoughlin unfortunately overlooks earlier sources of influence, such as eighteenth-century White resident traders and neighbors, thus obscuring the relative impact of the
missionaries of the 1820s in contributing to both acculturalization and resistance to it among the Cherokee.

6. It can be inferred from the author’s discussion of McLoughlin’s views that the author thinks that Cherokee acculturalization in the 1820s
(B) may have been part of an already-existing process of acculturalization
McLoughlin unfortunately overlooks earlier sources of influence, such as eighteenth-century White resident traders and neighbors, thus obscuring the relative impact of the
missionaries of the 1820s in contributing to both acculturalization and resistance to it among the Cherokee.
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Re: Until recently, it was thought that the Cherokee, a Native American tr   [#permalink] 06 Aug 2019, 21:51
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