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Until recently, scientists did not know of a close vertebrate analogue

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Until recently, scientists did not know of a close vertebrate analogue  [#permalink]

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Until recently, scientists did not know of a close vertebrate analogue to the extreme form of altruism observed in eusocial insects like ants and bees, whereby individuals cooperate, sometimes even sacrificing their own opportunities to survive and reproduce, for the good of others. However, such a vertebrate society may exist among underground colonies of the highly social rodent Heterocephalus glaber, the naked mole rat.

A naked mole rat colony, like a beehive, wasp's nest, or termite mound, is ruled by its queen, or reproducing female. Other adult female mole rats neither ovulate nor breed. The queen is the largest member of the colony, and she maintains her breeding status through a mixture of behavioral and, presumably, chemical control. Queens have been long-lived in captivity, and when they die or are removed from a colony one sees violent fighting for breeding status among the larger remaining females, leading to a takeover by a new queen.

Eusocial insect societies have rigid caste systems, each insect's role being defined by its behavior, body shape, and physiology. In naked mole rat societies, on the other hand, differences in behavior are related primarily to reproductive status (reproduction being limited to the queen and a few males), body size, and perhaps age. Smaller non-breeding members, both male and female, seem to participate primarily in gathering food, transporting nest material, and tunneling. Larger nonbreeders are active in defending the colony and perhaps in removing dirt from the tunnels. Jarvis' work has suggested that differences in growth rates may influence the length of time that an individual performs a task, regardless of its age.

Cooperative breeding has evolved many times in vertebrates, but unlike naked mole rats, most cooperatively breeding vertebrates (except the wild dog, Lycaon pictus) are dominated by a pair of breeders rather than by a single breeding female. The division of labor within social groups is less pronounced among other vertebrates than among naked mole rats, colony size is much smaller, and mating by subordinate females may not be totally suppressed, whereas in naked mole rat colonies subordinate females are not sexually active, and many never breed.
1. Which of the following most accurately states the main idea of the passage?

(A) Naked mole rat colonies are the only known examples of cooperatively breeding vertebrate societies.

(B) Naked mole rat colonies exhibit social organization based on a rigid caste system.

(C) Behavior in naked mole rat colonies may well be a close vertebrate analogue to behavior in eusocial insect societies.

(D) The mating habits of naked mole rats differ from those of any other vertebrate species.

(E) The basis for the division of labor among naked mole rats is the same as that among eusocial insects.

OA:C


2. The passage suggests that Jarvis' work has called into question which of the following explanatory variables for naked mole rat behavior?

(A) Size

(B) Age

(C) Reproductive status

(D) Rate of growth

(E) Previously exhibited behavior

OA:B


3. It can be inferred from the passage that the performance of tasks in naked mole rat colonies differs from task performance in eusocial insect societies in which of the following ways?

(A) In naked mole rat colonies, all tasks ate performed cooperatively.

(B) In naked mole rat colonies, the performance of tasks is less rigidly determined by body shape.

(C) In naked mole rat colonies, breeding is limited to the largest animals.

(D) In eusocial insect societies, reproduction is limited to a single female.

(E) In eusocial insect societies, the distribution of tasks is based on body size.

OA:B


4. According to the passage, which of the following is a supposition rather than a fact concerning the queen in a naked mole rat colony?

(A) She is the largest member of the colony.

(B) She exerts chemical control over the colony.

(C) She mates with more than one male.

(D) She attains her status through aggression.

(E) She is the only breeding female.


OA:B


5. The passage supports which of the following inferences about breeding among Lycaon pictus?

(A) The largest female in the social group does not maintain reproductive status by means of behavioral control.

(B) An individual's ability to breed is related primarily to its rate of growth.

(C) Breeding is the only task performed by the breeding female.

(D) Breeding in the social group is not cooperative.

(E) Breeding is not dominated by a single pair of dogs.

OA:E


6. According to the passage, naked mole rat colonies may differ from all other known vertebrate groups in which of the following ways?

(A) Naked mole rats exhibit an extreme form of altruism.

(B) Naked mole rats are cooperative breeders.

(C) Among naked mole rats, many males are permitted to breed with a single dominant female.

(D) Among naked mole rats, different tasks are performed at different times in an individual's life.

(E) Among naked mole rats, fighting results in the selection of a breeding female.

OA:A



7. One function of the third paragraph of the passage is to

(A) state a conclusion about facts presented in an earlier paragraph

(B) introduce information that is contradicted by information in the fourth paragraph

(C) qualify the extent to which two previously mentioned groups might be similar

(D) show the chain of reasoning that led to the conclusions of a specific study

(E) demonstrate that of three explanatory factors offered, two may be of equal significance

OA:C


Originally posted by RaviChandra on 09 Aug 2015, 22:01.
Last edited by hazelnut on 29 Jul 2017, 02:22, edited 2 times in total.
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New post 20 Aug 2015, 12:53
A good passage...got all correct
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New post 08 Dec 2015, 20:41
Good Passage......
May be medium difficulty passage??
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New post 08 May 2017, 23:31
Kindly explain question 2 and question 6...
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New post 15 May 2017, 19:23
Total time taken: 13mins; 1 wrong (Q.6) :( The answer was hidden in the 1st line of the passage. gotta be careful when reading long passages such as these. >:)
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New post 15 May 2017, 19:28
sananoor wrote:
Kindly explain question 2 and question 6...


Question 2: Look at this line, read this closely
Jarvis' work has suggested that differences in growth rates may influence the length of time that an individual performs a task, regardless of its age


Question 6: Look at this line
Until recently, scientists did not know of a close vertebrate analogue to the extreme form of altruism observed in eusocial insects like ants and bees, whereby individuals cooperate, sometimes even sacrificing their own opportunities to survive and reproduce, for the good of others.

Hope this helps!? If it doesn't I will put more verbiage around this, but I think these pointers should suffice. :wink:
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New post 23 Aug 2017, 13:01
Can anyone please explain 4th question as well
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New post 23 Aug 2017, 14:34
aditimangal wrote:
Can anyone please explain 4th question as well


The queen is the largest member of the colony, and she maintains her breeding status through a mixture of behavioral and, presumably, chemical control.

The Key word here is "Presumably", which means it's not a FACT but an assumption!

So, the answer is B. All remaining options are Facts.
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New post 03 Sep 2017, 01:58
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Time taken : 10 min. 47 sec.

Got Q#6 wrong.
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New post 03 Sep 2017, 02:10
TheMechanic wrote:
sananoor wrote:
Kindly explain question 2 and question 6...


Question 2: Look at this line, read this closely
Jarvis' work has suggested that differences in growth rates may influence the length of time that an individual performs a task, regardless of its age


Question 6: Look at this line
Until recently, scientists did not know of a close vertebrate analogue to the extreme form of altruism observed in eusocial insects like ants and bees, whereby individuals cooperate, sometimes even sacrificing their own opportunities to survive and reproduce, for the good of others.

Hope this helps!? If it doesn't I will put more verbiage around this, but I think these pointers should suffice. :wink:


Hi TheMechanic
Why is the choice C in Q6 wrong?
Cooperative breeding has evolved many times in vertebrates, but unlike naked mole rats, most cooperatively breeding vertebrates (except the wild dog, Lycaon pictus) are dominated by a pair of breeders rather than by a single breeding female.

Doesn't the sentence mentioned above reflect the fact stated in option C?
(C) Among naked mole rats, many males are permitted to breed with a single dominant female.
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New post 04 Sep 2017, 00:32
Good passage. Took 10 mins to solve. Got 5 correct. :-)
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New post 04 Sep 2017, 10:40
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New post 26 Nov 2017, 10:19
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RaviChandra wrote:
Until recently, scientists did not know of a close vertebrate analogue to the extreme form of altruism observed in eusocial insects like ants and bees, whereby individuals cooperate, sometimes even sacrificing their own opportunities to survive and reproduce, for the good of others. However, such a vertebrate society may exist among underground colonies of the highly social rodent Heterocephalus glaber, the naked mole rat.

A naked mole rat colony, like a beehive, wasp's nest, or termite mound, is ruled by its queen, or reproducing female. Other adult female mole rats neither ovulate nor breed. The queen is the largest member of the colony, and she maintains her breeding status through a mixture of behavioral and, presumably, chemical control. Queens have been long-lived in captivity, and when they die or are removed from a colony one sees violent fighting for breeding status among the larger remaining females, leading to a takeover by a new queen.

Eusocial insect societies have rigid caste systems, each insect's role being defined by its behavior, body shape, and physiology. In naked mole rat societies, on the other hand, differences in behavior are related primarily to reproductive status (reproduction being limited to the queen and a few males), body size, and perhaps age. Smaller non-breeding members, both male and female, seem to participate primarily in gathering food, transporting nest material, and tunneling. Larger nonbreeders are active in defending the colony and perhaps in removing dirt from the tunnels. Jarvis' work has suggested that differences in growth rates may influence the length of time that an individual performs a task, regardless of its age.

Cooperative breeding has evolved many times in vertebrates, but unlike naked mole rats, most cooperatively breeding vertebrates (except the wild dog, Lycaon pictus) are dominated by a pair of breeders rather than by a single breeding female. The division of labor within social groups is less pronounced among other vertebrates than among naked mole rats, colony size is much smaller, and mating by subordinate females may not be totally suppressed, whereas in naked mole rat colonies subordinate females are not sexually active, and many never breed.




1. Which of the following most accurately states the main idea of the passage?

(A) Naked mole rat colonies are the only known examples of cooperatively breeding vertebrate societies.

(B) Naked mole rat colonies exhibit social organization based on a rigid caste system.

(C) Behavior in naked mole rat colonies may well be a close vertebrate analogue to behavior in eusocial insect societies. - The passage begins by stating that "until recently, scientists did not know of a close vertebrate analogue to the extreme form of altruism observed in eusocial insects like ants and bees, whereby individuals cooperate, sometimes even sacrificing their own opportunities to survive and reproduce, for the good of others. However, such a vertebrate society may exist among underground colonies of the highly social rodent Heterocephalus glaber, the naked mole rat." Then the passage further points out the similarities between the naked mole rat and eusocial insects in the subsequent passages. It points certain differences also but says its behavior still remains closest to a naked mole rat.

(D) The mating habits of naked mole rats differ from those of any other vertebrate species.

(E) The basis for the division of labor among naked mole rats is the same as that among eusocial insects.

OA:C


2. The passage suggests that Jarvis' work has called into question which of the following explanatory variables for naked mole rat behavior?

(A) Size

(B) Age - Jarvis' work has suggested that differences in growth rates may influence the length of time that an individual performs a task, regardless of its age.

(C) Reproductive status

(D) Rate of growth

(E) Previously exhibited behavior

OA:B


3. It can be inferred from the passage that the performance of tasks in naked mole rat colonies differs from task performance in eusocial insect societies in which of the following ways?

(A) In naked mole rat colonies, all tasks ate performed cooperatively.

(B) In naked mole rat colonies, the performance of tasks is less rigidly determined by body shape. - 1. Eusocial insect societies have rigid caste systems, each insect's role being defined by its behavior, body shape, and physiology
2. In naked mole rat societies, on the other hand, differences in behavior are related primarily to reproductive status (reproduction being limited to the queen and a few males), body size, and perhaps age


(C) In naked mole rat colonies, breeding is limited to the largest animals.

(D) In eusocial insect societies, reproduction is limited to a single female.

(E) In eusocial insect societies, the distribution of tasks is based on body size.

OA:B


4. According to the passage, which of the following is a supposition rather than a fact concerning the queen in a naked mole rat colony?

(A) She is the largest member of the colony.

(B) She exerts chemical control over the colony. - queen is the largest member of the colony, and she maintains her breeding status through a mixture of behavioral and, presumably, chemical control

(C) She mates with more than one male.

(D) She attains her status through aggression.

(E) She is the only breeding female.


OA:B


5. The passage supports which of the following inferences about breeding among Lycaon pictus?

(A) The largest female in the social group does not maintain reproductive status by means of behavioral control.

(B) An individual's ability to breed is related primarily to its rate of growth.

(C) Breeding is the only task performed by the breeding female.

(D) Breeding in the social group is not cooperative.

(E) Breeding is not dominated by a single pair of dogs. - unlike naked mole rats, most cooperatively breeding vertebrates (except the wild dog, Lycaon pictus) are dominated by a pair of breeders rather than by a single breeding female

OA:E


6. According to the passage, naked mole rat colonies may differ from all other known vertebrate groups in which of the following ways?

(A) Naked mole rats exhibit an extreme form of altruism. - Until recently, scientists did not know of a close vertebrate analogue to the extreme form of altruism observed in eusocial insects like ants and bees, whereby individuals cooperate, sometimes even sacrificing their own opportunities to survive and reproduce, for the good of others. However, such a vertebrate society may exist among underground colonies of the highly social rodent Heterocephalus glaber, the naked mole rat.


(B) Naked mole rats are cooperative breeders.

(C) Among naked mole rats, many males are permitted to breed with a single dominant female.

(D) Among naked mole rats, different tasks are performed at different times in an individual's life.

(E) Among naked mole rats, fighting results in the selection of a breeding female.

OA:A



7. One function of the third paragraph of the passage is to

(A) state a conclusion about facts presented in an earlier paragraph

(B) introduce information that is contradicted by information in the fourth paragraph

(C) qualify the extent to which two previously mentioned groups might be similar - The two previously mentioned groups are the naked mole rat and the eusocial insects. The third para states to what extent are they similar. It states that: "Eusocial insect societies have rigid caste systems, each insect's role being defined by its behavior, body shape, and physiology. In naked mole rat societies, on the other hand, differences in behavior are related primarily to reproductive status (reproduction being limited to the queen and a few males), body size, and perhaps age."

(D) show the chain of reasoning that led to the conclusions of a specific study

(E) demonstrate that of three explanatory factors offered, two may be of equal significance

OA:C
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New post 29 Nov 2017, 09:07
Hi,

Not getting why 3 is not D: it's always talking about one queen mainly. I though about B but the passage states that "in naked mole rat colonies, the performance of tasks are determined by reproductive status, body size, and perhaps age" but not body shape.

And in 7, where is the author qualifying?
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New post 29 Nov 2017, 10:23
gabesc87 wrote:
Hi,

Not getting why 3 is not D: it's always talking about one queen mainly. I though about B but the passage states that "in naked mole rat colonies, the performance of tasks are determined by reproductive status, body size, and perhaps age" but not body shape.

And in 7, where is the author qualifying?


Hi gabesc87,

For Question 3: Option B says "In naked mole rat colonies, the performance of tasks is less rigidly determined by body shape". To evaluate this focus on the below to sentences of the passage.:
1. Eusocial insect societies have rigid caste systems, each insect's role being defined by its behavior, body shape, and physiology
2. In naked mole rat societies, on the other hand, differences in behavior are related primarily to reproductive status (reproduction being limited to the queen and a few males), body size, and perhaps age
This implies that eusocial insects have more rigid cast systems and their role is defined by 3 factors including body shape. In naked mole rat, on the other hand, differences in behavior is related PRIMARILY to reproductive status. Body size, age etc are secondary. So, since body shape is a rigid and primary factor for eusocial insects and since, it is a secondary factor for naked mole rats, this automatically implies body shape as a factor is less rigid in mole rats.. Hence, B is correct.

(D) In eusocial insect societies, reproduction is limited to a single female. - No where is this stated in the passage.

Question 7: C: "qualify the extent to which two previously mentioned groups might be similar" - The two previously mentioned groups are the naked mole rat and the eusocial insects. The third para states to what extent are they similar. It states that: "Eusocial insect societies have rigid caste systems, each insect's role being defined by its behavior, body shape, and physiology. In naked mole rat societies, on the other hand, differences in behavior are related primarily to reproductive status (reproduction being limited to the queen and a few males), body size, and perhaps age." Thus, the author is talking about the extent to which these two groups are similar in characteristics. This is what the author is qualifying.

Hope this helps!
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New post 29 Nov 2017, 14:31
Thank you for the clarification Poorvasha. In the first one I understood "body shape" different from "body size". Sometimes GMAT is very strict and sometimes it is more relaxed I guess.
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New post 24 Dec 2017, 00:33
All correct except Q2(misread) in 13 mins 30 seconds , including 5 mins to read.
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New post 06 Jan 2018, 01:42
9 minutes!
one incorrect!

Can someone help please?

question no 6!
Why is the choice C in Q6 wrong?

Cooperative breeding has evolved many times in vertebrates, but unlike naked mole rats, most cooperatively breeding vertebrates (except the wild dog, Lycaon pictus) are dominated by a pair of breeders rather than by a single breeding female.
In naked mole rat societies, on the other hand, differences in behavior are related primarily to reproductive status (reproduction being limited to the queen and a few males

Doesn't the sentence mentioned above reflect the fact stated in option C?
(C) Among naked mole rats, many males are permitted to breed with a single dominant female.
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New post 25 Feb 2018, 02:25
For Q.7, answer (C),( qualify the extent to which two previously mentioned groups might be similar)
So when it talks about "the extent to~ similar," this doesn't have to be about both groups being actually similar? Maybe just think it as a comparison concept?
I first excluded this because the paragraph mainly talks about the differences, not similarities
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New post 04 Jul 2018, 21:42
We want GMAT NINJA to solve it for us. We want to mirror our approach to his approach
Re: Until recently, scientists did not know of a close vertebrate analogue &nbs [#permalink] 04 Jul 2018, 21:42

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