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Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts

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Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2009, 03:37
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Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts of various medicinal substances in lakes and rivers. Taken in large quantities, these substances could have serious health effects, but they are present in quantities far too low to cause any physiological response in people who drink the water or bathe in it. Nevertheless, medical experts contend that eliminating these trace amounts from the water will have public health benefits, since ____________.

(A) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers are harmless to humans in large quantities

(B) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers can counteract possible harmful effects of other such substances found there

(C) people who develop undesirable side effects when being treated with medicines that contain these substances generally have their treatment changed

(D) most medicinal substances that reach lakes or rivers rapidly break down into harmless substances

(E) disease-causing bacteria exposed to low concentrations of certain medicinal substances can become resistant to them
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2013, 01:09
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Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts of various medicinal substances in lakes and rivers. Taken in large quantities, these substances could have serious health effects, but


Situation 1- they are present in quantities far too low to cause any physiological response in people who drink the water or bathe in it.

Situation 2 - Nevertheless, medical experts contend that eliminating these trace amounts from the water will have public health benefits

We need to find the solution which will resolve the paradox.

A. Some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers are harmless to humans in large quantities. I incorrect . It simply states the premise
B. Some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers can counteract possible harmful effects of other such substances found there. incorrect. Read carefully, mediccal substance counter other such substance. which is out of scope,and does not resolve the paradox
C. People who develop undesirable side effects when being treated with medicines that contain these substances generally have their treatment changed incorrect. it does not explain how eliminating these will have health benefits
D. Most medicinal substances that reach lakes or rivers rapidly break down into harmless substances incorrect, it weaken the Situation 2
E. Disease-causing bacteria exposed to low concentrations of certain medicinal substances can become resistant to them. Correct. this clearly mention how eliminating these substance will have health benefits. At the same time it question the validity of situation. Therefore, it clearly resolve the paradox.
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2009, 05:40
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barakhaiev wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts of various medicinal substances in lakes and rivers. Taken in large quantities, these substances could have serious health effects, but they are present in quantities far too low to cause any physiological response in people who drink the water or bathe in it. Nevertheless, medical experts contend that eliminating these trace amounts from the water will have public health benefits, since ____________.

(A) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers are harmless to humans in large quantities
(B) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers can counteract possible harmful effects of other such substances found there
(C) people who develop undesirable side effects when being treated with medicines that contain these substances generally have their treatment changed
(D) most medicinal substances that reach lakes or rivers rapidly break down into harmless substances
(E) disease-causing bacteria exposed to low concentrations of certain medicinal substances can become resistant to them

please, provide your reasoning along with answers


wil go with E. looks to be the best possible answer
as low concentration can make the bacteria resistant and hence when humans are infected by these bacteria treating humans will pose a problem.
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2009, 07:26
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(A) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers are harmless to humans in large quantities shifts the focus to large quantities. We need to focus on small quantities and their removal
(B) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers can counteract possible harmful effects of other such substances found thereweakens the contention of medical experts
(C) people who develop undesirable side effects when being treated with medicines that contain these substances generally have their treatment changedout of scope
(D) most medicinal substances that reach lakes or rivers rapidly break down into harmless substancesweakens the contention of medical experts
(E) disease-causing bacteria exposed to low concentrations of certain medicinal substances can become resistant to themCORRECT - provides the correct focus and contention


What's the OA?
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2009, 06:12
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Answer should be E. Reasoning in red.

Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts of various medicinal substances in lakes and rivers. Taken in large quantities, these substances could have serious health effects, but they are present in quantities far too low to cause any physiological response in people who drink the water or bathe in it. Nevertheless, medical experts contend that eliminating these trace amounts from the water will have public health benefits, since ____________.

(A) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers are harmless to humans in large quantities
Weakens the claim
(B) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers can counteract possible harmful effects of other such substances found there
It weakens the experts' claim
(C) people who develop undesirable side effects when being treated with medicines that contain these substances generally have their treatment changed
Treatment has nothing to do with the amounts found in water
(D) most medicinal substances that reach lakes or rivers rapidly break down into harmless substances
Weakens the claim
(E) disease-causing bacteria exposed to low concentrations of certain medicinal substances can become resistant to them
Can be the answer as it supports the claim and gives valid reason to itplease, provide your reasoning along with answers
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2011, 20:24
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+1 for E.

This is a classical Explain the Situation/paradox problem. The first step for such problems is to identify the paradox:

Premise: Harmful substances are present in quantities far too low to cause any health problems.
General Conclusion: Generally this means that medical experts would consider that eliminating these substances will have NO benefits.
Paradox/Situation: Medical experts consider that eliminating these substances WILL have health benefits.

To explain the situation, we need an answer choice which explains why general conclusion does not happen(or is not true) and paradox happens(or is true).

E explains just that by implying that harmful sustances have health implications, even if they are present in small quantities.

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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2012, 10:22
You've got it the other way round. You must choose the option that helps to establish that eliminating these substances from the water WILL have health benefits.

(B) provides an argument to let the substances stay, i.e. not remove them. Exactly the opposite of what we are looking for. Irrelevant.
(E) provides a clear explanation for why removing these substances will have health benefits.

Therefore (E) is correct.
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2012, 19:09
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Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts of various medicinal substances in lakes and rivers. Taken in large quantities, these substances could have serious health effects, but they are present in quantities far too low to cause any physiological response in people who drink the water or bathe in it. Nevertheless, medical experts contend that eliminating these trace amounts from the water will have public health benefits, since ____________.

C. People who develop undesirable side effects when being treated with medicines that contain these substances generally have their treatment changed
E. Disease-causing bacteria exposed to low concentrations of certain medicinal substances can become resistant to them.

C is incorrect because it has nothing to do with what we want here; basically we are searching for the information that conveys that even these small traces are harmful and hence deserves to be removed; C talks off the topic E properly identifies the required information supporting what we wanted.

Hope this helps..!!
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2012, 03:09
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The argument only speaks about the effects of the medicine present in the water. Option C speaks about the medicines used when treating patients. Hence it is completely out of scope. It only creates an illusion of staying close to the argument by using similar words.

E speaks directly about low concentrations of the medicine. The argument says that the medicine found in the water supply is of low concentration. So E stays close to the argument. Hence E is the right answer.


Kudos Please... If my post helped.
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2014, 05:24
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(A) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers are harmless to humans in large quantities

Wrong, because it just repeats a premise and doesn't help the conclusion.

(B) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers can counteract possible harmful effects of other such substances found there

Wrong, because it weakens the conclusion. We need an answer that says removal of these substances can benefit people.

(C) people who develop undesirable side effects when being treated with medicines that contain these substances generally have their treatment changed

Wrong, because it is out of scope. People who are treated with these meds are not the focus of the argument.


(D) most medicinal substances that reach lakes or rivers rapidly break down into harmless substances

Wrong, because it weakens the conclusion. Same reason as A.


(E) disease-causing bacteria exposed to low concentrations of certain medicinal substances can become resistant to them

Correct, because it supports the fact that removal of these substances will benefit the public.
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2016, 05:42
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Conclusion: eliminating these trace amounts from the water will have public health benefits
Answer choice : Should strengthen the conclusion

A. Some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers are harmless to humans in large quantities.
Not related. On the contrary this negates the premise stated in the argument.
B. Some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers can counteract possible harmful effects of other such substances found there.
This says that having these substances is beneficial because they counteract possible harmful effects of other substances.
Leaving out these substances actually weakens the conclusion (since conclusion is to eliminate these trace amounts)

C. People who develop undesirable side effects when being treated with medicines that contain these substances generally have their treatment changed
We can say that this is already known from the argument since large quantities pose serious health effects. This choice continues further to say that if medicines have large amount then the treatment needs to be changed as they post serious health effects
D. Most medicinal substances that reach lakes or rivers rapidly break down into harmless substances
This also weakens the conclusion, because, if the trace amounts breakdown and become harmless, then there is no need to eliminate
E. Disease-causing bacteria exposed to low concentrations of certain medicinal substances can become resistant to them.
If disease causing bacteria becomes resistant, then there will be health risks to the public. This is because at the moment these trace amounts are killing the bacteria and hence are not a problem now. If not eliminated, might make the bacteria resistant resulting in health issues. Hence strengthens the conclusion.

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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2016, 11:01
Could someone explain why B is incorrect? :oops:
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2016, 12:13
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Hi there,
if you break out the conclusion, you will probably find this sentence rather easy.
The conclusion states that there would be benefits in eliminating the trace amount of medicinal substances from lakes and rivers.

Option B states that the medicinal substances can counteract possible harmful effects of substances found there. Clearly, it would not be beneficial to remove something that is good for the lakes and rivers. Therefore, this answer choice is paradoxical and rather states the opposite of what should be stated.

Instead, take a look at answer choice E. This option states a disadvantage of not eliminating the medicinal substances - that the bacteria in the river may become resistant. Hence, this is the right answer choice.

:)

ranaazad wrote:
Could someone explain why B is incorrect? :oops:
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2018, 09:22
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E states that the bacteria will become resistant to the traces and therefore removing the traces will have health benefits since the bacteria will then not be resistant (to the medicinal traces). However, that does not mean that the bacteria will cease to exist (which is what should be the case to classify it as a health benefit). The bacteria exists with or without the traces. Can somebody please clarify this confusion?
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2020, 01:57
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts of various medicinal substances in lakes and rivers. Taken in large quantities, these substances could have serious health effects, but they are present in quantities far too low to cause any physiological response in people who drink the water or bathe in it. Nevertheless, medical experts contend that eliminating these trace amounts from the water will have public health benefits, since ____________.

Medicinal Substances - found in lake and river.
They are present is small quantities, hence low physiological response.
But still, medical experts are eliminating these traces because it will improve the public health benefits. Why?


(A) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers are harmless to humans in large quantities
Wrong. Weaken's the conclusion. If the medicinal substance are harmless to humans in large quantities then why are they eliminating it?

(B) some of the medicinal substances found in lakes and rivers can counteract possible harmful effects of other such substances found there
Wrong. It weakens the conclusion. If these medical substances can stop other possible harmful effects of other such substance, then why is government removing it?

(C) people who develop undesirable side effects when being treated with medicines that contain these substances generally have their treatment changed
Wrong. The medicines that contain these substances are extremely high potent and thus has side effects. But in the rivers they are in very less quantity.

(D) most medicinal substances that reach lakes or rivers rapidly break down into harmless substances.
Wrong. If the medicinal substances break into harmless substances, then why is government trying to remove these substances?

(E) disease-causing bacteria exposed to low concentrations of certain medicinal substances can become resistant to them
Right. If the diseases causing bacteria become resistant to these medical substances, then that means nothing else can stop those bacteria from spreading the diseases. And that is why government is removing them.
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Re: Using new detection techniques, researchers have found trace amounts   [#permalink] 18 Feb 2020, 01:57
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