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# V04-05

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Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
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16 Sep 2014, 01:00
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Difficulty:

75% (hard)

Question Stats:

54% (01:18) correct 46% (01:46) wrong based on 95 sessions

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Emotional stress is a well known cause of certain serious health problems, including high blood pressure and cardiac complications. Now, an additional concern can be added to the list of maladies caused by emotional stress. A recent study surveyed both people who have high levels of emotional stress and people who don’t, and found that people with high emotional stress levels are significantly more obese and nervous than people with lower levels of emotional stress.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument rests?

A. Obesity and nervousness can lead to serious health problems.
B. Obesity and nervousness do not make individuals less capable to handle emotionally stressful situations.
C. Equivalent numbers of people with high and low levels of emotional stress were surveyed for the study.
D. Emotionally stressed out people are aware of the various health problems attributed to emotional stress, including high blood pressure and cardiac complications.
E. Emotionally stressed out people who had encountered an emotionally stressful situation immediately before responding to the survey were more obese and nervous than the people form same group who had not encountered any emotionally stressful situation for a few days.

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16 Sep 2014, 01:00
Official Solution:

Emotional stress is a well known cause of certain serious health problems, including high blood pressure and cardiac complications. Now, an additional concern can be added to the list of maladies caused by emotional stress. A recent study surveyed both people who have high levels of emotional stress and people who don’t, and found that people with high emotional stress levels are significantly more obese and nervous than people with lower levels of emotional stress.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument rests?

A. Obesity and nervousness can lead to serious health problems.
B. Obesity and nervousness do not make individuals less capable to handle emotionally stressful situations.
C. Equivalent numbers of people with high and low levels of emotional stress were surveyed for the study.
D. Emotionally stressed out people are aware of the various health problems attributed to emotional stress, including high blood pressure and cardiac complications.
E. Emotionally stressed out people who had encountered an emotionally stressful situation immediately before responding to the survey were more obese and nervous than the people form same group who had not encountered any emotionally stressful situation for a few days.

Situation:The argument shows a causal relationship between the premises and the conclusion. The conclusion states that emotional stress causes people to become obese and nervous. The assumption in this causal argument should support the causal direction of the conclusion. i.e. the assumption must prove that A causes B or Emotional stress causes obesity and nervousness.

The assumptions in a causal arguments are often of two types: i) Assumptions that support the causality of the argument either by eliminating an alternate cause of the conclusion OR ii) by demonstrating that the conclusion, if it exists, is in proper direction. In other words A is caused by B and not B has caused A. Any option which does not tell us anything about the causal link between Emotional eating and, obesity and nervousness can be safely eliminated.
1. The stimulus does not discuss the seriousness of health problems, so, this choice becomes irrelevant. Moreover, there is no link to the causal relationship.
2. Correct: This answer choice rules out an opposite direction for the causality, making our conclusion valid, thus, the correct choice.
3. The number of respondents does not say anything about the causal link between emotional eating and, obesity and nervousness. No link to causal relationship.
4. Again the awareness of people on problems related to emotional stress is irrelevant. No link to causal relationship.
5. This choice is incorrect for two reasons. First, the argument never compares some emotional eater to other emotional eaters. Second, the argument is not based on immediate impact of emotional stress in making people obese and nervous.

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01 Oct 2015, 22:36
Explanation given here need to be corrected...A is caused by B= B------> A
Not B has caused A X B-----> A.

It Should be rather Not B is caused By A
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24 Jun 2016, 00:47
C is very important too. If the doesn't assume that the experiment is valid (e.g. that number of participants was equal, or any other conditions), than he doesn't make this claim. Though my logic could be a bit stretched.
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29 Jun 2016, 14:46
manlog wrote:
C is very important too. If the doesn't assume that the experiment is valid (e.g. that number of participants was equal, or any other conditions), than he doesn't make this claim. Though my logic could be a bit stretched.

Your point is valid. Nonetheless a convenient way to check the assumption type questions is the negation technique. Negate the given option and see whether the argument breaks down. If it does, then the option must be an assumption, because assumptions MUST be true in order to arrive at the conlcusion - this is where assumption type questions differ from strenghtening questions.

Option C strengthens the argument, however it is NOT a necessary assumption - it is not that the author MUST have assumed this statement. If the author did not assume option C, even then the argument would hold. Although it would be weakened, it won't completely break down.
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09 Sep 2016, 20:26
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I totally agree that B is the best choice, but A also serves as a necessary assumption.
The logical structure of the passage is as blow IMO:

Stress ---> Some serious health problems (bld pres., car comp..) (This is a premis)
Stress ----> Another serious health problems (Malady) (This is a Conclusion)
High stress = More obese and nervous (more like a fact, a objective result)

If we negate the option A: Obesity and nervousness do not lead to serious health problems. Or we can say Obesity and nervousness are not serious health problems, then the argument breaks down because The conclusion is now groundless
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14 Sep 2016, 09:40
I think this is a poor-quality question. The third sentence in the question needs attention.
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14 Sep 2016, 10:05
dpgiii wrote:
I think this is a poor-quality question. The third sentence in the question needs attention.

Could you elaborate your concern? The logic in this question frequently occurs in GMAT CR.
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10 Jun 2017, 04:37
gomax1199 wrote:
I totally agree that B is the best choice, but A also serves as a necessary assumption.
The logical structure of the passage is as blow IMO:

Stress ---> Some serious health problems (bld pres., car comp..) (This is a premis)
Stress ----> Another serious health problems (Malady) (This is a Conclusion)
High stress = More obese and nervous (more like a fact, a objective result)

If we negate the option A: Obesity and nervousness do not lead to serious health problems. Or we can say Obesity and nervousness are not serious health problems, then the argument breaks down because The conclusion is now groundless

Then why is B the best Answer when the conclusion clearly is concerned with maladies i.e. obesity and nervousness and not ones capability to handle stressful situation, guys help me out here explain relevance of B over A
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29 Aug 2017, 15:24
There is also a typo. The number of errors in these questions is unacceptable.

"Emotionally stressed out people who had encountered an emotionally stressful situation immediately before responding to the survey were more obese and nervous than the people form same group who had not encountered any emotionally stressful situation for a few days."

"form" should be "from"
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Joined: 23 Jan 2017
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24 Oct 2017, 09:37
gomax1199 wrote:
I totally agree that B is the best choice, but A also serves as a necessary assumption.
The logical structure of the passage is as blow IMO:

Stress ---> Some serious health problems (bld pres., car comp..) (This is a premis)
Stress ----> Another serious health problems (Malady) (This is a Conclusion)
High stress = More obese and nervous (more like a fact, a objective result)

If we negate the option A: Obesity and nervousness do not lead to serious health problems. Or we can say Obesity and nervousness are not serious health problems, then the argument breaks down because The conclusion is now groundless

Malady doesn't really mean a "serious health problem". If we negate option A, it doesn't seem to hurt the argument because Obesity and Nervousness can still be maladies without leading to serious health problems. So A is an incorrect choice!!

sayantanc2k wrote:
manlog wrote:
C is very important too. If the doesn't assume that the experiment is valid (e.g. that number of participants was equal, or any other conditions), than he doesn't make this claim. Though my logic could be a bit stretched.

Your point is valid. Nonetheless a convenient way to check the assumption type questions is the negation technique. Negate the given option and see whether the argument breaks down. If it does, then the option must be an assumption, because assumptions MUST be true in order to arrive at the conlcusion - this is where assumption type questions differ from strenghtening questions.

Option C strengthens the argument, however it is NOT a necessary assumption - it is not that the author MUST have assumed this statement. If the author did not assume option C, even then the argument would hold. Although it would be weakened, it won't completely break down.

Very good explanation! We really do not need equal number of people with H and L levels. Let us say 500 H people were surveyed and found significantly Obese and/or nervous. On the other hand, 10000 L people were surveyed and not found significantly Obese/Nervous. Still wouldn't the statement "....it was found that people with high emotional stress levels are significantly more obese and nervous than people with lower levels of emotional stress" be drawn? Maybe not perfectly strongly, but still it makes sense.

B is the correct answer because negating it breaks down the argument completely.
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16 Jul 2018, 00:07
I think this the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. In my opinion negating the first choice makes more logic than seond choice. I am really confused and not able to think as per the directions given in the solution.
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25 Jul 2018, 20:28
I think this is a poor-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. Thank you for the explanation but, I don't understand how do you negate or drop option B and how would it affect the conclusion? Can you please elaborate
Re V04-05 &nbs [#permalink] 25 Jul 2018, 20:28
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# V04-05

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