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V31-08

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Joined: 19 Mar 2012
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GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
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WE: Marketing (Non-Profit and Government)
V31-08  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2018, 08:47
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The measles mumps rubella vaccine, also known as the MMR vaccine, seeks to prevent contraction of these deadly diseases and is credited with saving millions of lives worldwide since its release in the early 1960s. The dosage has since been tuned to facilitate even greater results and has now been shown to prevent any case of these diseases. Only 1 in 25,000 and 1 in 40,000 children are thought to acquire a moderate or severe side effect from the vaccination. Given the considerable rarity for such a side effect to occur, it is considerably safer for a child to receive an MMR vaccination than to not receive it.

The answer to which one of the following questions would be most helpful to evaluate the argument drawn above?

A. How likely is it for an unvaccinated child to contract measles, mumps, or rubella?
B. How likely is it for a child to contract a disease other than measles, mumps, or rubella?
C. How many children who receive the MMR vaccination contract diseases other than measles, mumps, or rubella?
D. How effective is the vaccination in treating demographics other than children, such as adults or senior citizens?
E. How many children contract a dangerous virus of any variety?

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WE: Marketing (Non-Profit and Government)
Re V31-08  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2018, 08:47
Official Solution:

The measles mumps rubella vaccine, also known as the MMR vaccine, seeks to prevent contraction of these deadly diseases and is credited with saving millions of lives worldwide since its release in the early 1960s. The dosage has since been tuned to facilitate even greater results and has now been shown to prevent any case of these diseases. Only 1 in 25,000 and 1 in 40,000 children are thought to acquire a moderate or severe side effect from the vaccination. Given the considerable rarity for such a side effect to occur, it is considerably safer for a child to receive an MMR vaccination than to not receive it.

The answer to which one of the following questions would be most helpful to evaluate the argument drawn above?


A. How likely is it for an unvaccinated child to contract measles, mumps, or rubella?
B. How likely is it for a child to contract a disease other than measles, mumps, or rubella?
C. How many children who receive the MMR vaccination contract diseases other than measles, mumps, or rubella?
D. How effective is the vaccination in treating demographics other than children, such as adults or senior citizens?
E. How many children contract a dangerous virus of any variety?



Type: Evaluate

Boil It Down: MMR has done a lot; side effects rare -> Safer to receive MMR vaccination

Missing Information: The risk/risk comparison.

Goal: We know the risk of MMR side effects, but we don't know the risk of contracting MMR and the risk from the symptoms of those diseases. What if the risk of a side effect is now far greater than the risk of catching MMR, or the risk posed by the diseases? What if it's not?

A. Here we go! This option asks the key question: how likely is it for an unvaccinated child to contract measles, mumps, or rubella? What if it were extremely likely? Then the risk associated with vaccination is absolutely warranted. What if the chances of contracting measles, mumps, or rubella is so remarkably remote that at even a 1 in 40,000 chance of side effects is the greater of the two risks? This question helps us appropriately weigh the risk involved with either decision.

B. How likely it is for a child to contract a disease OTHER THAN measles, mumps, or rubella is entirely irrelevant as to whether it's safer to receive an MMR vaccination than not. Whether contraction of some disease outside of the focus of our discussion is likely or unlikely would in no way help us evaluate the risk of obtaining an MMR vaccination specifically.

C. This option is very similar to answer choice B. How frequently children are contracting other illnesses or diseases is entirely irrelevant to the issue that were asked to investigate: how safe is it to receive an MMR vaccination or not?

D. Since our investigation centers on the risk to children, an investigation into the risks for OTHER demographics, such as adults, is entirely irrelevant to the issue that we're asked to investigate: how safe is it to receive an MMR vaccination or not?

E. This option takes us way outside of the focus of what we're asked to investigate. We're asked to investigate the risks associated with the MMR vaccination. Option E would help us evaluate the risk associated with ANY virus. It would be unclear how answering option E would help us evaluate the risk specific to the MMR vaccination.

Answer: A
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Re V31-08 &nbs [#permalink] 23 Apr 2018, 08:47
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