GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 15 Feb 2019, 17:35

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel
Events & Promotions in February
PrevNext
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
272829303112
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
242526272812
Open Detailed Calendar
  • $450 Tuition Credit & Official CAT Packs FREE

     February 15, 2019

     February 15, 2019

     10:00 PM EST

     11:00 PM PST

    EMPOWERgmat is giving away the complete Official GMAT Exam Pack collection worth $100 with the 3 Month Pack ($299)
  • Free GMAT practice

     February 15, 2019

     February 15, 2019

     10:00 PM EST

     11:00 PM PST

    Instead of wasting 3 months solving 5,000+ random GMAT questions, focus on just the 1,500 you need.

V61-03

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

 
Founder
Founder
User avatar
V
Joined: 04 Dec 2002
Posts: 17234
Location: United States (WA)
GMAT 1: 750 Q49 V42
GPA: 3.5
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member CAT Tests
V61-03  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Sep 2018, 23:00
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

(N/A)

Question Stats:

80% (00:49) correct 20% (03:45) wrong based on 5 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

A discovery made by two Australian researchers, Barry Marshall and John Warren, revolutionized the scientific community's understanding of peptic ulcer disease and transformed the illness from a chronic, frequently disabling condition to one that can be cured by a short regimen of antibiotics.
In 1981, the two researchers first began to work together. Their discovery came about after Warren had observed bacteria in the lower part of the stomach of patients, which contradicted the long-held belief that bacteria could not survive in the acidic stomach environment. Warren also noticed that signs of inflammation were always present close to the bacteria. While conducting further studies on more patients, Warren and Marshall found H. pylori bacteria present in almost all patients with stomach inflammation or ulcers in the stomach. The two hypothesized that there was a causal link between H. pylori and ulcers, and that ulcers were not caused by stress, as previously thought. In order to support their controversial claims, they experimented on animals, and when this turned out to be unsuccessful, Marshall took it upon himself to be his own guinea pig. After verifying that he did not already have H. pylori in his stomach, Marshall drank a concoction made from cultured bacteria. Within a few days, he came down with gastritis, and H. pylori were found in his inflamed stomach; he was then cured with the help of antibiotics.
The researchers' findings were so contentious that it took ten years for their work to be accepted. Many researchers tried to disprove their findings, but failed to do so. Despite this, numerous scientists and doctors remained doubtful and refused to believe that any bacteria could live in the acidic environment of the stomach. According to Marshall, the pharmaceutical industry also had a role in preventing their bacteria theory from gaining traction. At the time, the most common treatment for ulcers was antacids, which required constant use, since the symptoms would return immediately after patients stopped taking them. Hence, the notion that ulcers could be permanently cured by taking antibiotics was highly unappealing to the pharmaceutical companies. By 1994, however, the evidence was overwhelming, prompting a change in the treatment of ulcers and establishing antibiotics as the standard approach. Finally, in 2005 Warren and Marshall received the praise they so clearly deserved, winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their innovative work.

It can be inferred from the passage that Warren and Marshall’s conclusion is based on which of the following claims?

A. Animals cannot be infected with H. pylori bacteria.
B. H. pylori bacterial infection is not caused by stress.
C. Bacterial infection can be cured with antibiotics.
D. Experiments that had been conducted thus far on the cause of ulcers were not accurate enough.
E. Pharmaceutical companies wanted to hide the real cause of ulcers.

_________________

Founder of GMAT Club

Just starting out with GMAT? Start here...
OG2019 Directory is here!
Want to know application stats & Profiles from last year? Check the Decision Tracker

Co-author of the GMAT Club tests

Founder
Founder
User avatar
V
Joined: 04 Dec 2002
Posts: 17234
Location: United States (WA)
GMAT 1: 750 Q49 V42
GPA: 3.5
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member CAT Tests
Re V61-03  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Sep 2018, 23:00
Official Solution:

A discovery made by two Australian researchers, Barry Marshall and John Warren, revolutionized the scientific community's understanding of peptic ulcer disease and transformed the illness from a chronic, frequently disabling condition to one that can be cured by a short regimen of antibiotics.
In 1981, the two researchers first began to work together. Their discovery came about after Warren had observed bacteria in the lower part of the stomach of patients, which contradicted the long-held belief that bacteria could not survive in the acidic stomach environment. Warren also noticed that signs of inflammation were always present close to the bacteria. While conducting further studies on more patients, Warren and Marshall found H. pylori bacteria present in almost all patients with stomach inflammation or ulcers in the stomach. The two hypothesized that there was a causal link between H. pylori and ulcers, and that ulcers were not caused by stress, as previously thought. In order to support their controversial claims, they experimented on animals, and when this turned out to be unsuccessful, Marshall took it upon himself to be his own guinea pig. After verifying that he did not already have H. pylori in his stomach, Marshall drank a concoction made from cultured bacteria. Within a few days, he came down with gastritis, and H. pylori were found in his inflamed stomach; he was then cured with the help of antibiotics.
The researchers' findings were so contentious that it took ten years for their work to be accepted. Many researchers tried to disprove their findings, but failed to do so. Despite this, numerous scientists and doctors remained doubtful and refused to believe that any bacteria could live in the acidic environment of the stomach. According to Marshall, the pharmaceutical industry also had a role in preventing their bacteria theory from gaining traction. At the time, the most common treatment for ulcers was antacids, which required constant use, since the symptoms would return immediately after patients stopped taking them. Hence, the notion that ulcers could be permanently cured by taking antibiotics was highly unappealing to the pharmaceutical companies. By 1994, however, the evidence was overwhelming, prompting a change in the treatment of ulcers and establishing antibiotics as the standard approach. Finally, in 2005 Warren and Marshall received the praise they so clearly deserved, winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their innovative work.


It can be inferred from the passage that Warren and Marshall’s conclusion is based on which of the following claims?

A. Animals cannot be infected with H. pylori bacteria.
B. H. pylori bacterial infection is not caused by stress.
C. Bacterial infection can be cured with antibiotics.
D. Experiments that had been conducted thus far on the cause of ulcers were not accurate enough.
E. Pharmaceutical companies wanted to hide the real cause of ulcers.

We’ll go for ExamPal Strategy called PRECISE because the answer appears in the text explicitly.

It is stated that the researchers “hypothesized… that ulcers were not caused by stress as previously thought”, and that the testing of this hypothesis led to their discovery.


This question was provided by ExamPal

Answer: B
_________________

Founder of GMAT Club

Just starting out with GMAT? Start here...
OG2019 Directory is here!
Want to know application stats & Profiles from last year? Check the Decision Tracker

Co-author of the GMAT Club tests

Intern
Intern
avatar
S
Joined: 30 Apr 2018
Posts: 34
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, General Management
GMAT 1: 760 Q51 V42
GPA: 4
WE: Engineering (Computer Software)
Premium Member
Re: V61-03  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Sep 2018, 13:18
can someone please explain how is C incorrect?
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 18 May 2017
Posts: 1
Re: V61-03  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 11 Dec 2018, 05:39
Bacterial infection can be cured with antibiotics is just an additional info, nothing contributing towards the conclusion
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 12 Nov 2018
Posts: 1
Re: V61-03  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 25 Dec 2018, 10:11
"The two hypothesized that there was a causal link between H. pylori and ulcers, and that ulcers were not caused by stress".

Are pylori and ulcers the same thing? It assumes that ulcers are not caused by stress, not pylori
GMAT Club Bot
Re: V61-03   [#permalink] 25 Dec 2018, 10:11
Display posts from previous: Sort by

V61-03

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Moderators: chetan2u, Bunuel



Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.