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# Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp

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Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 24 Jun 2018, 10:07
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Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.

A. Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.
B. Veins have a larger diameter and lumen, as well as a thinner wall, than those of corresponding arteries.
C. Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.
D. Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than corresponding arteries.
E. Compared to those of corresponding arteries, veins have a larger diameter, larger lumen, and thinner wall.

Originally posted by gooner on 21 Sep 2014, 07:47.
Last edited by Bunuel on 24 Jun 2018, 10:07, edited 2 times in total.
1 OA is enough
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Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2014, 01:15
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In comparison sentences, always remember:

NO AMBIGUITY PRESENT=CORRECT SENTENCE
AMBIGUITY PRESENT=WRONG SENTENCE.

Also remember, comparison in a sentence should always take place between elements serving identical roles as either a subject or an object. That is, a subject-subject comparison or an object-object comparison is always valid, but a subject-object comparison is always invalid.

Before proceeding on to the contextual problem, here’s an illustration.

Cezanne likes to stay more with Andy than Bill.

This is a classic example of an ambiguous sentence as the comparison elements are not clear. Elaborating further, it is not clear what role does ‘Bill’ play in the sentence as we shall see that the sentence can be extended to the following two versions, both of which are grammatically correct but convey different meanings.

1. Cezanne likes to stay more with Andy than Bill likes to stay with him. (‘him’ refers to Andy)
2. Cezanne likes to stay more with Andy than (Cezanne likes to stay) with Bill.

Now, in the 1st sentence, Bill takes the position of subject, and this sentence makes clear that there is a debate over who likes to stay with Andy more, ‘Cezanne’ or ‘Bill’. The comparison is a subject-subject comparison and the comparison elements are ‘Cezanne’ and ‘Bill’. For such a construction to hold, than will mostly introduce an independent clause with the 2nd comparison element as its subject.

In contrast, in the 2nd sentence, Bill takes the position of the object. The sentence here intends to convey the subject’s (Cezanne’s) personal preferences (i.e. whom she likes to stay more with) rather than an ongoing debate in the previous sentence. So as you see, the meaning conveyed in this sentence is totally different. The comparison here is an object-object comparison and the comparison elements are ‘Andy’ and ‘Bill’. For such a construction to hold, than will mostly introduce a prepositional phrase (in this case ‘with’), with the comparison elements as objects of the preposition used.

But mind you, unlike both the sentences above, which are grammatically correct, non-ambiguous and convey a definite meaning, the original is ambiguous and hence not correct.

Employing similar concepts in the problem under discussion, options C and D stand as strong contenders. Option D is very similar to the sentence under illustration, where it leaves open the scope of implying on one hand that ‘veins’ is being compared to ‘corresponding arteries’ over its features (subject-subject comparison) and on the other hand, that ‘veins’ have certain enhanced features than ‘corresponding arteries’, which is non-sensical.

Option C clears such ambiguities up front and is indeed the right answer.
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Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2014, 13:07
Do anyone have a good explanation for why the answer is and not ?
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Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2014, 13:52
gooner wrote:
Do anyone have a good explanation for why the answer is and not ?

Hi,

C. Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.
D. Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than corresponding arteries.

Comparison in D is inferior and ambiguous than comparison in C.

In D, we can read comparison also as if veins have lumens and arteries in itself, and we are comparing these two thing rather veins to arteries.
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Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2014, 00:21
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In the given sentence the intended comparison is not between Vein and Artery, but "what Veins have" to "what arteries have".
So, option D is a NO. Because it is comparing wrong entities.
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Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2014, 04:25
gooner wrote:
Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.

A. Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.
B. Veins have a larger diameter and lumen, as well as a thinner wall, than those of corresponding arteries.
C. Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.
D. Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than corresponding arteries.
E. Compared to those of corresponding arteries, veins have a larger diameter, larger lumen, and thinner wall.

The question talks about the comparison between the qualities possessed by the veins and the qualities possessed by the arteries. Thus the right choice must compare the qualities of the two and not the qualities of Veins and the arteries. This would prove answer choice A, D and E wrong.

We are left with B and C now.

B talks of larger diameter and lumen... That means it is not a parallel comparison. When qualities, such as diameter, thinness, etc are under comparison, no nouns - lumen - should be compared. That deems choice B wrong.

A maintains the parallel structure and compares the qualities.

Hope that helps you...
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Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2014, 08:44
Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.

C. Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.

I have a question and that is the reason why I eliminated this option.
do signifies an action right?

I like that girl than my brother does. -> Comparison is fine.
I have a better bat than my brother does -> I guess instead of does, it should be has.
I guess it should be "than corresponding arteries have". -> Perfect comparison.

Can somebody clarify.
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Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 26 Sep 2014, 00:51
2
Hi, kinjiGC,

I am happy to respond…I appreciate your doubt, however, not very sure whether I would be able to help you the best, as my reasoning is drawn out of my observations. An expert would do well do endorse my reasoning…btw here are my thoughts…

To begin with, in your sentence:
I have a better bat than my brother does…CORRECT
I have a better bat than my brother has….(as is your ‘expected’ interpretation)…WRONG
In fact this sentence should be correctly modified to ‘I have a better bat than the onethat my brother has.’

Two reasons:

1. As a general rule, if the main verb is a transitive verb and is itself used to complete the clause following than in a comparison sentence involving an object-object comparison, it should be followed by its object. However, helping verbs can be used to substitute the main verb and end such a sentence without mentioning (though not always) the direct object of comparison in the clause following than.
2. ‘Have’ in this context is a transitive verb.

To illustrate these reasons, let us consider a few examples below.

SET1: (Note all verbs in sentences 1 to 5 are either intransitive or non-transitive)

1. Kate walks faster than Jim walks.
2. Humans live for a shorter span of time than turtles live.
3. Andy is taller than Bill is.
4. Apples are more healthy to eat than caramels are. (Taken from MGMAT SC guide, pg.130)
5. Today, Mr. Clarke has left for home earlier than he had left the day before
.
SET 2: (Note all verbs in sentences 6 to 10 are transitive)

6. Cezanne likes Andy more than she likes Bill.
7. His sister slaps him harder than his brother slaps him.
8. I have dreamt of going to Harvard more than I have dreamt of just starting up a new business venture.
9. I drive the car faster than my brother drives it.
10. (Finally, let’s take your sentence) I have a better bat than the one that my brother has.

Now ponder over the 2nd set (sentences 6 to 10) and let us re-write these sentences after omitting the object of the verb, after than

6. Cezanne likes Andy more than she likes. …(likes whom?)
7. His sister slaps him harder than his brother slaps …(slaps whom?)
8. I have dreamt of going to Harvard more than I have dreamt ….(dreamt of what?)
9. I drive the car faster than my brother drives …(drives what?)
10. I have a better bat than my brother has …(has what?)...(the way you wrote it)

Do you notice that these sentences (after omitting the object following than) sound incomplete? However, sentences 1 to 5 are fine the way they are. This substantiates my point no. 1 that if the sentence has a transitive verb, the object of which is undergoing comparison in some way, and if the same verb is used to complete the clause that follows than, THE VERB IN THIS CLAUSE SHOULD ALWAYS BE ACCOMPANIED BY ITS OBJECT. And this substantiates my point no. 2 that since, in your sentence, ‘have’ is used as a transitive verb, it should be followed by an object to complete the sentence or else it would be rendered incomplete (in the manner I have presented a corrected version, where ‘the one’ is the object of ‘has’ following than)

Now note, that ‘to have’ can also be used as a helping verb (classified as a non-transitive verb, since they are neither transitive nor intransitive) , as in sentence no. 5, where it is used as a helping verb. As such, in this sentence, the verb ‘has’ has no object and is correct the way it is written. Other examples of helping verbs are ‘to be’, ‘to do’, which can be used suitably to substitute main verbs as I has been demonstrated in the list (1 to 10) further.

Last, in any comparison sentence, the clause following than can employ the suitable helping verb instead of the main verb and thus eliminate redundancy in some cases associated with mentioning object after verb (in case of transitive) and thus make the sentence shorter and concise.

Re-writing sentences 1 to 10:

1. Kate walks faster than Jim does.
2. Humans live for a shorter span of time than turtles do.
3. Andy is taller than Bill (is).
4. Apples are more healthy to eat than caramels (are).
5. Today, Mr. Clarke has left for home earlier than he had (left) the day before.
6. Cezanne likes Andy more than she does Bill. (sounds awkward, but is correct, refer MGMAT SC 5th edition for an identical sentence on pg. 130)
7. His sister slaps him harder than his brother does.
8. I have dreamt of going to Harvard more than I have of just starting up a new business venture. (Here, probably the main transitive verb could be eliminated, but object (clause following than) is necessary to retain meaning)
9. I drive the car faster than my brother does.
10. I have a better bat than my brother does.

NOW FINALLY, going back to the original sentence,

C. Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries

Note, ‘have’ is used transitively, as a result of which the sentence if modified to

‘Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than corresponding arteries have’

would be incorrect. If you want to employ ‘have’ after than, rather correct it to

Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than those that corresponding arteries have.

‘Those’ following than is the object of the second ‘have’ and is correct the way it is written here.

Hence, option C stands tall and straight as a grammatically correct-worded sentence.

PS: I know this was a long rambling of sorts… but I hope this post helps in clarifying your doubt. Would love if an expert endorses this reasoning...

Originally posted by itzmyzone911 on 23 Sep 2014, 13:44.
Last edited by itzmyzone911 on 26 Sep 2014, 00:51, edited 8 times in total.
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Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2014, 22:41
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kinjiGC wrote:
Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.

C. Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.

I have a question and that is the reason why I eliminated this option.
do signifies an action right?

I like that girl than my brother does. -> Comparison is fine.
I have a better bat than my brother does -> I guess instead of does, it should be has.
I guess it should be "than corresponding arteries have". -> Perfect comparison.

Can somebody clarify.

do/does/did act as action verbs and also as auxiliary verbs (for adding emphasis or to create negative sentences).

As Auxiliary verbs:

For example: I have your number.

I do have your number. (Emphasizing - probably in response to "Do you have my number?")
or
I don't have your number. (Negative sentence)

We don't need to repeat the action verb as long as we use the auxiliary verb while comparing. This is what happens in the correct sentence. The use of do is correct.
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Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2018, 03:38
A. Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.
C. Veins have larger diameters, larger lumens, and thinner walls than do corresponding arteries.

Why choice (A) is wrong ?

I narrowed down to (A) and (C). The only difference that i found between the two is "larger lumens", but i didn't understand the reason to eliminate (A). So, what's the reason to eliminate (A).
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Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp  [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2019, 02:47
A D and E compare arteries and veins rather than the qualities possessed by the two, so they are out.

We are left with B and C.

B has a //ism problem. It includes a physical noun ‘lumen’ among its list of qualities. This is wrong.

So, C is the right answer.
Re: Veins have larger diameters, lumens, and thinner walls than do corresp   [#permalink] 10 Mar 2019, 02:47
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