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# Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding

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Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2016, 20:15
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In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly, but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) The rhesus monkeys is the species of monkey that is more prone to fighting

(B) Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them

(C) All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

(D) Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in more attacks than the others

(E) Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiment were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 20:13
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rahulkashyap wrote:
Not able to pick between b and c

daagh chetan2u

Posted from my mobile device

In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly, but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

Hi,

the argument says that in rats, crowding led to more attacks on each other. But in a experiment with rhesus monkeys, # of attacks did not increase but 'coping behaviour' did.
Now the argument claims that crowding does not increase aggressive nature..

NOTE we are not talking of attacks but aggressive nature. - this should tell us that there MUST be something which happens amongst the monkeys which does not allow these aggressive nature to turn into ATTACKS..

lets see B and C..

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them
See the NOTE above. More the monkeys aggressive, more do other monkeys try to adjust to that by changing their behaviour so that the aggressive nature does not result into physical attacks...
this clearly WEAKENS the claim as the aggressive nature has increased but others have adopted a different approach to it..

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions
This would in a way STRENGTHEN the claim.....
The COPING behaviour is not common ONLY to crowded coditions but to uncrowded conditions too. This means that there is NO role played by aggressive attitude and hence MAY be the claim is correct

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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 04:53
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Vyshak wrote:
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly, but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. The rhesus monkeys is the species of monkey that is more prone to fighting

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in more attacks than the others

E. Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiment were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances.

The argument cites evidence that a recent experiment shows that crowding resulted in increased instances of coping - submissive gestures.
Based on this evidence argument concludes that crowding does not result in aggression.

Let us check each option and see which option weakens this argument.

A. This does not relate to our main argument (what is the behaviour of rhesus monkeys when they are in a crowded atmosphere). Ignore this option.

B. This option discusses both key ideas: Coping behavior as well as aggression. Hold

C. Irrelevant to our argument. We have to discuss their behaviour in crowded conditions. Ignore this option.

D. Very subjective information. Not strong enough to support or weaken conclusion. Ignore this option.

E. Issue is not about contrasting this experiment with natural circumstances. Ignore this option.

By elimination also , B comes out as winner.

Let us quickly analyse it.

B says that Coping behaviour was infact an outcome to stop aggressive behaviour. So aggression was there and the submissive gestures were developed by group members for their protection. In light of this information, we cannot say that crowding does not cause aggression.

[Argument is saying thus: Suppose A, B and C are 3 events

Earlier experiment (Rat) says A --> B (A causes B. Crowding causes Aggression)

Present Argument says, we saw that C occurred. so

A does not cause B. It causes C.

Correct Option says that the logical flow is that

A --> B --> C . ]
##### General Discussion
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2016, 21:19
1
Statement : Rats > Crowding > Increased Aggression
Rhesus Monkeys > Crowding > Does not increase aggression but instances of coping behavior

Conclusion : Rhesus monkeys response to monkeys, applies to all monkeys.

Assumption : Effect on Rhesus monkeys ---means---> Effect on all monkeys.

A. The rhesus monkeys is the species of monkey that is more prone to fighting. Strengthens

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them. States the same

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions
This may weaken the argument. Hold it

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in more attacks than the others Out of scope

E. Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiment were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances. may be the one but "Some" makes it doubtful

IMO C, though not sure on this one. Waiting for OA.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 00:09
Vyshak wrote:
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly, but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. The rhesus monkeys is the species of monkey that is more prone to fighting

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in more attacks than the others

E. Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiment were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances.

There is a sampling issue with the conclusion !!
as aditi already mentioned , experiments were done on rhesus monkeys while the conclusion is held true for all primates.
C.. for me best explains the reason for rhesus monkeys behaviour because of which the conclusion cannot be held true for all primates .
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 01:51
I am not sure but for some reason, I feel the answer is B.. if coping behaviour were adopted to forestall acts of aggression, it means the monkeys would have probably got aggressive (if not for the coping behaviour) and thus weakens the conclusion to some extent..
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 02:36
rs47 wrote:
I am not sure but for some reason, I feel the answer is B.. if coping behaviour were adopted to forestall acts of aggression, it means the monkeys would have probably got aggressive (if not for the coping behaviour) and thus weakens the conclusion to some extent..

little confused here !!
now I think answer can be b !!
I don't think C weakens the conclusion at all . If the monkeys are observed to have all kinds on coping behaviour in un crowded envt , they might have the same in crowded as well , it in fact strengthens the conclusion.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 04:08

Conclusion says : Doubtful that Crowding >>increases >> aggression

Option B says : Coping behavior in crowded monkeys >> decreases/forestall >> aggression.

Doesn't this imply that crowding leads to coping behavior, which in turn decreases aggression.

That's exactly what will strengthen the conclusion that crowding doesn't significantly increase aggression.

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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 10:38
Not able to pick between b and c

daagh chetan2u

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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 11:14
2
2
Argument: In rats, Crowding --> Aggressive behavior
But in rhesus monkeys, Crowding --> Coping behavior
So recent studies create a doubt on whether Crowding actually causes aggressive behavior

A. The rhesus monkeys is the species of monkey that is more prone to fighting - Incorrect - The rhesus monkeys may be prone to fighting but there is no relationship between crowding and aggressive behavior

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them - Correct - Crowding causes aggressive behavior but coping behavior is used to mask the aggressive behavior.

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions - Incorrect - Relationship is stated between coping behavior and uncrowded conditions. Not useful.

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in more attacks than the others - Incorrect - Irrelevant

E. Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiment were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances. - Irrelevant

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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 20:48
1
chetan2u wrote:
rahulkashyap wrote:
Not able to pick between b and c

daagh chetan2u

Posted from my mobile device

In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly, but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

Hi,

the argument says that in rats, crowding led to more attacks on each other. But in a experiment with rhesus monkeys, # of attacks did not increase but 'coping behaviour' did.
Now the argument claims that crowding does not increase aggressive nature..

NOTE we are not talking of attacks but aggressive nature. - this should tell us that there MUST be something which happens amongst the monkeys which does not allow these aggressive nature to turn into ATTACKS..

lets see B and C..

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them
See the NOTE above. More the monkeys aggressive, more do other monkeys try to adjust to that by changing their behaviour so that the aggressive nature does not result into physical attacks...
this clearly WEAKENS the claim as the aggressive nature has increased but others have adopted a different approach to it..

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions
This would in a way STRENGTHEN the claim.....
The COPING behaviour is not common ONLY to crowded coditions but to uncrowded conditions too. This means that there is NO role played by aggressive attitude and hence MAY be the claim is correct

Hi,
In b, do u mean that a few monkeys are getting aggressive but there are other few which counter balance this by coping, hence resulting in no attacks?

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 20:57
rahulkashyap wrote:
chetan2u wrote:
rahulkashyap wrote:
Not able to pick between b and c

daagh chetan2u

Posted from my mobile device

In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly, but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

Hi,

the argument says that in rats, crowding led to more attacks on each other. But in a experiment with rhesus monkeys, # of attacks did not increase but 'coping behaviour' did.
Now the argument claims that crowding does not increase aggressive nature..

NOTE we are not talking of attacks but aggressive nature. - this should tell us that there MUST be something which happens amongst the monkeys which does not allow these aggressive nature to turn into ATTACKS..

lets see B and C..

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them
See the NOTE above. More the monkeys aggressive, more do other monkeys try to adjust to that by changing their behaviour so that the aggressive nature does not result into physical attacks...
this clearly WEAKENS the claim as the aggressive nature has increased but others have adopted a different approach to it..

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions
This would in a way STRENGTHEN the claim.....
The COPING behaviour is not common ONLY to crowded coditions but to uncrowded conditions too. This means that there is NO role played by aggressive attitude and hence MAY be the claim is correct

Hi,
In b, do u mean that a few monkeys are getting aggressive but there are other few which counter balance this by coping, hence resulting in no attacks?

Posted from my mobile device

Yes, I would not say B is the best possible answer but we are looking for the best possible answer and C can not be an answer under any circumstances.....

so when the monkeys are becoming MORE aggressive, there are many others, may be kids or mothers or weaker ones, who become submissive and increase 'coping behaviour'
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2016, 10:01
In the 1960 studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument.

A. The rhesus monkey is the species of monkey that is most prone to fighting.
B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them.
C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions.
D. Some individual monkeys in the experiments were involved in more attacks than others.
E. Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiments were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2016, 10:44
mitko20m wrote:
In the 1960 studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument.

A. The rhesus monkey is the species of monkey that is most prone to fighting.
B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them.
C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions.
D. Some individual monkeys in the experiments were involved in more attacks than others.
E. Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiments were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances.

Topic Merged. Please refer to the above discussion and comment if you have any doubts.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2016, 03:00
Vyshak wrote:
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly, but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. The rhesus monkeys is the species of monkey that is more prone to fighting

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in more attacks than the others

E. Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiment were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances.

From the weakening question above, we need to attack the conclusion, which stated crowding is not triger aggresive behavior. Statement B attack this conclusion by saying crowding implulse agrresive behavior, which the monkey not express it because they want to forestall the act of aggresive
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2017, 09:41
how is B correct? When i see it, i see its strengthening than weakening. I found this question while giving my GMAT mock on GMAT Prep. While reviewing i found OA is B. Its bizarre and i cant understand, how B can be the right weakening option.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2017, 15:26
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rahulk2801! wrote:
how is B correct? When i see it, i see its strengthening than weakening. I found this question while giving my GMAT mock on GMAT Prep. While reviewing i found OA is B. Its bizarre and i cant understand, how B can be the right weakening option.

Notice that the conclusion is about aggressive IMPULSES, not the number of attacks: "Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates. "

Because the number of attacks did not increase, the author concludes that aggressive impulses did not significantly increase. But what if aggressive impulses actually DID increase, and the monkeys simply adopted coping behavior to prevent those impulses from leading to actual attacks? In that case, aggressive impulses could have significantly increased even though the actual number of attacks did not increase.

Choice (B) explains this possibility, which goes against the author's reasoning.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2017, 02:28
Vyshak wrote:
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly, but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. The rhesus monkeys is the species of monkey that is more prone to fighting

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in more attacks than the others

E. Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiment were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances.

Conclusion -> "The evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates"

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

It states that the coping behaviour is observed in the normal conditions as well. This means that the crowding had no impact on the behaviour of the monkeys.
So this option indeed strengthens the argument by implying that the crowding does not increase the aggressive impulses.

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them.

This option implies that there is indeed a possibility of aggression and the monkeys had to alter their behaviour inorder to forestall such effect.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2018, 07:40
I understand that B is a weakener, C is a strengthener but I am unable to knock off D.
Can experts pl explain me how D is irrlevant. If some monkeys were involved in more attacks than the others then definitely the attacks did take place and attacks can logically take place because of aggression or aggressive impulses. This scenario, in turn, tends to weaken the conclusion.
Can someone pl correct me.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2018, 09:03
hassu13 wrote:
I understand that B is a weakener, C is a strengthener but I am unable to knock off D.
Can experts pl explain me how D is irrlevant. If some monkeys were involved in more attacks than the others then definitely the attacks did take place and attacks can logically take place because of aggression or aggressive impulses. This scenario, in turn, tends to weaken the conclusion.
Can someone pl correct me.

Let's reconnect with the specific wording in the conclusion:

Quote:
Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Now let's compare to the wording in (D):

Quote:
(D) Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in more attacks than the others

The author concludes that it is doubtful that crowding has led to a significant, overall increase in aggressive impulses in primates.

Sure, we could weaken this conclusion by observing that there indeed has been a significant, overall increase in aggressive behavior among the rhesus monkeys. But this is not what choice (D) says.

(D) says that some monkeys were involved in more attacks than other monkeys. This is a comparison between two groups of monkeys. It doesn't tell us anything about the overall level of attacks.

Furthermore, choice (D) focuses on attacks, which (as we've discussed earlier in this thread) are not the same as impulses.

For these two reasons, we can eliminate (D). I hope this helps!
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding   [#permalink] 25 Oct 2018, 09:03

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