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# When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the

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When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2012, 00:29
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41% (01:29) correct 59% (01:51) wrong based on 2396 sessions

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When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not decrease. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.

B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.

C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.

D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.

E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2012, 01:05
Vineetk wrote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

OA post discussion

IMO B.

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
-This is not fully supported by the argument. police protection and water line maintenance can deteriorate. Its only the area covered wil Not increase.

B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
This can be safely concluded.

C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
"most immediately and most markedly." our text does not allow us to use this strong language.

D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
The argument clearly says raising tax rates will make ppl leave.

E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.
This is a close call. But this cannot be concluded IMO because from the 1st line of the argument, "When a city experiences a sharp decline in population", we only ppl leave the city and we do not know why they leave. Even if we revert the tax hikes, ppl might not come back to city for other contributing factors, which are not given in the passage.

Can you please let me know the OA.
Thanks in anticipation.

Cheers
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2012, 01:14
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Vineetk wrote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

OA post discussion

interesting question! Kudos!

tough to choose between A and D. However, since question talks about no relation to tax rates of other cities therefore it could be simply that tax hikes are just like last nail in coffin and make more residents leave the city irrespective whether tax rates are lower compared to other cities.
Further, A gets more strong considering population is sharply 'declining', therefore eventually tax revenue would be low enough to cause one or more services to deteriorate.

Ans A it is!
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2012, 03:02
Vips0000 wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

OA post discussion

interesting question! Kudos!

tough to choose between A and D. However, since question talks about no relation to tax rates of other cities therefore it could be simply that tax hikes are just like last nail in coffin and make more residents leave the city irrespective whether tax rates are lower compared to other cities.
Further, A gets more strong considering population is sharply 'declining', therefore eventually tax revenue would be low enough to cause one or more services to deteriorate.

Ans A it is!

Cunning as usual Sir

Quote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

I do not how is possible B is the answer.

Working from wrong to right

E the perception by residents is non good.

D Relation with other city, i didn't see that in the stem

C they do not deteriorate, we do not havve information about decline. We only know them not decrease

B I didn't such thing toward the question.

A It is. Police services are stable the others CAN decline.

Really good question
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2012, 03:09
carcass wrote:
Cunning as usual Sir

Ha ha.. thank you sir.. hope it remains same on actual test
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2012, 03:28
2
OA is A.

OE explains that the distribution of revenues among city services is unknown and how this might change is also unknown. Even if the overall funds decline, revenues for some specific city services could remain same while revenues for other services are severely cut.

Reason for A- If police protection and water lines have not deteriorated as population has declined, then probably the funding for them has been preserved. Therefore, funding for some other services must be severely cut , since making up revenue lost due to population decrease is not feasible.
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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25 May 2013, 23:09
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Vineetk wrote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

OA post discussion

First the question stem here is must be true/inference-

Use the fact test and eliminate each ans choice if it fails the fact test

E- No where can we prove it from the given premises. (reverse the trend???)
D- tricky.... hmm first half is true but in the second half he talks about other cities which cannot be proved again
C- Most immidiately and markedly should be ringing bells in your head. Again a NO NO
B- Tricky again- But can we definitively ask ... 'ok everything is stable, but can i ensure that the people stay back??' NO.....
A- Only ans left Though I do not like the sentence 'some services will be eliminated'... but close enough
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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28 May 2013, 23:22
Are you sure about the source? I found that none of the choices were convincing enough..
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2013, 03:39
Found this very tough. I am still not sure what is wrong in B and D. Can somebody explain in detail?
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2013, 04:14
gmatter0913 wrote:
Found this very tough. I am still not sure what is wrong in B and D. Can somebody explain in detail?

When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

Lets have a look at B and D.
B first says that If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period….now be careful of these statement. If A happens B will happen. It doesn't mean that if B happens then A will also happen. The argument says that if the city's population declines than tax revenue declines…but it doesn't say other way. Option B says other way around. Just take a parallel example for better understanding…..If it rains 7 days continuously then city will be flooded( this is what argument says)…..it hasn't flooded so obviously it hasn't rained for continuously 7 days (this is option B says)…..it could be possible that city government made good arrangement to cope up with the rain….Flood is the consequence of the rain and rain is one of the reason for the flood it is not other way around.

D is very easy to eliminate. No where in the argument "other cities" are mentioned but option D does the comparison with other cities it is just out of scope. D is not supported by the argument either…we don't know whether the revenue loss can be covered with the raised taxes…its not mentioned in the argument…
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2013, 08:51
"higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave"

The above statement means that people will leave from cities with higher tax rates to cities with lower tax rates.

Hence, I thought D is a strong contender.
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2013, 18:52
2
2
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

population decline --> tax revenue decrease
police protection and water line maintenance not increase + tax rate can not raise --> ???

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
correct : given information results in deterioration in service provided by the city

B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
the given information tells about causal relationship between raising tax rate and decrease in population, not in the case the tax rates are stable

C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
the given information does not provide the comparison between police protection and water line maintenance with other provided service

D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
even though the city's tax rates are low, increasing tax rate cannot make up some of the tax lost

E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.
the given information tells about causal relationship between raising tax rate and decrease in population, not in the case the tax rates decreasing
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2014, 14:50
I am suspecting between A & D equally, with a slight preference given to A. So I'll go with A.
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21 Jan 2016, 10:19
A. no other option is close enough to qualify for a valid conclusion.
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2016, 17:00
So just to sum up the discussion above, A is strong because of the premise in the stimulus that states that higher tax revenue would just further the problem, and with less tax revenue there will be other services not provided if water and policing is not deteriorating?

D looks too good to be true on a problem like this. I still went with it although had a feeling it was wrong because we don't know the behavior to other cities.

Please clarify my reasoning if I am wrong.
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04 Oct 2016, 08:43
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In between A and D we can readily remove D because as per D, the people will avoid moving to the other cities if the taxes there are higher as compared to their current city. But what if in the other cities the taxes are higher alongwith higher incomes and other better facilities then the people might consider moving to these other cities
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2016, 06:44
2
Vineetk wrote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

I have nothing to add to the discussion; nevertheless, the argument has an error: where it says “The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase” it should say “The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not decrease.”

As it is written, there is the possibility that “the area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained” will decrease. Then the city could make up the tax revenue lost by reducing expenses in police protection and water line maintenance, without deteriorating them. So A would not be the answer.

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2016, 21:34
alpham wrote:
So just to sum up the discussion above, A is strong because of the premise in the stimulus that states that higher tax revenue would just further the problem, and with less tax revenue there will be other services not provided if water and policing is not deteriorating?

D looks too good to be true on a problem like this. I still went with it although had a feeling it was wrong because we don't know the behavior to other cities.

Please clarify my reasoning if I am wrong.

D is wrong because the last sentence in the argument “Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.” tells us that raising taxes is NOT an option and we should take it as a premise namely that we can't question it.

yet in A, I can infer the funding for other survice must be reduced, but a reduce in funding doesn't neccessrily mean that other services will deteriorate or be eliminated. maybe the costs of the services just go down. plz clarify.
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2016, 08:05
cledgard wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

I have nothing to add to the discussion; nevertheless, the argument has an error: where it says “The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase” it should say “The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not decrease.”

As it is written, there is the possibility that “the area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained” will decrease. Then the city could make up the tax revenue lost by reducing expenses in police protection and water line maintenance, without deteriorating them. So A would not be the answer.

I got the question right exactly by asssuming that, otherwise it would not make sense. I actually think if this correction was made, the question would be much easier than the current 95% level shown here.
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2016, 09:32
Ilomelin wrote:
cledgard wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

I have nothing to add to the discussion; nevertheless, the argument has an error: where it says “The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase” it should say “The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not decrease.”

As it is written, there is the possibility that “the area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained” will decrease. Then the city could make up the tax revenue lost by reducing expenses in police protection and water line maintenance, without deteriorating them. So A would not be the answer.

I got the question right exactly by asssuming that, otherwise it would not make sense. I actually think if this correction was made, the question would be much easier than the current 95% level shown here.

Yes, it seems to be a typographical error.... corrected. Thank you.
Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the &nbs [#permalink] 25 Nov 2016, 09:32

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