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When people engage in activities that help others, their brain release

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When people engage in activities that help others, their brain release [#permalink]

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Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

When people engage in activities that help others, their brain releases endorphins, the brain’s natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. It has been suggested that regular release of endorphins increases people’s longevity. And a statistic on adults who regularly engage in volunteer work helping others shows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer. However, that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not boost longevity, because _______.

(A) in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do.

(B) the number of young adults who do regular volunteer work is on the increase.

(C) the feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are mild.

(D) it is rare for a person to keep up a regular schedule of volunteer work throughout his or her life.

(E) Some people find that keeping a commitment to do regular volunteer work becomes a source of stress in their lives.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 07 Oct 2017, 01:05, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.

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New post 07 Jul 2009, 04:31
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I go with C
2 main things mentioned are:
i) helping others induces a feeling of well being.
ii) regular release of endorphins increases people’s longevity.
Statistics show: People who volunteer, on an average, live longer.

Now, 'However' in the concluding sentence changes the course of the passage.
"...However, that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not boost longevity, because______ ."
This means: The author believes that it is the feeling of well being, induced by helping other which increases longevity, so even if volunteering does not boost longevity, it is just this feeling because (option C fits in well).
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New post 07 Jul 2009, 08:18
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Certainly A

A. in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do. -If this is correct, then the average life of voluteers also increases.
B. the number of young adults who do regular volunteer work is on the increase -Argument talking about longevity. It doesn't matter whats the current age of volunteer
C. the feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are mild. -Endorphins are just masking the symtoms, not actually curing the disease itself. And further to weaken this, the options is saying "for a time" and "provided the symptoms are mild".
D. it is rare for a person to keep up a regular schedule of volunteer work throughout his or her life. -Irrelevant
E. Some people find that keeping a commitment to do regular volunteer work becomes a source of stress in their lives. -Further weakens the argument, as stress would have negative effect on longevity
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New post 09 Jul 2009, 13:51
Economist wrote:
C.

If C is true then "we would expect" that people live longer.


We cannot relate "feelings of well-being" and "symptoms of various conditions and diseases" to "longevity".
Even if symptoms are masked, disease can still prove to be fatal.

Answer is certainly A.

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Re: When people engage in activities that help others, their brain release [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2009, 06:46
A

The question stem says
"However, that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not boost longevity, because ."

The answer has to be something "other than" the physiological reason given ie, volunteering - endorphins - long life.

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Re: When people engage in activities that help others, their brain release [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2009, 06:33
I am going with A....And a statistic on adults who regularly engage in volunteer work helping others
shows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer.

However,that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not
boost longevity, because . SO basically if we remove volunteering from the equation we have to pick something that further the statistic of that the group has a longer life span.

This can only be attributed to the fact that in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do.

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New post 18 Aug 2009, 04:12
argument says volunteering causes longevity, question is the statistic holds even if volunteering doesnot cause longevity, so some other thing must be the cause?

A. expalins the longevity in the stastics because more women and women tend to live longer. correct

B. no proof that young adults live longer(cant generalize)

C. provided the symptoms are mild, cant gurantee the symptoms can be mild always

D. doesnot explain how other longevity is boosted

E. same as D

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Re: When people engage in activities that help others, their brain release [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2010, 14:27
However,
that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not
boost longevity, because...
A. in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular
volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do.
>> This supports the statistics. But our goal is to find the sentence that can fit in 'even if volunteering does not boost longevity...'. This is not the correct option.
B. the number of young adults who do regular volunteer work is on the increase
>> Can not fit in the final sentense.
C. the feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask
the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are
mild.
>> Yes, This is the correct option. We expect the statistics even if volunteering does not boost longevity, because the feelings of well-being... makes people think that their they are healthy and results in longevity.
D. it is rare for a person to keep up a regular schedule of volunteer work throughout
his or her life.
>> Will not fit
E. Some people find that keeping a commitment to do regular volunteer work
becomes a source of stress in their lives.
>> This can not be part of the sentense.

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Re: When people engage in activities that help others, their brain release [#permalink]

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Re: When people engage in activities that help others, their brain release [#permalink]

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ritjn2003 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument??
When people engage in activities that help others ,their brain releases endorphins,
the brain’s natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. It has
been suggested that regular release of endorphins increases people’s longevity.
And a statistic on adults who regularly engage in volunteer work helping others
shows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer. However,
that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not
boost longevity, because .
A. in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular
volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do.
B. the number of young adults who do regular volunteer work is on the increase
C. the feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask
the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are
mild.
D. it is rare for a person to keep up a regular schedule of volunteer work throughout
his or her life.
E. Some people find that keeping a commitment to do regular volunteer work
becomes a source of stress in their lives.


The suggested statement based on the statistics collected may not be true. Because, women anyway live longer. Thus, anything that a woman does more could show that the people who do more would live longer.

e.g.
1. Women talk more. Thus, statistics showed that the people who talk more live longer.
2. Women read Sidney Sheldon more. Thus, statistics showed that the people who read Sidney Sheldon live longer.
3. Women do more make-up. Thus, statistics showed that the people who do more make-up live longer.
Likewise,
4. Women volunteer more. Thus, statistics showed that the people who volunteer more live longer.

Thus, it is the inherent characteristics of women's longevity that's dictating the statistics collected and not purely the act of volunteering per se.

Ans: "A"
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New post 26 Feb 2012, 13:36
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the oa is actually A and it is discussed in detail here.

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ple ... t7546.html
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New post 26 Feb 2012, 13:37
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gmatbull wrote:
OA = C.
Further, i feel convinced with the explanations advanced by "Mads"
Hello "Mad," u seem ready to be mad with GMAT... :)
Thanks.


i'm afraid the oa is A, not C.
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ple ... t7546.html
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New post 26 Feb 2012, 16:50
A. in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular
volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do.
>> This supports the statistics. But our goal is to find the sentence that can fit in 'even if volunteering does not boost longevity...'. This is not the correct option.

You're right with on exeption. goal is to find the sentence that can fit in 'even if volunteering does not boost longevit and A is exactly that cind of centence

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Re: When people engage in activities that help others, their brain release [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2012, 01:18
I want to say that the correct choice is A according to the manhattan link above. Also, the below is my explanation for choice A:

Premise: Activities helping others => increase endorphin => well-being
Increase endorphin => increase longevity
Statistic: Those who help others : Live longer > Those who do not
(Assumption: Helping other => Increase longevity)
=> Conclude: Statistic will still be correct even if Assumption does not happen because

A. in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do. => This choice give other reasons for longevity. That is sex, not volunteering.

C. the feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are mild. => this choice truly does not relate
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New post 22 Mar 2012, 10:57
Vote for 'B'.

The argument states that the average age of adults engaged in volunteer activities is increasing because according to science helping others releases hormones that induce a feeling of well-being. These statistics would remain unchanged, i.e. the average age to volunteering adults would keep increasing, even if volunteering does not boot longevity because.....

A. in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do.- This is a very general statement which does not say that this trend of women volunteering would continue to rise.

B. the number of young adults who do regular volunteer work is on the increase- it supports the fact that the pool of volunteers is increasing therefore the average age in that pool would logically keep increasing, irrespective of whether women or men live longer.

C. the feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are mild. -The release of endorphin masks the symptoms but does not cure the disease, therefore cannot increase longevity.

D. it is rare for a person to keep up a regular schedule of volunteer work throughout his or her life.- Negative

E. Some people find that keeping a commitment to do regular volunteer work becomes a source of stress in their lives.- Negative
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Re: When people engage in activities that help others, their brain release [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2012, 11:54
Will vote for A

Logically complete the argument
P1- endorphins increases people’s longevity
Statistic conclusion
=> statistic ==> adults regularly engage in volunteer work helping others shows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer

(Here they are assuming that Release of endorphins is caused by volunteering)

P2 - statistic would be the same even if volunteering does notboost longevity because : - there should be someother reason for longevity other then volunteering

A. in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular
volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do.
->

B. the number of young adults who do regular volunteer work is on the increase
--> this will change the statistics

C. the feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask
the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are
mild.
--> this will change the statistics

D. it is rare for a person to keep up a regular schedule of volunteer work throughout
his or her life.
--> this will change the statistics

E. Some people find that keeping a commitment to do regular volunteer work
becomes a source of stress in their lives.
--> this will change the statistics

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Re: When people engage in activities that help others, their brain release [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2012, 16:53
A Statistic on adults who regularly engage in volunteer work helping others
shows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer. However,
that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not
boost longevity, because...

Which of the following most logically completes the argument??
The correct answer would support the statistic but challenge the cause

A. in the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular
volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do.
Yes.. as expresses agreement with the statistic that adults who volunteer live longer, yet challenges volunteering being the cause of this (Rather projects it as a coincidence).

B. the number of young adults who do regular volunteer work is on the increase
No. If the number of young ppl volunteering is rising, avg life span would rise but a difference between the volunteer group and non- volunteer group would then only be possible if % of young adults volunteering exceed the % not volunteering, This info is not provided. In the absence of which, it does not support the statistic

C. the feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask
the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are
mild.
No. Volunteering would then result in masking of symptoms and reducing life span, hence does not support the statistic

D. it is rare for a person to keep up a regular schedule of volunteer work throughout
his or her life.
NO. Volunteering would have no impact on longevity, (challenges the cause) without providing a rationality for the statistic.

E. Some people find that keeping a commitment to do regular volunteer work
becomes a source of stress in their lives.
No. Volunteering would then result in stress and reducing the life span, hence does not support the statistic

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Hi, there. I'm happy to help. :)

The prompt:
When people engage in activities that help others, their brain releases endorphins, the brain’s natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. It has been suggested that regular release of endorphins increases people’s longevity. And a statistic on adults who regularly engage in volunteer work helping others shows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer.

The core argument is: volunteering makes you live longer.

It makes an argument for this, citing the role of endorphins. Then, as further proof, it cites a statistics.

Then, the sentence about which you asked:
However, that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not boost longevity, because . . . .

Notice, the part I highlight in red is the exact opposite of the argument. It's saying --- that statistics, the statistic that was quoted as a form of proof for the argument ---- would be true even if the argument is false. In other words, if the true of the statistic is independent of the true of the argument, it isn't very good evidence for the argument.

So, that sentence is a big weakener --- in a way, it's strengthening the status of the statistic, but it's weakening the argument overall. It is taking away a piece of evidence that the argument claimed for support and saying, essentially --- that evidence is not related, it's what we would expect anyway, regardless of the argument.

If I cite X as evidence for my case, and someone else says --- yes, X is true, but X has nothing to do with your case --- then, even though they have affirmed X, they have weakened my argument because they have taken away support for it.

Does that make sense?

Here's another weakening question for practice.
http://gmat.magoosh.com/questions/1264
When you submit your answer to that, the next page will have the full video explanation. At Magoosh, each of our 800+ practice questions has its own video explanation. We also have 200+ video lessons, including lessons that will guide you in CR questions like this. As you may have noticed at the banner at the top of the page, Magoosh has a sale ending today, so today is a particularly opportune time to check it out.

Let me know if you have any further questions.

Mike :)
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New post 29 Mar 2012, 23:55
monikaleoster wrote:

I am not able to understand meaning of this line,Is it something which is weakening or strengthening the argument
However,
that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not
boost longevity, because ________________________


It means that
Release Endorphin may or may not cause -----> Longevity

as per A(Alternate reason) woman volunteers ----> Better Longevity ----> Better Longevity for volunteers.

Hence A is true.
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navi19 wrote:
I thought the study should fail... so thought of option B.. But then Mike sounds convincing... But still I dont get why A...


That's a good question. I'm happy to help. :)

Again, the prompt:
When people engage in activities that help others, their brain releases endorphins, the brain’s natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. It has been suggested that regular release of endorphins increases people’s longevity. And a statistic on adults who regularly engage in volunteer work helping others shows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer. However, that statistic would be what we would expect even if volunteering does not boost longevity, because ________________________

It's a tricky prompt, because we want something that would explain, for reasons independent of endorphins & the inherent benefits of volunteering, why folks who volunteer live longer.

(A) In the communities studied, women were much more likely to do regular volunteer work than men were, and women tend to live longer than men do.

If women volunteer more in this population, then of course they tend to live longer -- but that has to do with complex biological factors having nothing to do with volunteering. This is an excellent alternative explanation of why folks who volunteer would live longer.

(B) The number of young adults who do regular volunteer work is on the increase

These folks are completely irrelevant to the argument. The argument concerns competing explanations of the fact that folks who volunteer live long lives. If young people are volunteering, we have no idea how long they will live --- it's likely we will have to wait 1/2 a century or more to find out how long these young people live. The whole argument is about total length of life, so young people are, more than anyone else, most distant from the time when we know the total length of their lives. Does that make sense?

(C) The feelings of well-being induced by endorphins can, at least for a time, mask the symptoms of various conditions and diseases, provided the symptoms are mild.

This statement casts doubt on the argument that endorphins make you live longer, so it is a weakening in the general sense, but it ignores the question -- it says absolutely nothing about why folks who volunteer would live longer.

(D) It is rare for a person to keep up a regular schedule of volunteer work throughout his or her life.

This raises a possible statistical problem in the study, suggesting a reason why it might be hard to get strong evidence. In that sense, it may be a weakener in a general sort of way. The point is, though, the prompt cites a study in which they found conclusive evidence --- folks who volunteer live longer. Whatever the nature of the data was, we found evidence for that. The prompt question is about how to explain that, and (D) simply ignores that question.

(E) Some people find that keeping a commitment to do regular volunteer work becomes a source of stress in their lives.

This is an argument that volunteering might not be healthy and might even contribute to factors in an earlier death. In that sense, it's a general sort of weakener. Once again, like (C) &(D), it weakens the original argument but doesn't address the actual question being asked. The question is about alternate explanations of the fact that folks who volunteer live longer. Denying that fact does not work as an alternate explanation.

Does all this make sense? Let me know if you have any further questions.

Mike :)
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