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# when to repeat the foundation word in a set and when is it redundant

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Intern
Joined: 25 Jul 2017
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when to repeat the foundation word in a set and when is it redundant  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2019, 12:34
For example:

(1) The Kingdom requires its subjects to abide by its laws, adhere to its moral doctrine and pay taxes.
(A) to abide by its laws, adhere to its moral doctrine and pay
(B) to abide by its laws, to adhere to its moral doctrine and to pay

Here the answer is A, and B is eliminated because it's considered wordy to add "to" in front of each word

(2) Among the members of the company lauded for their notable effort were those from the Midwest division who were either actively involved in improving the customer service experience or developing new approaches to long term customer relationship management.
(A) in improving the customer service experience or developing new approaches to long term customer relationship management.
(B) in improving the customer service experience or in developing new approaches to long term customer relationship management.

Here A is wrong because it's not considered parallel because it's missing the "in" after the or and B is correct because it has the "in" after the or in "in developing"

Confused about this topic. When is it considered redundant and wordy and when is it considered required and considered not parallel without.
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Re: when to repeat the foundation word in a set and when is it redundant  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2019, 19:21
Hi jackdanielsb

In your first example, both are correct in terms of meaning and grammar.
Yes, the second had less words, so theoretically more concise, but this one never real GMAT. There must be something more worthy that this to eliminate a choice.

In the second example,
If you are focusing only on the verb "improving", presence or absence of "in" will be similarly correct and will both be parallel.

But if you looked at the sentence as a whole, you will find another verb competing with "involved in", which is "involved".
This causes an ambiguity, because the reader may be confused about the intended meaning of the sentence:

Is "developing" intended to be parallel to "improving"?? --> ... improving the customer service experience or developing new approaches.
Or "developing is intended to be parallel to "involved"?? --> the Midwest division who were involved in ... or (were) developing new approaches.

"In" is necessary to convey that "developing" is parallel to "improving" , not "involved".
so B is correct because of lack of ambiguity (besides parallelism)
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when to repeat the foundation word in a set and when is it redundant  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 05 Aug 2019, 10:49
You do not need to include multiple "to" to denote actions. Wordiness is one reason.

The second example is very different. Pay careful attention to the action word preceding the "in" word. It is "involved".

You have to be involved -in- something. So you need parallel structures to correctly match the action phrase. This you need to include the "in" in each separate phrase.

Wordiness is a secondary consideration to correct grammar.

Originally posted by Hovkial on 03 Aug 2019, 19:43.
Last edited by Hovkial on 05 Aug 2019, 10:49, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: when to repeat the foundation word in a set and when is it redundant  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2019, 09:40
Mahmoudfawzy83 wrote:
Hi jackdanielsb

In your first example, both are correct in terms of meaning and grammar.
Yes, the second had less words, so theoretically more concise, but this one never real GMAT. There must be something more worthy that this to eliminate a choice.

In the second example,
If you are focusing only on the verb "improving", presence or absence of "in" will be similarly correct and will both be parallel.

But if you looked at the sentence as a whole, you will find another verb competing with "involved in", which is "involved".
This causes an ambiguity, because the reader may be confused about the intended meaning of the sentence:

Is "developing" intended to be parallel to "improving"?? --> ... improving the customer service experience or developing new approaches.
Or "developing is intended to be parallel to "involved"?? --> the Midwest division who were involved in ... or (were) developing new approaches.

"In" is necessary to convey that "developing" is parallel to "improving" , not "involved".
so B is correct because of lack of ambiguity (besides parallelism)

Mahmoudfawzy83,

Thanks for explanation, is the parallelism marked in second sentence only due to correct idiomatic usage of "Involved in"
;Cause the subject is doing the action of involvement?
Director
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Joined: 27 Oct 2018
Posts: 803
Location: Egypt
GPA: 3.67
WE: Pharmaceuticals (Health Care)
Re: when to repeat the foundation word in a set and when is it redundant  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2019, 10:08
1
J2S2019 wrote:
Thanks for explanation, is the parallelism marked in second sentence only due to correct idiomatic usage of "Involved in"
;Cause the subject is doing the action of involvement?

I am not sure whether I understood your question, but I will try to answer it.

Idioms generally aren't related to parallelism; What requires the parallelism is the use of conjunctions or comparisons.
In our case, "or" requires us to ensure that both phrase arms are the same.
Some idioms are used for conjugation and comparison, such as "Not only , but also".
Re: when to repeat the foundation word in a set and when is it redundant   [#permalink] 05 Aug 2019, 10:08