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# Which of the following most logically completes the argument

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Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2009, 18:52
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Which of the following most logically completes the argument given?

People in isolated rain-forest communities tend to live on a largely vegetarian diet, and they eat little salt. Few of them suffer from high blood pressure, and their blood pressure does not tend to increase with age, as is common in industrialized countries. Such people often do develop high blood pressure when they move to cities and adopt high-salt diets. Though suggestive, these facts do not establish salt as the culprit in high blood pressure, however, because ________.
A. genetic factors could account for the lack of increase of blood pressure with age among such people
B. people eating high-salt diets and living from birth in cities in industrialized societies generally have a tendency to have high blood pressure
C. it is possible to have a low-salt diet while living in a city in an industrialized country
D. there are changes in other aspects of diet when such people move to the city
E. salt is a necessity for human life, and death can occur when the body loses too much salt

No OA for this, does anybody knows the OA?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2009, 19:23
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Which of the following most logically completes the argument given?

People in isolated rain-forest communities tend to live on a largely vegetarian diet, and they eat little salt. Few of them suffer from high blood pressure, and their blood pressure does not tend to increase with age, as is common in industrialized countries. Such people often do develop high blood pressure when they move to cities and adopt high-salt diets. Though suggestive, these facts do not establish salt as the culprit in high blood pressure, however, because ________.

A. genetic factors could account for the lack of increase of blood pressure with age among such people
B. people eating high-salt diets and living from birth in cities in industrialized societies generally have a tendency to have high blood pressure
C. it is possible to have a low-salt diet while living in a city in an industrialized country
D. there are changes in other aspects of diet when such people move to the city
E. salt is a necessity for human life, and death can occur when the body loses too much salt

No OA for this, does anybody knows the OA?

A: Not true. If it were true, those people would not develop the high blood pressure when they move to the cities.
B. Wrong: It doesnot complete the passage because salt is not the cause of high blood pressure.
C. Unrelated: The passage talk about the exposure of high-salt diets when people from isolated rain-forest communities move to the cities. So the possibility to have low-salt diet has noting to do with the low blood pressure.

D. If salt is not the reason for high blood pressure when people from isolated rain-forest communities move to the cities, then it must be the changes in other aspects of diet in causing high blood presure to such people..

E. Out of scope.

So D is it..
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2009, 05:55
IMO B.

I think it should be B. First I pointed to D but close look on stem revealed that “however” is placed before “because”.

So stem is “salt is not culprit”, however, because ~some reason that shows salt indeed causes High BP~
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2009, 08:44
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
IMO B.

I think it should be B. First I pointed to D but close look on stem revealed that “however” is placed before “because”.

So stem is “salt is not culprit”, however, because ~some reason that shows salt indeed causes High BP~

There is a big context switch in this Q.

It talks about salt's effects on people living in RF and then talks about salt's effects on people in IC

Then it says Salt is probably not the cause of High BP ( both for people from RF and moved to IC and who are in IC for ever)

Then what it is the cause. Lets say it is B, that people who have been living in IC for ever has been getting this and its the reason. It does not explain how people who just moved into the city and eating salt diets are getting High BP

So, IMO B is incorrect. D says there are other aspects that can cause this.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2012, 21:15
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On assumption that genes don't change when people move from one place to another, the argument tries to establish a causal relation

"Salt increase ==> BP increase"

This causal relation can be weakened if any answer option uses logical reasoning such as-

1. "something else increase ==> BP increase" [Alternate causal relationship]

2. "salt increase =/=> BP increase " (i.e. may be existing BP measuring machines don't measure accurately or say BP cannot be measured accurately on people originally from isolated rain forest) [Exposing flaw in causality]

These are two most frequently used tricks by which GMAT tries to weaken an argument. [1. Providing alternate causal relationship and 2. Exposing flaw in causality ]

Hope that will help in solving weaken-the-argument questions now.

And think why the OA is D.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2012, 03:44
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BP: Blood Pressure.

Premise 1: People in rain forest consume less salt in diet. Few people suffer high BP, but their BP doesn't increase with age.
Premise 2: People whose BP doesn't increase with age, increase when they move to industrialized countries.

Between P1 & P2, Below are changes.
1. Change in environment.
2. Change in amount of salt in diet.

one of them could be the reason behind raising BP.

Last statement in the argument says that salt is not the culprit. So, passage can be concluded by telling the reason behind this. Only Option (D) states that.
A. genetic factors could account for the lack of increase of blood pressure with age among such people. Its third factor brought by this answer. so, out of context.
B. people eating high-salt diets and living from birth in cities in industrialized societies generally have a tendency to have high blood pressure. It can be correct. but, passage can't end with this. Its should end with saying reason, why salt is not culprit behind the high BP.
C. it is possible to have a low-salt diet while living in a city in an industrialized country. It tries to tell that Salt raises the BP.
D. there are changes in other aspects of diet when such people move to the city. Its the answer justifying that, Change in environment is the cause of high BP.
E. Salt is a necessity for human life, and death can occur when the body loses too much salt. First, we don't know if this is correct. Secondly, extra information and knowledge can't be used to end the passage.

Source: Q 55 in OG 13(also present in OG 12)
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2014, 18:19
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2014, 00:59
People in isolated rain-forest communities tend to live on a largely vegetarian diet, and
they eat little salt. Few of them suffer from high blood pressure, and their blood pressure
does not tend to increase with age, as is common in industrialized countries. Such people
often do develop high blood pressure when they move to cities and adopt high-salt diets.
Though suggestive, these facts do not establish salt as the culprit in high blood pressure,
however, because ________.

General information about people in rain-forest communities: Diet and dieseases that dont bother them normally even with ageing.
The moment they move to cities, they often pick bp.
Key is the word: Deveop bp and though.

Conclusion is: Salt is not responsible for bp . This should have a premise that improves reliability of conclusion.
Thus, sentence after because bolsters conclusion that salt is not resposbile. Something else caused this.

A. genetic factors could account for the lack of increase of blood pressure with age
among such people == OFS: We are looking for reason for picking up bp . This gives opposite answer , the reason for not picking up bp.
B. people eating high-salt diets and living from birth in cities in industrialized
societies generally have a tendency to have high blood pressure --- OFS: This doesn't tell why settlers pick bp.
C. it is possible to have a low-salt diet while living in a city in an industrialized
country === Might be true: We dont know this.
D. there are changes in other aspects of diet when such people move to the city
==This is the correct reason suggesting that and strengthening conclusion that some other reason has caused the increase in bp.
E. salt is a necessity for human life, and death can occur when the body loses too
much salt
== Out of scope
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 15:11
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2016, 22:35
Hi

Please clarify the following sentence construction:

"Though suggestive, these facts do not establish salt as the culprit in high blood pressure, however, because"

What is the significance of however in this sentence? Does is says salt is the reason or is it the opposite?

Pranav
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2016, 08:41
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Expert's post
pranav6082 wrote:
Hi

Please clarify the following sentence construction:

"Though suggestive, these facts do not establish salt as the culprit in high blood pressure, however, because"

What is the significance of however in this sentence? Does is says salt is the reason or is it the opposite?

Pranav

"However" here is a contrast marker, and as a matter of fact redundant, because "though" already marks the contrast. If it were an SC sentence, it would probably be one of the wrong options.

Three ways to construct the sentence:

The facts suggest that salt is the culprit of high blood pressure. HOWEVER the facts do not establish the same.

THOUGH suggestive, the facts do not establish that salt is the culprit of high blood pressure.

The facts suggest that salt is the culprit of high blood pressure, BUT the facts do not establish the same.

Use of any 2 of the above 3 contrast markers (in upper-case letters) in a single sentence can be considered redundancy.
Re: Which of the following most logically completes the argument   [#permalink] 07 Oct 2016, 08:41
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