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Re: While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer [#permalink]
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mbaMission wrote:
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling - @ INGs are wrong...
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call not parallel
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call --- 2 simultaneous INGs are wrong
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling --Not parallel
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling
--- correct

Answer E for reasons marked in red !!!

Hope this helps.
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While some propose.......by attempting......, others suggest reducing......, and still others are calling.............

While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change
people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the
incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling - CORRECT
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OG 10. Q-160. OA: E. Period. (C and D are wrong)

OE:
Choice E, the best answer, uses constructions that are parallel to some propose', others suggest. . . , and
still others are calling .... Choices A and B immediately lose the parallel construction, and also produce
sentence fragments, by shifting to by suggesting ... and by calling .... Choice B starts like choice A and then
shifts back to the verb call, losing the parallel with the second part (by suggesting). Choices C and D correctly
begin the second part of the parallel by using suggest. Choice C, however, introduces the nonidiomatic for
decreasing, which creates some difficulty in meaning. Choice D loses parallel construction in the third part by
shifting to by calling.
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nevergiveup wrote:
15. While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.
(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling [BY suggesting and by calling]
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call [By suggesting and lacks verb after others]
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call [Reduction is parallel, no verb after others]
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling [Reduction and by calling]
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling [CORRECT]

I choose C as answer, but the OA is E. Please reply with explanation. Thanks.


This SC following some propose..others suggest..still others construction, parallelism, and passive mode.
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Re: While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer [#permalink]
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12bhang wrote:
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change
people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the
incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling

Though E is the correct answer, are all the elements really parallel?
"Some propose" is parallel to "others suggest". But, is "are calling " parallel to the other two. Should it not be call instead of calling?
Also, don't "attempting to change", "reducing software piracy" and "prosecution need to be parallel."
In choice E reducing software orices and attempting to change are verb forms but prosecution is an action noun.



A B C are not parallel at all

D is parallel until the end where we have by calling

E instead
Quote:
uses constructions that are parallel to some propose', others suggest. . . , and
still others are calling uses constructions that are parallel to some propose', others suggest. . . , and
still others are calling


regards
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Re: While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer [#permalink]
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CharuKapoor wrote:
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling



Another great question CharuKapoor! +1 again!

by suggesting in A & B doesn't work, so we immediately go to C,D,E.

for decreasing doesn't match with suggest, so we can eliminate C.

and still others by calling doesn't match with suggest and decrease, eliminate D

E is the answer and the only one left - suggest and to decrease are in parallel. and still others ARE calling, the verb phrase "are calling" here makes this a new independent thought that doesn't have to go back to the previous portion to match the parallelism. (I could be wrong about that last part though, it made sense in my brain. Don't judge me! :) )
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Brilliant answer Blulagoon, So in a general sense can we say that in terms of error precedence, meaning > idiomatic error > style error? Because a lot of times I land at at an impasse where there are 2 options, one having an idiomatic error and another having a style error. Moreover, i would like to know which one should we prefer amongst options A and B, if option A corrects a verb tense error (specifically, pertaining to the 'if...then...' rules) but is idiomatically incorrect (is that even possible?) and B corrects the idiomatic error but distorts the mood of the sentence. This doubt stems from the confusion that whether 'if...then...' rules are a part of style or grammar?
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nikhil.jones.s wrote:
Brilliant answer Blulagoon, So in a general sense can we say that in terms of error precedence, meaning > idiomatic error > style error? Because a lot of times I land at at an impasse where there are 2 options, one having an idiomatic error and another having a style error. Moreover, i would like to know which one should we prefer amongst options A and B, if option A corrects a verb tense error (specifically, pertaining to the 'if...then...' rules) but is idiomatically incorrect (is that even possible?) and B corrects the idiomatic error but distorts the mood of the sentence. This doubt stems from the confusion that whether 'if...then...' rules are a part of style or grammar?


in general I think the best way is to look for the meaning of the sentence. GMAT has evolved and majority of the questions are meaning based. Now meaning can be distorted commonly by modifiers, or incorrect comparison. So look out for those type of errors. after meaning look for grammar error. that's the source of other type of errors.In general over the years idiom errors are becoming less and less popular. I am not sure that you will have two options one with the correct tense and one with the correct idiom. generally a sentence will have multiple errors and you just have to pick the one that you can notice quickly and move on.
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While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling : In this complex sentence , the main clause is missing; Hence this is a fragment

(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call : same as A

(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call : reduction of software is less dynamic than reducing software prices; more importantly for decreasing is never acceptable for GMAT

(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling: Two problems 1. the reduction of and 2. suggest and by calling is no good parallelism

(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling : Good enough in the face of other faulty ones. Of course are 'are calling' doesn't look so elegantly parallel with' suggest'.
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The elimination for D is rooted in parallelism. The parallel structure you need to setup is: some propose...others suggest..., and still others are. In choice D you have the following: some propose...others suggest..., and still others by calling. You don't have a parallel verb setup with "others by calling" so you don't have a parallel setup and you can eliminate D. [Yes the lack of a verb here means this isn't a complete sentence]

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VinoGmat2013 wrote:
Rejected option A, and B due to parallelism errors, as suggest is parallel to propose.

Actually A and B have a big grammar issue. In English, all sentences must have at least one independent clause.

A just has a dependent clause: While some....

Think about it this way. Following is clearly an incorrect sentence:

While some propose to combat corruption by punishment, by change in law and by protests.

B uses and to to connect a dependent clause (While some..) and an independent clause (still others call...). In these situations, and (a coordinating conjunction) can only connect two independent clauses.

Again, think about it this way. Following is clearly an incorrect sentence:

While some propose to combat corruption by punishment, and others want change in law.

The usage of while makes the clause dependent and so, we cannot connect this dependent to an independent clause (others want change in law) using coordinating conjunction and. One way to fix this, would be to remove while (a subordinating conjunction) to convert the first clause also into an independent clause:

Some propose to combat corruption by punishment, and others want change in law.

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses the types of clauses, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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aadit1984 wrote:
In the below OG10 question, even though I was able to identify the right answer, I had a trouble placing why the option D is incorrect? is there any preference for using verb-ing - 'reducing' - over noun - 'reduction' - OR is there a problem with 'by calling'? when exactly do we use phrases such as 'by calling'?

While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people’s attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling


Here is my analysis:

Rejected option A, and B due to parallelism errors, as suggest is parallel to propose. Rejected option C as 'for decreasing' does not indicate intention, and 'to decrease' is a better choice as per the context. So, finally, I am left with D & E (I in my practice went for option E as it sounded better, and was less wordy than option D, but not 100% sure)

Thanks,
Aadi







Hi Aadi,

Thank you for posting your query here. :)


While we can say that option D looks wordier in comparison to option E. However, we have a more concrete error here to reject option D. Let us look at the sentence structure of Option D and Option E to find this error:

OPTION D

• While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people’s attitudes toward pirating, (Clause I)
others suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, (Clause II)
• and still others by calling for the prosecution of those (Clause III)
o who copy software illegally. (Clause IV)

Now, as we can see there is no verb for the subject “others” in the third clause.

OPTION E

• While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people’s attitudes toward pirating, (Clause I)
others suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, (Clause II)
• and still others are calling for the prosecution of those (Clause III)
o who copy software illegally. (Clause IV)

As shown above, this error has been rectified in Option E where the subject “others” has the verb “are calling”.

Hope this helps! :)
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ani781 wrote:

Hi Deepak,
Can you please enlighten me on how to decide if something is not a verb : e.g.
and still others by calling for the prosecution of those (Clause III)

'by calling' to me it seemed like a verb ...




Hi ani781,


When a verb is used in its "ing" form, it is always preceded by a helping verb such as is, am, are, was, were because the verb-ing form alone cannot act as a verb in a sentence. If there is a verb-ing form alone used in the sentence, it can be a modifier or a noun. To learn more about the functions of verb-ing forms please refer to the following article:

various-functions-of-verb-ing-words-158049.html



Hope this helps! :)
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daagh wrote:
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling : In this complex sentence , the main clause is missing; Hence this is a fragment

(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call : same as A

(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call : reduction of software is less dynamic than reducing software prices; more importantly for decreasing is never acceptable for GMAT

(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling: Two problems 1. the reduction of and 2. suggest and by calling is no good parallelism

(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling : Good enough in the face of other faulty ones. Of course are 'are calling' doesn't look so elegantly parallel with' suggest'.

Hi Daagh,

Although I understand why choice E is the correct answer, while initially attempting this question I went for choice A as I thought ellipsis was in play in the sense that the verb "propose to combat.." was implicitly applied to all parts of the list and therefore the second part was an independent clause and not a fragment. Can you please explain why that cannot be the case here?

Just to clarify, to me choice A read - "While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others [propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs] by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others [propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs ] by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally."

Thanks for the help!
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Dienekes wrote:
daagh wrote:
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling : In this complex sentence , the main clause is missing; Hence this is a fragment

(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call : same as A

(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call : reduction of software is less dynamic than reducing software prices; more importantly for decreasing is never acceptable for GMAT

(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling: Two problems 1. the reduction of and 2. suggest and by calling is no good parallelism



(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling : Good enough in the face of other faulty ones. Of course are 'are calling' doesn't look so elegantly parallel with' suggest'.

Hi Daagh,

Although I understand why choice E is the correct answer, while initially attempting this question I went for choice A as I thought ellipsis was in play in the sense that the verb "propose to combat.." was implicitly applied to all parts of the list and therefore the second part was an independent clause and not a fragment. Can you please explain why that cannot be the case here?

Just to clarify, to me choice A read - "While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others [propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs] by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others [propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs ] by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally."

Thanks for the help!


Your sentence is grammatically correct, but there is a problem with what the sentence means: How do you combat illegal copying? by suggesting to reduce or by reducing?.... by reducing of course.
.....again in the last part: how would you combat illegal copying? by calling for prosecution or by prosecuting?... by prosecuting of course.

In option A (which you have elaborated in your sentence), by attempting, by suggesting and by calling are parallel whereas the parallel elements should be by attempting, by reducing and by prosecuting.
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If anyone thought that this question involved mere parallelism, then it would be wrong. The element of sentence structure goes thick and thin in this topic along with parallelism.

This sentence starts with a subordinate conjunction while, indicating that this is complex sentence involving a subordinate clause and another main clause.

1. While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating --- subordinate clause.
2. others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating,-- this is part of the subordinate clause
3. and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally. –this is also another part of the sub clause.
One may note that the main clause is missing; therefore, A is incorrect.


Now there is a need to provide a main clause for the sub - clause to complete the grammatical structure of the complex sentence. Let’s see if other choices are helpful.

B. by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call –
The sub- clause can be spliced by only a comma from the main clause in a complex sentence and not by an ‘and’. The coordinating conjunction ‘and’ makes the complex sentence lose its basic structure and the conjunction ‘while’ turns infructious. Therefore, B is also wrong.

(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call -- suggest the reduction is not parallel to attempting- It should be attempting and reducing; Hence C is unparallel.

D. suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling – attempting, reduction are unparallel. In addition what follows 'and' is not an IC but a pharse, which is ungrammatical.

Now what is left?

E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling

This is a complex –compound sentence, wherein we have a complex sentence combined with another IC joined by ‘and’. The verb parallelism is limited to the two present tense verbs of the complex sentence namely propose and suggest, while the prepositional parallelism is maintained in by stating ‘attempting and reducing’. This is correct.
Of course to arrive at the correct choice is a tedious process and I deem that this as one of the toughest questions one may encounter.
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Re: While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer [#permalink]
mbaMission wrote:
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling



1. Between C and E, We need to use "To" to express intention. Is there any other differences that might make the option C
wrong?
2. What is the differences between "suggest the reduction of" and "suggest reducing software prices"?

3. "Some propose..., other suggest, and other are calling" Is it absolutely alright in terms of parallelism?
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