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# Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe

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Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Oct 2019, 03:01
Question 1
00:00

based on 43 sessions

70% (02:40) correct 30% (02:53) wrong

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Question 2
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based on 42 sessions

73% (00:55) correct 27% (01:33) wrong

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Question 3
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based on 46 sessions

36% (01:29) correct 64% (01:29) wrong

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Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract females by showing off-by attempting either to demonstrate sexual prowess or to intimidate rivals. A new study, however, suggests that males are actually submitting to a more genetic imperative. By displaying their most prized attributes or talents, hopeful males do the best they can to show off superior genetic qualities that lesser males cannot mimic.

Biologists at the University of Missouri conducted this new study by analyzing the mating calls of the gray tree frog Females have been shown to gravitate toward males whose calls last longest, and it has long been theorized that a male's lengthy mating call is linked to superior fitness and energy. Tree frogs were chosen for the experiment for two very important reasons. Since frogs fertilize their eggs externally, It is easy to trace the genealogy of each tadpole. Secondly, male frogs are utterly un-involved with raising their offspring. This allows the scientists to m address the “nature vs- nurture" conundrum directly by removing any chance that the tadpoles are “learning“ anything from their fathers Whatever strength or weakness the offspring displays, that characteristic must have been passed down through the father's genes.

To start the experiment, eggs were harvested from several females and then split into two groups. The first cluster was fertilized with the sperm of a tong-calling male, the second with that of a male whose call was demonstrably shorter. The scientists compared the progress of all tadpoles with different fathers but the same mother. Mating calls are strictly a male trait, so the biologists later planned to compare the mating calls of certain males with those of their male offspring. The results were astounding, The physical characteristics of all the male tadpoles were virtually identical at first. but within weeks the children of long-calling males grew into faster and stronger tadpoles who eventually would metamorphose into frogs much sooner than the offspring of short-calling males. Such a finding lends credence to the theory that calling is an honest and reliable indicator of genetic quality.

1. The primary focus of the passage is on which of the following?

A. supporting a new theory by providing a new explanation for an accepted mode of behavior
B. evaluating the results of two separate experiments and contrasting the relative merits of each one
C. pursuing evidence in the ‘nature vs. nurture“ debate
D. dismissing a current phenomenon as inconsistent with
common trends
E. embracing a new system of analysis that is likely to overturn much of today‘s accepted knowledge

2. According to the passage. which of the following is an accurate statement about the gray tree frog?

A. Females teach their offspring to fend for themselves In the wild.
B. Males are more energetic and physically fit than are females.
C. Mating calls are restricted to the males of the species.
D. Offspring acquire more of their genetic information from their mothers than from their fathers.
E. The mating call of the female is hardly distinguishable from that of the male.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the male tree frog?

A. It is now no longer prudent to assume that the length of a frog's mating call is linked to its sexual prowess.
B. Some females are attracted to long-calling males because of the quality of “parenting“ that these males can provide.
C. A male that exhibits a demonstrably shorter mating call is probably also betraying its physical inadequacy.
D. A study comparing tadpoles with the same father but different mothers would yield similar results.
E. A frog that is unable to sound a mating call will never reproduce.

Difficulty Level: 650 (111)

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Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 09 Oct 2019, 03:01, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (870).
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Re: Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe  [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2018, 06:49
5.5 mins, all true. Sometimes, reading the passage thoroughly works fine however for some passages I get lost if I insist on reading it thoroughly. This was one of the former. I don't know how to approach in general.
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Re: Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe  [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2018, 07:18
faltan wrote:
5.5 mins, all true. Sometimes, reading the passage thoroughly works fine however for some passages I get lost if I insist on reading it thoroughly. This was one of the former. I don't know how to approach in general.

Used to suffer with the same issue for months, somehow the eGMAT 7 key reading strategies for RC works perfectly, try it once, it may help you a bit...
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Re: Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe  [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2018, 07:21
1
"Such a finding lends credence to the theory that calling is an honest and reliable indicator of genetic quality."

The last line says that the mating calls are reliable indicators of genetic quality.
Q3 ans choice C : C. A male that exhibits a demonstrably shorter mating call is probably also betraying its physical inadequacy.

if a male is exibiting shorter calls then it is possible that the frog is not genetically stronger . where does "betraying its adequacy" come from?? also we are only given that females prefer stronger males but do we KNOW IN FACT that the weaker males dont mate?? I do not think "betraying their physical adequacy" is really an answer. It is an emotional inference. I would like to read the OE . IF the ans choice would have said that the "frog that exhibit short calls are not genetically stronger" this would be a right inference...but saying "BETRAYING their adequacy" is like a judgement and not GMAT STANDARD inference

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Re: Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe  [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2018, 07:28
1
Abhishek009 wrote:
faltan wrote:
5.5 mins, all true. Sometimes, reading the passage thoroughly works fine however for some passages I get lost if I insist on reading it thoroughly. This was one of the former. I don't know how to approach in general.

Used to suffer with the same issue for months, somehow the eGMAT 7 key reading strategies for RC works perfectly, try it once, it may help you a bit...

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Re: Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe  [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2018, 07:35
1
"Such a finding lends credence to the theory that calling is an honest and reliable indicator of genetic quality."

The last line says that the mating calls are reliable indicators of genetic quality.
Q3 ans choice C : C. A male that exhibits a demonstrably shorter mating call is probably also betraying its physical inadequacy.

if a male is exibiting shorter calls then it is possible that the frog is not genetically stronger . where does "betraying its adequacy" come from?? also we are only given that females prefer stronger males but do we KNOW IN FACT that the weaker males dont mate?? I do not think "betraying their physical adequacy" is really an answer. It is an emotional inference. I would like to read the OE . IF the ans choice would have said that the "frog that exhibit short calls are not genetically stronger" this would be a right inference...but saying "BETRAYING their adequacy" is like a judgement and not GMAT STANDARD inference

aragonn Abhishek009 DmitryFarber SaraiGMAT VeritasPrepBrian @anairamitch

I guess you are having difficulty comprehending the highlighted word

1. Betray = To reveal unconsciously (something one would preferably conceal) {Meaning as per Dictionary.com }
2. Inadequacy = The state or condition of being inadequate; insufficiency. {Meaning as per Dictionary.com }

Thus option (C) suggests that

A male that exhibits a demonstrably shorter mating call is probably also betraying (unconsciously revealing) its physical inadequacy.

Check paragraph 2, the following part hints the same -

Quote:
gray tree frog Females have been shown to gravitate toward males whose calls last longest, and it has long been theorized that a male's lengthy mating call is linked to superior fitness and energy.

Hope this helps now, if you are not sure about the correct Option the alternate strategy might be POE Approach...
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Re: Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe  [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2018, 07:48
1
Abhishek009 , thankyou for your response
The passage states that all the frog make sounds but females prefer longer calls.
Then the passage states that the long call is not a sexual prowess but a genetic ability
The passage later concludes that the calls are indicative of genetic superiority.

But "betraying the adequacy" is a judgment , I mean it is like saying "you are kidding your self"

Betray meaning as far as I know
: to be false to; to deceive ; to break someone's trust ; to be untruthful

A is more convincing
Reasons :
1) " Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract females by showing off-by attempting either to demonstrate sexual prowess or to intimidate rivals. A new study, however, suggests that males are actually submitting to a more genetic imperative"
-This tells us that the frogs are not actually displaying their sexual prowess (current belief) but are genetically inclined to do so...

2)the entire passage then supports the implication provided by the study . The research states that the frogs were actually genetically stronger and that is why some exhibit longer calls.

Option A: It is now no longer prudent to assume that the length of a frog's mating call is linked to its sexual prowess.
- prudent: wise/ sound; it is not wise to assume that length is actually a sexually prowess ,but it is a genetic phenomenon.

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Re: Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2019, 16:58
Took 6:34 min in total including 3:15 min to read the passage!

Passage Map:

1) New Theory
2) Study about frogs. 2 reasons for choosing frogs
3) Results of the study supporting the new theory
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Re: Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe  [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2019, 06:34
Got the last one wrong. Good passage but not a fan of the answer choices in the last question. If you don't interpret Choice C the correct way, you may think the answer choice is not supported by the passage. I chose A (best of the worst). Don't see such a question appearing on the GMAT regarding the intricacy of the last sentence of the passage. Not clear enough to get to answer choice C. Had C been re-worded, perhaps it may have been easier to spot. Just my opinion but would appreciate others' inputs.
Re: Within most animal species, the males must do their best to attract fe   [#permalink] 06 Feb 2019, 06:34
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