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Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are

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Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 04:55
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Project CR Butler:Day 10:Critical Reasoning (CR2)


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Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are often observed to be preceded by X, suggests that X, not Y, may be the cause of Z.

Which of the following further observations would best support the new report’s suggestion?


(A) In cases where X occurs but Y does not, X is usually followed by Z.

(B) In cases where X occurs, followed by Y, Y is usually followed by Z.

(C) In cases where Y occurs but X does not, Y is usually followed by Z.

(D) In cases where Y occurs but Z does not, Y is usually preceded by X.

(E) In cases where Z occurs, it is usually preceded by X and Y.

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Re: Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 05:24
Any scenario in which x in the absence of y results into z, will strengthen the argument.

A) correct


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Re: Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2018, 07:19
+1 Kudos to the posts containing explanations for all the choices.
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Re: Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2018, 07:33
Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are often observed to be preceded by X, suggests that X, not Y, may be the cause of Z.

Which of the following further observations would best support the new report’s suggestion?
Boil it down - X may be the cause of Z (Y might be just a correlation) and X precedes Y and Z.

(A) In cases where X occurs but Y does not, X is usually followed by Z. - Y is absent and the order is what was need - Correct

(B) In cases where X occurs, followed by Y, Y is usually followed by Z. - Incorrect - we can conclusively say Y DOES NOT cause Z here

(C) In cases where Y occurs but X does not, Y is usually followed by Z. - Opposite -- so Z can occur even in the absence of X and Y-->Z

(D) In cases where Y occurs but Z does not, Y is usually preceded by X. - Irrelevant

(E) In cases where Z occurs, it is usually preceded by X and Y. - Incorrect - does not help to zero in on the causality

Answer A
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Re: Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2018, 23:10
Bunuel wrote:

Project CR Butler:Day 10:Critical Reasoning (CR2)


For all CR butler Questions Click Here


Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are often observed to be preceded by X, suggests that X, not Y, may be the cause of Z.

Which of the following further observations would best support the new report’s suggestion?


(A) In cases where X occurs but Y does not, X is usually followed by Z.

(B) In cases where X occurs, followed by Y, Y is usually followed by Z.

(C) In cases where Y occurs but X does not, Y is usually followed by Z.

(D) In cases where Y occurs but Z does not, Y is usually preceded by X.

(E) In cases where Z occurs, it is usually preceded by X and Y.


Old Belief: Y --> Z

New Observation: X --> Y, Z

New Suggestion:
X --> Z
Y -/-> Z

We need the observation that strengthens that X, not Y, causes Z.

(A) In cases where X occurs but Y does not, X is usually followed by Z.
Perfect. When X occurs, but Y does not, often Z occurs. So it does seem to show that X, not Y, causes Z.

(B) In cases where X occurs, followed by Y, Y is usually followed by Z.
This could mean that X causes Y and then Y causes Z. But we are to conclude that X, NOT Y, causes Z. So wrong.

(C) In cases where Y occurs but X does not, Y is usually followed by Z.
This shows that Y --> Z. Wrong

(D) In cases where Y occurs but Z does not, Y is usually preceded by X.
It seems X does not cause Z in this case.

(E) In cases where Z occurs, it is usually preceded by X and Y.
Here either X or Y could cause Z. No conclusion.

Answer (A)
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Re: Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are   [#permalink] 20 Nov 2018, 23:10
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