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2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when

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2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2019, 07:05
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A
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C
D
E

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Question Stats:

75% (01:04) correct 25% (01:26) wrong based on 100 sessions

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2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when the company had lost $7.4 billion, which was primarily because of almost $7 billion in accounting charges.


(A) when the company had lost $7.4 billion, which was primarily because of

(B) when the company had lost $7.4 billion, primarily resulting from

(C) when the company lost $7.4 billion, primarily because of

(D) which is when the company lost $7.4 billion, and that was primarily because of

(E) which is when the company lost $7.4 billion, primarily resulting from

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2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2019, 07:56
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Bunuel wrote:
2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when the company had lost $7.4 billion, which was primarily because of almost $7 billion in accounting charges.


We can infer that Some automaker's company lost its money in 1992, we have some desctiptive infomation about its losses. Then this company also lost a lot of revenew in 2001, it was second time since 1992

(A) when the company had lost $7.4 billion, which was primarily because of
("when" correctly describes time period 1992, "which" cannot modify preceeding clause and present a reason, "had lost" is redundant, when we have clear indication of time period 1992, simple past tense will be enough)

(B) when the company had lost $7.4 billion, primarily resulting from
("when" correctly describes time period 1992, "had lost" is redundant, when we have clear indication of time period 1992, simple past tense will be enough, v-ing modifier "resulting from" - modifies preceeding clause, and gives reason for this losses, doer of the action of resulting is not the company, we need to present the reason for whole preceeding clause, hence v-ing usage is incorrect)

(C) when the company lost $7.4 billion, primarily because of
("when" correctly describes time period 1992, "lost" simple past tense fine, "because of" correctly represents reason for preceding clause, let's keep this answer so far)

(D) which is when the company lost $7.4 billion, and that was primarily because of
(here "which" is wrong to modify time period and redundant, "and" //ism marker, but we don't have anything to be // to "that was", also ,+and starts new IC, we just simply need some desctriptive information-reason for preceeding calsue, so depentend clause would be good)

(E) which is when the company lost $7.4 billion, primarily resulting from
(same error as described "which" and "resulting")
------
For more information about Past Perfect on GMAT Sentence Correction please see Mister Mike's explanation

For more information about Which Modifiers Sentence Correction please see Mister Ron's explanation

For more information about V-ing modifiers please see e-gmat explanation
-----

So (C) is the winner
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Re: 2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2019, 09:18
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2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when the company had lost $7.4 billion, which was primarily because of almost $7 billion in accounting charges.


(A) when the company had lost $7.4 billion, which was primarily because of --- The loss is just one event that happened in the accounting year under question and there is no other year in which loss was stated. Hence, there is no way we can use the past perfect. In addition, 'which' has a wrong referent in $7.4M.



(B) when the company had lost $7.4 billion, primarily resulting from -- same tense error as in A; in addition 'resulting from' is the wrong usage. When something results from a cause, the cause has to have happened earlier than when the result happens and not when it happens concurrently.


(C) when the company lost $7.4 billion, primarily because of ---the best choice

(D) which is when the company lost $7.4 billion, and that was primarily because of --- We don't refer timelines with which.

(E) which is when the company lost $7.4 billion, primarily resulting from---same error as in D in addition to the wrong context of 'resulting from'.

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Re: 2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2019, 09:53
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Let me start a new discussion on this topic. When did the loss actually occurred? Was it in 1992 or in 2001? I feel it was 2001 because the text says 2001 was the company's first year of losing. It cannot be 1992 as 1992 is not stated separately but is only part of a prepositional modifier 'since 1992', which denotes some starting point of time. However, in fact, there is mention only one year of losing.
All these factors point to the fact, 2001 was the year under loss.

This discussion is just for academic interest and may not affect the correct choice in the topic text under question.
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Re: 2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2019, 10:23
Hi!

Please can you explain why B is incorrect? Why ing modifier is incorrect?

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Re: 2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2019, 08:34
Hi SilvanaDD,

My 2 cents.

In B, I think the modifier " resulting from" is incorrect, because "comma + participle" must make sense with the subject, the company, of the modified clause.

Hope that help.
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Re: 2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2019, 22:21
Hi SilvanaDD, as ballest127 mentions, present participial phrases (resulting...) preceded by a comma modify the subject of the preceding clause.

Here, the subject of the preceding clause is company. Hence, option B nonsensically suggests that company resulted from almost $7 billion in accounting charges.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Past Participial phrases, their application and examples in significant detail. If you or someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: 2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when   [#permalink] 13 Mar 2019, 22:21
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2001 proved to be the automaker's first losing year since 1992, when

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