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A game of strategy, as currently conceived in game theory, is a situat

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A game of strategy, as currently conceived in game theory, is a situat  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Oct 2019, 05:32
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A game of strategy, as currently conceived in game theory, is a situation in which two or more “players” make choices among available alternatives (moves). The totality of choices determines the outcomes of the game, and it is assumed that the rank order of preferences for the outcomes is different for different players. Thus the “interests” of the players are generally in conflict. Whether these interests are diametrically opposed or only partially opposed depends on the type of game.

Psychologically, most interesting situations arise when the interests of the players are partly coincident and partly opposed, because then one can postulate not only a conflict among the players but also inner conflicts within the players. Each is torn between a tendency to cooperate, so as to promote the common interests, and a tendency to complete, so as to enhance his own individual interests.

Internal conflicts are always psychologically interesting. What we vaguely call “interesting” psychology is in very great measure the psychology of inner conflict. Inner conflict is also held to be an important component of serious literature as distinguished from less serious genres. The classical tragedy, as well as the serious novel, reveals the inner conflict of central figures. The superficial adventure story, on the other hand, depicts only external conflict; that is, the threats of the person with whom the leade (or viewer) identifies stem in these stories exclusively from external obstacles and from the adversaries who create them. On the most primitive level this sort of external conflict is psychologically empty. In the fisticuffs between the protagonists of good and evil, no psychological problems are involved or, at any rate, none are depicted in juvenile represents of conflict.

The detective story, the “adult” analogue of a juvenile adventure tale, has at times been described as a glorification of intellectualized conflict. However, a great deal of the interest in the plots of these stories is sustained by withholding the unraveling of a solution to a problem. The effort of solving the problem is in itself not a conflict if the adversary (the unknown criminal) remains passive, like Nature, whose secrets the scientist supposedly unravels by deduction. If the adversary actively puts obstacles in the detective’s path toward the solution, there is genuine conflict. But the conflict is psychologically interesting only to the extent that it contains irrational components such as tactical error on the criminal’s part or the detective’s insight into some psychological quick of the criminal or something of this sort. Conflict conducted in a perfectly rational manner is psychologically no more interesting than a standard Western. For example, Tic-tac-toe, played perfectly by both players, is completely devoid of psychological interest. Chess may be psychologically interesting but only to the extent that it is played not quite rationally. Played completely rationally, chess would not be different from Tic-tac-toe.

In short, a pure conflict of interest (what is called a zero-sum game) although it offers a wealth of interesting conceptual problems, is not interesting psychologically, except to the extent that its conduct departs from rational norms.

1)According to the passage, internal conflicts are psychologically more interesting than external conflicts because

A)internal conflicts, rather than external conflicts, form an important component of serious literature as distinguished from less serious genres.
B)only juveniles or very few “adults” actually experience external conflict, while internal conflict is more widely prevalent in society.
C)in situations of internal conflict, individuals experience a dilemma in resolving their own preferences for different outcomes.
D)there are no threats to the reader (or viewer) in case of external conflicts
OA:C


2) Which, according to the author, would qualify as interesting psychology?

A) A statistician’s dilemma over choosing the best method to solve an optimization problem.
B) A chess player’s predicament over adopting a defensive strategy against an aggressive opponent
C) A mountaineer’s choice of the best path to Mt. Everest from the base camp.
D) A finance manger’s quandary over the best way of raising money from the market.
OA:B


3)According to the passage, which of the following options about the application of a game theory to a conflict-of-interest situation is true?

A) Assuming that the rank order of preferences for options is different for different players.
B) Accepting that the interests of different players are often in conflict.
C) Not assuming that the interests are in complete disagreement.
D) All of the above
OA:D


4)The problem solving process of a scientist is different from that of a detective because

A) scientists study inanimate objects, while detectives deal with living criminals or law offenders.
B) scientists study known objects, while detectives have to deal with unknown criminals or law offenders.
C) scientists study phenomena that are not actively altered, while detectives deal with phenomena that have been deliberately influenced to mislead.
D)scientists study psychologically interesting phenomena, while detectives deal with “adult” analogues of juvenile adventure tales.
OA:C


Originally posted by RaviChandra on 13 Sep 2010, 22:57.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 21 Oct 2019, 05:32, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (1059).
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New post 13 Sep 2010, 23:03
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New post 15 Sep 2010, 19:28
For

2) Which, according to the author, would qualify as interesting psychology?
A) A statistician’s dilemma over choosing the best method to solve an optimization problem.
B) A chess player’s predicament over adopting a defensive strategy against an aggressive opponent
C) A mountaineer’s choice of the best path to Mt. Everest from the base camp.
D) A finance manger’s quandary over the best way of raising money from the market.

i useds stratergy as except B all other opions are similar in nature so i picked B. Is it ok to use such stratergy for solving RC
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New post 23 Sep 2010, 09:02
good one!

What is the source? quite long
it took me 8 minutes to digest it and 6 minutes to respond
С
B
D
B

Last one misleaded me.
I also struggled in 1st q between A and C.
Could anyone explaine me why A is incorrect and C correct?
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Re: A game of strategy, as currently conceived in game theory, is a situat  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2010, 09:39
1
Pkit wrote:
good one!

What is the source? quite long
it took me 8 minutes to digest it and 6 minutes to respond
С
B
D
B

Last one misleaded me.
I also struggled in 1st q between A and C.
Could anyone explaine me why A is incorrect and C correct?


First one is C, because try to negate the answers if you find the question to be tough.

A)internal conflicts, rather than external conflicts, form an important component of serious literature as distinguished from less serious genres.

This is saying internal conflicts are an important part of serious literature and thats why they are interesting, is it? NO

B)only juveniles or very few “adults” actually experience external conflict, while internal conflict is more widely prevalent in society.

This answer can be crossed out directly, internal conflicts are intresting because only juveniles(kids stuff) experience internal conflict? NO

C)in situations of internal conflict, individuals experience a dilemma in resolving their own preferences for different outcomes.

This actually makes sense, check 3 para, 2 line
What we vaguely call “interesting” psychology is in very great measure the psychology of inner conflict
This is explaining that what one considers interesting is a measure of a person`s internal conflict and so a reader can relate to that, this experience makes Internal C intresting.

D)there are no threats to the reader (or viewer) in case of external conflicts

No mention of this in the text.

My answers were
CBBC and 12 min. This passage is complex.
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New post 23 Sep 2010, 17:49
Nishant1984 wrote:
For

2) Which, according to the author, would qualify as interesting psychology?
A) A statistician’s dilemma over choosing the best method to solve an optimization problem.
B) A chess player’s predicament over adopting a defensive strategy against an aggressive opponent
C) A mountaineer’s choice of the best path to Mt. Everest from the base camp.
D) A finance manger’s quandary over the best way of raising money from the market.

i useds stratergy as except B all other opions are similar in nature so i picked B. Is it ok to use such stratergy for solving RC


Somehow my mind was remembeing the sentence "The effort of solving the problem is in itself not a conflict if the adversary (the unknown criminal) remains passive"...
So looking at the 2nd choice if the opponent is aggressive then it is a conflict....so chose B.
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New post 12 Nov 2010, 05:21
sameerdrana
Could you please explain the answer of the last question?
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New post 12 Nov 2010, 05:48
gchan0922 wrote:
sameerdrana
Could you please explain the answer of the last question?

4)The problem solving process of a scientist is different from that of a detective because
A) scientists study inanimate objects, while detectives deal with living criminals or law offenders.
B) scientists study known objects, while detectives have to deal with unknown criminals or law offenders.
C) scientists study phenomena that are not actively altered, while detectives deal with phenomena that have been deliberately influenced to mislead.
D)scientists study psychologically interesting phenomena, while detectives deal with “adult” analogues of juvenile adventure tales.

This was a tricky one and took most of my time! Actually my way to approach this was to use this excerpt as a clue
The effort of solving the problem is in itself not a conflict if the adversary (the unknown criminal) remains passive, like Nature, whose secrets the scientist supposedly unravels by deduction. If the adversary actively puts obstacles in the detective’s path toward the solution, there is genuine conflict. But the conflict is psychologically interesting only to the extent that it contains irrational components such as tactical error on the criminal’s part or the detective’s insight into some psychological quick of the criminal or something of this sort.
Next was to eliminate choices that donot suggest that detectives deal with situations that in turn can throw obstacles in their way. Clearly B,D can be eliminated.
A is a tempting choice but merely mentioning 'living ciriminals or law offenders' still doesn't suggest that they could obstruct detectives.C on the other hand says 'deliberately influenced to mislead' which is in line with the psychological conflict theme of the passage.
Hope that helps.
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New post 12 Nov 2010, 18:44
I think good always doesnt mean difficult....
After all question maker should always remember the scope and timing of exam.

I tried to solve it in 8 minutes(total) from what i have understood as in GMAT time matters but sad part of story is i only got 2/4
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