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A recent study found that snoring, though not common

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A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2017, 08:02
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Question Stats:

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A recent study found that snoring, though not common in either group, is more common among smokers than among nonsmokers. On the basis of this evidence, the author hypothesized that smoking by itself can induce snoring.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the author’s hypothesis?

(A) Stress induces both snoring and smoking in certain individuals.
(B) Obesity induces many individuals to smoke.
(C) Most snorers do not smoke.
(D) Most smokers do not snore.
(E) Both smoking and snoring cause throat problems.

Source: LSAT

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Re: A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2017, 09:50
broall wrote:
A recent study found that snoring, though not common in either group, is more common among smokers than among nonsmokers. On the basis of this evidence, the author hypothesized that smoking by itself can induce snoring.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the author’s hypothesis?

(A) Stress induces both snoring and smoking in certain individuals.
(B) Obesity induces many individuals to smoke.
(C) Most snorers do not smoke.
(D) Most smokers do not snore.
(E) Both smoking and snoring cause throat problems.

Source: LSAT


IMO C, this is cause and effect passage. To cast the most doubt, we should provide another possible cause.

C says that most snorers do not smoke, means that smoking is not the cause of snoring.

Waiting for OE.
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Re: A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2017, 11:23
I would say A... if stress causing snoring and smoking, then people smoking and snoring is caused by stress and not by each other
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A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2017, 05:10
A recent study found that snoring, though not common in either group, is more common among smokers than among nonsmokers. On the basis of this evidence, the author hypothesized that smoking by itself can induce snoring.

-- Because of the 'by itself', we need to find an alternate cause. A states an alternate cause. C/D are the same answer, so they are incorrect.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the author’s hypothesis?

(A) Stress induces both snoring and smoking in certain individuals.
(B) Obesity induces many individuals to smoke.
(C) Most snorers do not smoke.
(D) Most smokers do not snore.
(E) Both smoking and snoring cause throat problems.
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A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Oct 2017, 03:50
broall wrote:
A recent study found that snoring, though not common in either group, is more common among smokers than among nonsmokers. On the basis of this evidence, the author hypothesized that smoking by itself can induce snoring.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the author’s hypothesis?

(A) Stress induces both snoring and smoking in certain individuals.
(B) Obesity induces many individuals to smoke.
(C) Most snorers do not smoke.
(D) Most smokers do not snore.
(E) Both smoking and snoring cause throat problems.

Source: LSAT



Again its between A and D
Author says smoking can induce snoring . So most smokers should be snoring if not all.
If we received evidence that such was not the case then it would certainly weaken the argument.

D directly opposes the author , it says most smokers do not snore, then smoking cannot possibly induce smoking,in this the Author is directly contradicted .
A on the other hand gives an alternate reason for both and is not as strong as D.

Please provide OE how D is wrong.
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Originally posted by stne on 09 Oct 2017, 05:06.
Last edited by stne on 10 Oct 2017, 03:50, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2017, 05:22
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stne wrote:
Again its between A and E
Author says smoking can induce snoring . So most smokers should be snoring if not all.
If we received evidence that such was not the case then it would certainly weaken the argument.

D directly opposes the author , it says most smokers do not snore, then smoking cannot possibly induce smoking,in this the Author is directly contradicted .
A on the other hand gives an alternate reason for both and is not as strong as D.

Please can you provide OE how D is wrong.


Hi stne,

Let's analyze the question:

Here is the fist line of the question: "A recent study found that snoring, though not common in either group, is more common among smokers than among nonsmokers" -- D does not weaken this. D says that most people most smokers do not snore. But how does it compare non-smokers and snoring? It doesn't. This doesn't weaken our conclusion, it just gives a relative figure to it. Further, the argument's conclusion is that snoring can be induced by smoking ALONE. How does this statement weaken that point? It doesn't, once more. A gives an alternate cause, as you pointed out, so it directly refutes the conclusion.

I think you became confused with the premise and the conclusion.

Does this help?
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Re: A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2017, 18:21
nightblade354 wrote:
stne wrote:
Again its between A and E
Author says smoking can induce snoring . So most smokers should be snoring if not all.
If we received evidence that such was not the case then it would certainly weaken the argument.

D directly opposes the author , it says most smokers do not snore, then smoking cannot possibly induce smoking,in this the Author is directly contradicted .
A on the other hand gives an alternate reason for both and is not as strong as D.

Please can you provide OE how D is wrong.


Hi stne,

Let's analyze the question:

Here is the fist line of the question: "A recent study found that snoring, though not common in either group, is more common among smokers than among nonsmokers" -- D does not weaken this. D says that most people most smokers do not snore. But how does it compare non-smokers and snoring? It doesn't. This doesn't weaken our conclusion, it just gives a relative figure to it. Further, the argument's conclusion is that snoring can be induced by smoking ALONE. How does this statement weaken that point? It doesn't, once more. A gives an alternate cause, as you pointed out, so it directly refutes the conclusion.

I think you became confused with the premise and the conclusion.

Does this help?

Thanks nightblade354 for the explanation!

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Re: A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2017, 03:54
nightblade354 wrote:
stne wrote:
Again its between A and E
Author says smoking can induce snoring . So most smokers should be snoring if not all.
If we received evidence that such was not the case then it would certainly weaken the argument.

D directly opposes the author , it says most smokers do not snore, then smoking cannot possibly induce smoking,in this the Author is directly contradicted .
A on the other hand gives an alternate reason for both and is not as strong as D.

Please can you provide OE how D is wrong.


Hi stne,

Let's analyze the question:

Here is the fist line of the question: "A recent study found that snoring, though not common in either group, is more common among smokers than among nonsmokers" -- D does not weaken this. D says that most people most smokers do not snore. But how does it compare non-smokers and snoring? It doesn't. This doesn't weaken our conclusion, it just gives a relative figure to it. Further, the argument's conclusion is that snoring can be induced by smoking ALONE. How does this statement weaken that point? It doesn't, once more. A gives an alternate cause, as you pointed out, so it directly refutes the conclusion.

I think you became confused with the premise and the conclusion.

Does this help?


Thanks for your explanation
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Re: A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2017, 20:51
A recent study found that snoring, though not common in either group, is more common among smokers than among nonsmokers. On the basis of this evidence, the author hypothesized that smoking by itself can induce snoring.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the author’s hypothesis?

(A) Stress induces both snoring and smoking in certain individuals. -Correct. From the premise we know that "most" smokers/non-smokers don't snore. So among the remaining few people stress induces both smoking and snoring habit.
(B) Obesity induces many individuals to smoke. -Out of scope. The argument is about snore and not smoke.
(C) Most snorers do not smoke. -We already know this from the premise. This is just restatement of the aforesaid fact.
(D) Most smokers do not snore. -We already know this from the premise. This is just restatement of the aforesaid fact.
(E) Both smoking and snoring cause throat problems. -Out of scope. The argument is about snore and not smoke.
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Re: A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2017, 02:12
Hi,

I have gone through the explanations in the thread below, but still fail to understand the logic:

Option A: "Stress induces both snoring and smoking in certain individuals". Though this option provides a new source that induces snoring apart from smoking, but it does not say anything about people without stress but who smoke. What about these people do they snore or not?

Option D: "Most smokers do not sore". This directly deals with the conclusion. It presents a fact that is exactly opposite of the conclusion. Most smokers do not snore and hence smoking has not induced snoring in many people

Hence, shouldn't the answer be option D?

Thanks!
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Re: A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2017, 21:25
Novice90 wrote:
Hi,

I have gone through the explanations in the thread below, but still fail to understand the logic:

Option A: "Stress induces both snoring and smoking in certain individuals". Though this option provides a new source that induces snoring apart from smoking, but it does not say anything about people without stress but who smoke. What about these people do they snore or not?

Option D: "Most smokers do not sore". This directly deals with the conclusion. It presents a fact that is exactly opposite of the conclusion. Most smokers do not snore and hence smoking has not induced snoring in many people

Hence, shouldn't the answer be option D?

Thanks!

Yes, there are still smokers whose snoring cannot be blamed on stress, and without further information, we cannot say whether choice (A) actually disproves the author's hypothesis. However, it certainly weakens the author's reasoning. The author reasons that since snoring is more common among smokers, smoking by itself must be causing some people to snore. Choice (A) tells us that at least some of the smokers who snore are snoring because of stress not because they smoke. Perhaps if stress were not a factor, smokers and nonsmokers would be equally likely to snore. But because stress induces smoking AND snoring, the data, on which the hypothesis is based, is misleading.

As for choice (D), the conclusion is that smoking by itself can induce snoring. This does not say that smoking always or even usually induces snoring. Rather, it says that smoking, by itself, can induce snoring. The author's hypothesis does not require that most smokers snore. In fact, the passage even states that snoring is not common among smokers. This fact does not impact the author's reasoning, so choice (D) can be eliminated. As long as some smokers snore, the author's hypothesis is feasible.
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Re: A recent study found that snoring, though not common [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2017, 00:51
broall wrote:
A recent study found that snoring, though not common in either group, is more common among smokers than among nonsmokers. On the basis of this evidence, the author hypothesized that smoking by itself can induce snoring.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the author’s hypothesis?

(A) Stress induces both snoring and smoking in certain individuals.
(B) Obesity induces many individuals to smoke.
(C) Most snorers do not smoke.
(D) Most smokers do not snore.
(E) Both smoking and snoring cause throat problems.

Source: LSAT


PREMISES
Snoring not common among smokers or non-smokers
Snoring more common among smokers.
CONCLUSION
Smoking by itself can induce snoring.
This is a classic causation/correlation mistake. We know A is correlated with B, and the author assumes A therefore must cause B. Classic rebuttals to this are:
1) reverse causation: B might cause A
2) third party: C might cause both A and B
3) coincidence!

(A) nails the target by introducing a third party, stress, that could be responsible for causing both snoring and smoking, which would handily explain the correlation.

Not the Problem
(B) This doesn't explain the connection to snoring.
(C) The conclusion was only that smoking could induce snoring, not that it was the only possible way to induce snoring. If most snorers don't smoke, then their snoring is caused by something other than smoking, but that's okay - it doesn't damage the conclusion.
(D) We were already told this in the premise!
(E) Who cares what smoking and snoring cause, we want to know what causes THEM!
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Re: A recent study found that snoring, though not common   [#permalink] 13 Dec 2017, 00:51
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