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A South American bird that forages for winged termites and

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A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2005, 06:50
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A
B
C
D
E

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A South American bird that forages for winged termites and other small insects while swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees, but the graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are represented in virtually every kind of habitat.

A. graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are

B. graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is

C. graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that include more than 230 species and is

D. graveteiro, which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are

E. graveteiro, which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is

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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2010, 11:18
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Hey All,

I got asked to take this on, though it looks like many of you have already reached the correct endpoint. However, to clarify this issue:

Yes, the relative pronouns "that" and "which" always modify whatever they touch. What confuses some people is that some words get modified TWICE. When this happens, we really have no choice. Both modifiers can't touch the noun at once. For example:

The king of Russia, who is coming to town tomorrow, is fat.

In this example, "of Russia" is a prepositional phrase modifying "king". The relative clause "who is coming to town tomorrow" is ALSO modifying "king" (it clearly isn't modifying "Russia", because that wouldn't make any sense). So we would argue that it's actually modifying the entire modified noun "The king of Russia" (in which case, the rule still applies, because the modifier is touching the modifiee).

The sentence at issue here is exactly the same.

B. graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is

In this choice, the prepositional phrase "of New World tropical birds" is modifying "group". However, clearly it is the "group" and not the "birds" that includes 230 species. This means that the relative clause beginning "that includes more..." must ALSO be modifying "group", OR, you could describe it as modifying the entire modified noun "a group of New World tropical birds" (in which case, the rule still applies again, because the modifier is touching the modifiee).

Hope that helps!

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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2010, 21:17
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Tommy
Until I saw your post, I was convinced that generalization on "which" is hopeless - I couldn't generalize anything about the which "physical touch".

And I was following these rules about which
1. which can refer a noun (non living, animal but not human being)
2. which cannot modify a sentence / clause. To modify preceding clause use comma + ing
3. which without comma is fatal.
4. which may not physically touch the modifiee

See these sentences :
a canoe about twenty feet long and two feet wide, with small ribs and rails of cedar, which could carry four persons or eight hundred pounds ----> which modifies canoe.

A substance from the licorice plant, which was recently discovered to be 50 times sweeter than sucrose ---> which modifies "substance"

The Great Palace of Siam, which was built in 1250, is beautiful. ---> which modifies Great Palace

Straight one -
A newly developed jumbo rocket, which is expected to carry the United States into its next phase of space exploration, will be able to deliver a heavier load of instruments into orbit than the space shuttle can, and at a lower cost. ---> which modifies rocket.

But then your post -

The king of Russia, who is coming to town tomorrow, is fat. --->
it's actually modifying the entire modified noun "The king of Russia"


Kind of enlightening !
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2010, 09:18
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Hey Nusma,

Glad to help! And in your examples, you can see how the rule applies:


a canoe about twenty feet long and two feet wide, with small ribs and rails of cedar, which could carry four persons or eight hundred pounds ----> which modifies canoe. [This is because "a canoe" is already modified TWICE, by the prepositional phrase "about twenty feet long and two feet wide" and the prepositional phrase "with small ribs and rails of cedar". So we're still touching the ENTIRE modified noun.]

A substance from the licorice plant, which was recently discovered to be 50 times sweeter than sucrose ---> which modifies "substance" [This is because the prepositional phrase "from the licorice plant" is already modifying substance, so we're still touching the ENTIRE modified noun.]

The Great Palace of Siam, which was built in 1250, is beautiful. ---> which modifies Great Palace [Same as above!]

Sweet!

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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2010, 05:41
Hi Tommy,

Thanks for your clarification.

I wish to understand if there are two answer choices given for this question . which one will u choose and why

1) graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is

2) graveteiro, which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is

The only reason to ask this is that i wish to understand how important is which in these options or which can't at all be chosen as an answer choice.

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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2010, 00:14
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Hey Hirendhanak,

The problem with the second example is that the sentence never actually resolves (with a verb). Watch. Everything in brackets is a modifier...

[A South American bird that forages for winged termites and other small insects while swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees], the graveteiro, [which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is represented in virtually every kind of habitat].

See? We are now missing the actual verb that goes with the subject "the graveteiro". In the other answer choice, the verb "belongs" is a main verb, so it creates a full sentence. Does that make sense?

-t
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2012, 03:59
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A South American bird that forages for winged termites and other small insects while
swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees, the graveteiro belongs to the
ovenbird family,
a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230
species and that are represented in virtually every kind of habitat.

thus the reduced stem : A group THAT includes more than 230 species and THAT are represented in .................

The intent : The sentence reveals something about a Group = WHAT?

1. A group THAT..................includes more than 230 species

2. A group THAT..................are represented in every kind of habitat

A group ( SINGULAR ) ============== should pair with SINGULAR VERB

Vertical scan revals only B to fit :

B : A Group ........THAT INCLUDES........................AND.....................THAT IS represented = (Parallel & A group - Sin pairs perfectly with Sing verbs includes & IS )
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2012, 06:08
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B is correct .A group is always singular .I am not sure whether the rule you have mentioned is correct.Where did you come across it .?
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2012, 08:21
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There is a simple way to look at it. D and E are instant untouchables because they are fragments. Among A, B and C,

A. graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are--- that includes and that are - one is singular verb and for the same pronoun , the other noun is plural; - A classic S-V mismatch. Drop m


B. graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is – that includes and that is – both are singular; keep it


C. graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that include more than 230 species and is--- A group that include - plural verb ) and is ( singular) ; both not in tandem --in addition that is missing leading un//ism drop
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2014, 23:39
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A South American bird that forages for winged termites and other small insects while swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees, the graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are represented in virtually every kind of habitat.

, the graveteiro (with comma) is our main enemy here. :evil: It confuses us to determine the main verb of the whole sentence! :twisted: If we take a look at the sentence once more without , the graveteiro here what it looks like :P :

A South American bird that forages for winged termites and other small insects while swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are represented in virtually every kind of habitat.

So the sentence above is clearer. If we try once more removing the , the graveteiro :x on the choices

A. belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are

B. belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is

C. belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that include more than 230 species and is

D. , which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are

E. , which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is


Now, through correct comprehension that the main verbs are belongs and is represented

Quote:
A bird [belongs to the family, a group that (includes species)] and [is represented].


We know that these comprehensions are wrong: :lol:
1. a group is represented
2. tropical birds include
.... sounds really funny here :lol: It's like saying "Birds are including humans."

So now we are between B and C with s-v agreement issues. :?:

Hence, B. :o
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2014, 04:04
A South American bird that forages for winged termites and other small insects while swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees, the graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are represented in virtually every kind of habitat.

, the graveteiro (with comma) is our main enemy here. :evil: It confuses us to determine the main verb of the whole sentence! :twisted: If we take a look at the sentence once more without , the graveteiro here what it looks like :P :

A South American bird that forages for winged termites and other small insects while swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are represented in virtually every kind of habitat.

So the sentence above is clearer. If we try once more removing the , the graveteiro :x on the choices

A. belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are

B. belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is

C. belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that include more than 230 species and is

D. , which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and that are

E. , which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is


Now, through correct comprehension that the main verbs are belongs and is represented

Quote:
A bird [belongs to the family, a group that (includes species)] and [is represented].


We know that these comprehensions are wrong: :lol:
1. a group is represented
2. tropical birds include
.... sounds really funny here :lol: It's like saying "Birds are including humans."

So now we are between B and C with s-v agreement issues. :?:

Hence, B. :o
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2015, 06:40
In option E

graveteiro, which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that
includes more than 230 species and is

which - refers to graveteiro.
a group of - refers to graveteiro.

Grammatically too, it make sense to me. Can someone help me here with my understanding and way of approaching?
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2015, 07:20
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alokkumargupta wrote:
In option E

graveteiro, which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that
includes more than 230 species and is

which - refers to graveteiro.
a group of - refers to graveteiro.

Grammatically too, it make sense to me. Can someone help me here with my understanding and way of approaching?

In option E, if we notice the structure of the sentence, the sentence with option E does not have any Independent clause (in other words, there is no main verb in the sentence). So, option E is not a sentence at all. Let’s look at the structure more closely. With option E, the sentence is:

A South American bird that forages for winged termites and other small insects while swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees, the graveteiro, which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is represented in virtually every kind of habitat.

By deconstructing the sentence:

Phrase (<A South American bird>) Dependent clause (<that forages for winged termites and other small insects while swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees >), Phrase (<the graveteiro>), Dependent clause (<which belongs to the ovenbird family>), Phrase (<a group of New World tropical birds>) Dependent clause (<that includes more than 230 species and is represented in virtually every kind of habitat>).

As we see, there is no Independent clause in this sentence. Hence, it is incorrect.

On the other hand, option B has an Independent clause: graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Dependent/Independent clauses, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2016, 03:01
Quote:
A South American bird that forages for winged termites and other small insects while swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees, the graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is represented in virtually every kind of habitat.


Here is the intended meaning:
..... a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is represented in virtually every kind of habitat. (is represented refers to group)

But you can take a look at the sentence from a different perspective:
..... the graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family..... and is represented in virtually every kind of habitat. (is represented refers to the graveteiro)

Although the grammar is correct in both cases, but the meaning is totally different.
What is wrong with the second case and how to avoid such ambiguities?
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2016, 10:26
AndreiGMAT wrote:
Quote:
A South American bird that forages for winged termites and other small insects while swinging upside down form the foliage of tall trees, the graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is represented in virtually every kind of habitat.


Here is the intended meaning:
..... a group of New World tropical birds that includes more than 230 species and is represented in virtually every kind of habitat. (is represented refers to group)

But you can take a look at the sentence from a different perspective:
..... the graveteiro belongs to the ovenbird family..... and is represented in virtually every kind of habitat. (is represented refers to the graveteiro)

Although the grammar is correct in both cases, but the meaning is totally different.
What is wrong with the second case and how to avoid such ambiguities?


We should always try to maintain the original meaning of the sentence. That is the key rule.
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2018, 00:24
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Hmm..
A and D are eliminated straight away
c is a trap
I have a small doubt in eliminating choice E.
I was down to 2 options B and E;
I have eliminated E because Which is a non essential modifier. So we read the sentence as

graveteiro, which belongs to the ovenbird family, a group of New World tropical
birds that includes more than 230 species and is


Now , group in the sentence is referring to graveteiro which is not the correct reference!.


Please correct me if my thought process is wrong.
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2019, 16:08
I had a question regarding C. If it said "A group of birds that include more than 230 species and that are" that would be correct, right? Since that points to birds.

If this question were to appear on the test and the example I listed above appeared vs Answer Choice B, which one would be correct?
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2019, 17:53
kchen1994 wrote:
I had a question regarding C. If it said "A group of birds that include more than 230 species and that are" that would be correct, right? Since that points to birds.

If this question were to appear on the test and the example I listed above appeared vs Answer Choice B, which one would be correct?

Actually, the version you suggested would not be correct, because it is not the birds that include species, it's the group that includes species. So, you need the singular "includes" and "is."

Further, you don't need a second "that" in this situation. You need to repeat "that" in constructing a list only in certain cases, such as when the later elements of a list are complete clauses.

OK, so here is the correct version:

a group of birds that includes more than 230 species and is

Of all things, the correct version = version B.
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2019, 04:16
Hi! I have a query about this question.

How did we right away eliminate D and E?
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2019, 04:19
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I got the right answer by following the clues, but I am super confused by the "but" behind the comma, is that really correct?
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Re: A South American bird that forages for winged termites and   [#permalink] 23 May 2019, 04:19

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