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# A theory is either true or false. Galileo's observations of

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Re: A theory is either true or false. Galileo’s observations of Jupiter’s  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 10 May 2017, 10:14
A theory is either true or false. Galileo’s observations of Jupiter’s satellites showed that the Ptolemaic theory of the motion of celestial bodies is false. Therefore, since the Copernican theory of planetary motion is inconsistent with the Ptolemaic account,Galileo’s observations of Jupiter’s satellites proved the truth of the Copernican theory.The argument above is open to the objection that it makes the questionable assumption
that
A. whoever first observed something inconsistent with the truth of the Ptolemaic theory should be credited with having proved that theory false
B. there are some possible observations that would be inconsistent with the account given by the Copernican theory but consistent with the account given by the Ptolemaic theory
C. the Ptolemaic and Copernican theories, being inconsistent, cannot both be based on exactly the same evidence
D. numerous counterexamples were necessary in order to show the Ptolemaic theory to be false
E. the Ptolemaic and Copernican theories, being inconsistent, cannot both be false

Explaination :-

Two boys who are blind are also hungry.
In front of them is an apple, a stone and a wooden ball
A King is present as a judge.
If the boy touches the apple the king will give him the apple.
If the boy touches the stone the king will give him the stone.
If the boy touches the stone the wood will give him the wood.

How many options for each boy :- 3 options
1) Apple
2) Stone
3) Wood.

First boy moves his hand and touches the APPLE . His hunger is satisfied= YES.
Second boy put his hand and touches the STONE. His hunger is satisfied= NO (after eating the apple off course)

First boy moves his hand and touches the STONE. His hunger is satisfied= False.
Second boy put his hand and touches the WOOD . His hunger is satisfied= False

The theory has how many options - 3 Options
1) Either Approved as true
2) Or Rejected as false
3) Or Not enough data to accept or reject.

Ptolemaic is first blind boy. He gets a stone
Copernicius is second blind boy. He may get the apple or the wood.

Galileo is the king who is seeing the precedings.

Can both boys get non edible wood and stone:- Yes ===> Can both Ptolemaic and Copernican be FALSE :- Yes

NOW WHAT DOES THE AUTHORS ASSUMES -
THAT PLOLEMAIC THEORY WAS FALSE, THEREFORE COPERNICIUS THOERY MUST BE CORRECT.
THAT BOY 1 GOT STONE THEREFORE BOY 2 WILL DEFINITELY GET APPLE.

WHAT IS QUESTIONABLE IN THIS ASSUMPTIONS :----> WELL !! THE SECOND BOY CAN GET WOOD .. MEANING BOTH THEORIES CAN BE INCORRECT.

What option matches our line of thinking-
OPTION E ) The Ptolemaic and Copernican theories, being inconsistent, CANNOT BOTH be false.

(THEY CAN BE FALSE ..... HENCE THIS IS OBJECTIONABLE )

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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 12 Jun 2016, 03:59.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 10 May 2017, 10:14, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: A theory is either true or false. Galileo’s observations of Jupiter’s  [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2017, 11:31
experts can you help with the explanation for the OA ?
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Re: A theory is either true or false. Galileo’s observations of Jupiter’s  [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2017, 02:27
So this is an assumption/ strengthen question, right?

At first, I just thought this was a weaken type, then I was stuck...
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Re: A theory is either true or false. Galileo’s observations of Jupiter’s  [#permalink]

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23 Apr 2017, 12:16
1
Lucy Phuong,
Quote:
So this is an assumption/ strengthen question, right?

At first, I just thought this was a weaken type, then I was stuck...

Yes, we are looking for a questionable assumption that the argument makes. The author states that "the Ptolemaic theory of the motion of celestial bodies is false" and that "the Copernican theory of planetary motion is inconsistent with the Ptolemaic account". Since "a theory is either true or false", the author concludes that the Copernican theory must be true. According to the author, since the Ptolemaic theory is false and the Copernican theory is inconsistent with the false Ptolemaic theory, the Copernican theory must be true. But this reasoning fails to consider the possibility that the Ptolemaic theory and the Copernican theory are BOTH false, a scenario that satisfies the given condition that a theory is either true or false. In other words, just because the theories are different, does not mean that one is false and one is true; it is possible for both theories to be false, even if those theories are different from one another.
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Re: A theory is either true or false. Galileo's observations of  [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2018, 17:30
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Re: A theory is either true or false. Galileo's observations of   [#permalink] 13 Sep 2018, 17:30

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