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After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio

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After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 May 2019, 11:40
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 59, Date : 02-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacious, economic perspective took hold. Based on the United States’ successful emergence from the Depression, the idea that war was good for an economy became fashionable. However, linking the United States economic recovery with its entry into World War II is a prime example of flawed economic thinking.

Supporters of the war benefits economy theory hold that a country at war is a country with a booming economy. Industry must produce weapons, supplies, food, and clothing for the troops. The increased production necessitates the hiring of more people, reducing unemployment. More employment means more money in the pockets of citizens, who are then likely to go out and spend that money, helping the retail sector of the economy. Retail shops experience an increase in business and may need to hire more workers, further reducing unemployment and adding to the economic momentum. While this scenario sounds good in theory, it does not accurately represent what truly happens in a war time economy.

In reality, the government can fund a war in a combination of three ways. It can raise taxes, cut spending on other areas, or increase the national debt. Each of these strategies has a negative impact on the economy. An increase in taxes takes money out of an individual’s hands, leading to a reduction in consumer spending. Clearly, there is no net benefit to the economy in that case. Cutting spending in other areas has its costs as well, even if they are not as obvious. Any reduction in government spending means the imposition of a greater burden on the benefactors of that government spending. Cutbacks in a particular program mean that the people who normally depend on that program now must spend more of their money to make up for the government cuts. This also takes money out of consumers’ hands and leaves the economy depressed. Of course, a government could go into debt during the war, but such a strategy simply means that at some point in the future, taxes must be increased or spending decreased. Plus, the interest on the debt must be paid as well.

1. The “pervasive…economic perspective” mentioned in line 1 took hold because

A. observers took the appearance of one phenomenon with another to indicate that one caused the other
B. the U.S. would not have emerged from the Depression had it not entered World War II
C. the booming economy during wartime created thousands of jobs in the U.S.
D. most people are not trained to think in economic terms
E. economists confused an event that was necessary for an outcome to occur with one that is merely sufficient to bring about that outcome


2. Which of the following situations best mirrors the effect that cutting spending in government programs has, as detailed in the passage?

A. Government cutbacks on public works maintenance lead to a deterioration of roads, which creates more work for private construction firms.
B. A decrease in the federal education budget causes certain schools to close, which forces families to send their children to schools that are farther away.
C. A federal decrease in unemployment payments causes some individuals who would otherwise remain on unemployment to seek jobs.
D. Government cuts in housing subsidies results in fewer houses being built.
E. A reduction in the federal spending on food safety inspections leads to a rash of illnesses and an increase in the amount of money spent on medicine.


3. The passage implies which of the following about a government that funds a war by increasing the national debt?

A. It is no worse off than it would be funding a war by cutting spending or increasing taxes.
B. The initial costs it incurs are less than with the other two methods, but the future costs are greater.
C. It must increase taxes in order to pay off the interest on the debt.
D. If the government does not increase taxes or decrease spending, its economy will not recover.
E. It receives a net benefit to the economy greater than it would achieve with either of the other two methods.


4. The second paragraph of the passage performs which of the following functions?

A. It describes the common economic benefits of a wartime economy.
B. It provides the background information necessary to understand the information in the third paragraph.
C. It explains what happened to the United States’ economy during World War II.
D. It presents a possible objection to the author’s main thesis.
E. It helps explain why individuals might hold the viewpoint presented in the first paragraph.



Source: McGraw Hills GMAT 2013 (112-123)
Difficulty Level: 650

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 20 Jun 2018, 11:42.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 15 May 2019, 11:40, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 18:25
Can anyone explain the answer of Q2.. thanks in advance

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Re: After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 23:12
2
Hello and Welcome

Official Explanation


2. Which of the following situations best mirrors the effect that cutting spending in government programs has, as detailed in the passage?

Explanation

This is an apply information question.You have to see what the passage says about cutting spending, then match that information with one of the answers. According to the passage,“Cutbacks in a particular program mean that the people who normally depend on that program now must spend more of their money to make up for the government cuts.” Answer choice E matches this. Cutbacks in food safety inspection lead to illnesses and people have to spend money they would otherwise not have to in order to compensate. Choice A seems to indicate private construction companies would benefit from the cutbacks, which is not what the passage says. Choice B is close, but it doesn’t say that sending the children to a different school costs people more money. Choice C also seems to detail a potential benefit. Choice D says fewer houses are built but it doesn’t indicate how people have to spend more money to compensate.

Answer: E


Hope it Helps

raveesh1203 wrote:
Can anyone explain the answer of Q2.. thanks in advance

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Re: After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2018, 07:17
Hello SajjadAhmad,

Could you please explain the answer to the question number 3.
Why C can't be the answer?

Thanks,
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Re: After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2018, 11:28
1
jackspire wrote:
Hello SajjadAhmad,

Could you please explain the answer to the question number 3.
Why C can't be the answer?

Thanks,
Jackspire


Because the passage mentions "taxes must be increased or spending decreased". So, as in C, specifying that govt. must increase taxes is same as presenting one of the 2 ways as the only way- incorrect.
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Re: After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2018, 16:15
Hello SajjadAhmad,

Can you please explain why #4 is not D? Thanks in advance!
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Re: After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2018, 23:29
Hello gotcha9350 Here is explanation of Q#4

Official Explanation


4. The second paragraph of the passage performs which of the following functions?

Explanation

This is a logical structure question. The second paragraph describes why people might believe war is good for an economy. Choice A doesn’t work because the paragraph doesn’t describes what happens during a war, it describe what happens in “theory.” Choice B is incorrect because the information is not “necessary” to understand the third paragraph. Choice C is no good because the paragraph isn’t even about the US economy. Choice D doesn’t work because the author isn’t describing an objection; he is describing what people believe happens during war.

Answer E

Hope it helps

gotcha9350 wrote:
Hello SajjadAhmad,

Can you please explain why #4 is not D? Thanks in advance!

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New post 12 Jul 2018, 23:39
2
Hi jackspire

Here it is.

Official Explanation


3. The passage implies which of the following about a government that funds a war by increasing the national debt?

Explanation

This is an inference question. You can find the answer in the final paragraph, where the author says “Of course, a government could go into debt during the war, but such a strategy simply means that at some point in the future, taxes must be increased or spending decreased. Plus, the interest on the debt must be paid as well.” Choice A is the opposite of what the passage states—going into debt means not only will the government have to deal with the problems associated with increasing taxes or cutting spending, but it must also pay the interest on the debt. Choice B is a better answer. In the short term, the government doesn’t have the problems associated with the other two solutions, but must face those problems, plus interest payments, in the future. Choice C goes too far because it is not clear that a government “must” increase taxes.The passage says spending could be decreased. Choice D makes an extreme and unsupported claim because the author doesn’t say the economy “will not recover” unless certain actions are taken. Choice E is similar to A and is incorrect based on the information in the passage.

Answer: B

Hope it helps


jackspire wrote:
Hello SajjadAhmad,

Could you please explain the answer to the question number 3.
Why C can't be the answer?

Thanks,
Jackspire

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New post 02 Mar 2019, 06:32
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Re: After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2019, 06:17
2
Q1-
A is the most relevant answer as the passage says-'the idea that war was good for an economy became fashionable'. this shows that observers took the appearance of one phenomenon with another to indicate that one caused the other

Rest all are irrelevant.

Q2-
This is not a direct question,we need to really understand the passage to answer this.
As per passage-'Any reduction in government spending means the imposition of a greater burden on the benefactors of that government spending. Cutbacks in a particular program mean that the people who normally depend on that program now must spend more of their money to make up for the government cuts. This also takes money out of consumers’ hands and leaves the economy depressed'

Let us analyse all choices-

A-Government cutbacks on public works maintenance lead to a deterioration of roads, which creates more work for private construction firms.
This is not taking money out of consumers' hands due to government cutbacks. Wrong choice. Eliminate.

B- A decrease in the federal education budget causes certain schools to close, which forces families to send their children to schools that are farther away.
If the option said that this forces people to spend more money on education, this would have been correct. But it is saying that people have to send children farther away. Irrelevant. Eliminate B

C-A federal decrease in unemployment payments causes some individuals who would otherwise remain on unemployment to seek jobs.
Irrelevant. Eliminate.

D-Government cuts in housing subsidies results in fewer houses being built.
Again irrelevant. Eliminate.

E-A reduction in the federal spending on food safety inspections leads to a rash of illnesses and an increase in the amount of money spent on medicine.
This is directly taking money out of peoples' hands. Therefore this is the correct answer.

Q3-
The passage says-' Of course, a government could go into debt during the war, but such a strategy simply means that at some point in the future, taxes must be increased or spending decreased. Plus, the interest on the debt must be paid as well.' Let us now analyse options.

A-It is no worse off than it would be funding a war by cutting spending or increasing taxes.
Irrelevant. The passage does not talk about any such thing.

B-The initial costs it incurs are less than with the other two methods, but the future costs are greater.
Since this choice has some future implications, keep this choice for now (though not the possible best answer,this is the best answer among the answer choices)

C,D,E are also irrelevant.

Therefore only B remains as the answer.

Q4-
E is the obvious answer (also all other choices are completely wrong)
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Re: After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 06:19
SajjadAhmad wrote:
raveesh1203 wrote:
Can anyone explain the answer of Q2.. thanks in advance

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Hello and Welcome

Q. No 2

Answer: E

Explanation

This is an apply information question.You have to see what the passage says about cutting spending, then match that information with one of the answers.According to the passage,“Cutbacks in a particular program mean that the people who normally depend on that program now must spend more of their money to make up for the government cuts.” Answer choice E matches this. Cutbacks in food safety inspection lead to illnesses and people have to spend money they would otherwise not have to in order to compensate. Choice A seems to indicate private construction companies would benefit from the cutbacks, which is not what the passage says. Choice B is close, but it doesn’t say that sending the children to a different school costs people more money. Choice C also seems to detail a potential benefit. Choice D says fewer houses are built but it doesn’t indicate how people have to spend more money to compensate.

Hope it Helps


Hi,
I marked D along the same line of thought.
“Cutbacks in a particular program mean that the people who normally depend on that program now must spend more of their money to make up for the government cuts.”
Option D talks about subsidized rates, which is a sort of funding and if that stops, people will need to spend more.
Option E talks about food safety inspection.

Any thoughts?

Thanks.
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Re: After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 06:55
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Doer01 wrote:
SajjadAhmad wrote:
raveesh1203 wrote:
Can anyone explain the answer of Q2.. thanks in advance

Sent from my Lenovo K33a42 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app


Hello and Welcome

Q. No 2

Answer: E

Explanation

This is an apply information question.You have to see what the passage says about cutting spending, then match that information with one of the answers.According to the passage,“Cutbacks in a particular program mean that the people who normally depend on that program now must spend more of their money to make up for the government cuts.” Answer choice E matches this. Cutbacks in food safety inspection lead to illnesses and people have to spend money they would otherwise not have to in order to compensate. Choice A seems to indicate private construction companies would benefit from the cutbacks, which is not what the passage says. Choice B is close, but it doesn’t say that sending the children to a different school costs people more money. Choice C also seems to detail a potential benefit. Choice D says fewer houses are built but it doesn’t indicate how people have to spend more money to compensate.

Hope it Helps


Hi,
I marked D along the same line of thought.
“Cutbacks in a particular program mean that the people who normally depend on that program now must spend more of their money to make up for the government cuts.”
Option D talks about subsidized rates, which is a sort of funding and if that stops, people will need to spend more.
Option E talks about food safety inspection.

Any thoughts?

Thanks.



Hi, I think you misunderstood the answer choice.
The answer choice says-'Government cuts in housing subsidies results in fewer houses being built.'
It does not talk about people spending more money in order to buy houses,rather it is talking only about fewer houses being built.

(You can also refer to my answer explanation above)
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Re: After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio   [#permalink] 04 Mar 2019, 06:55
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After the end of World War II, a pervasive, but unfortunately fallacio

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