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Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven

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Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 02 Oct 2019, 20:28
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Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food. Indeed, it has become a standard appliance in most households. Studies have shown, however, that microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument of the consumer advocates?

(A) Microwave ovens have taken much of the joy out of cooking.

(B) There have been many reported incidences of people who have been scalded by liquids superheated in microwave ovens.

(C) Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.”

(D) There is no such thing as a completely safe appliance.

(E) Stoves and ovens that use natural gas consume energy much more efficiently than microwave ovens.

Originally posted by ajit257 on 10 Jan 2011, 17:16.
Last edited by Bunuel on 02 Oct 2019, 20:28, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2015, 20:10
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(B) People have been burnt by the super-heated liquids. I don't think that's the microwaves fault. One can get burnt by super-heated liquids no matter what appliance they have come out from. The statement doesn't say that the people got burnt because of the microwave per se. So, this option is incorrect. Incorrect

(C) Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.” (You have to assume this statement to be true- just as you do for all other strengthen type questions).
This is the only option that strengthens the advocates position. The advocate says that the microwave oven should be accepted as a standard appliance only if it can be certified as completely safe. Option (C) says there is one and only 1 criteria to mark an appliance as "standard" i.e. it should be absolutely safe. So that means there is no other way to classify an appliance as standard. Therefore, this statement strengthens the advocates position. Correct
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2011, 21:15
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narrowed down to b n c

c mentions "only". i ll go with b
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2011, 13:58
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ajit257 wrote:
Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food. Indeed, it has become a standard appliance in most households. Studies have shown, however, that microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument of the consumer advocates?

a.Microwave ovens have taken much of the joy out of cooking.
b.There have been many reported incidences of people who have been scalded by liquids superheated in microwave ovens.
c.Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.”
d.There is no such thing as a completely safe appliance.
e.Stoves and ovens that use natural gas consume energy much more efficiently than microwave ovens.

Need to clarify an imp concept. Would appreciate you responses. Will provide oa later.


A: outside the scope
B: only a repetition of the evidence shown by the consumer
D: weakens the argument
E: outside the scope

=> C: microwave ovens are not totally safe (fact) and since there is no other criterion by which they can be judged to be acceptable as standard, the consumer advocates are right.
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2011, 16:34
OA is C. But i have a question to ask. I was told that choices that contain strong words like 'only' are mostly wrong choices so can someone help me out over here so i don't make this mistake again.
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2011, 17:33
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ajit257 wrote:
OA is C. But i have a question to ask. I was told that choices that contain strong words like 'only' are mostly wrong choices so can someone help me out over here so i don't make this mistake again.


fair reflection.

is correct what you say in general, but sometimes the context is also important.

For istance: what you say could be used when you have two choices and this strategy can make the difference, but in this case we have ONE choice that overall is logic; hence is not important that there is an extreme word.
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2012, 06:01
C is the right answer.

If it is TRUE that absolute safety should be the sole standardization criterion, then advocate's argument is enhanced greatly.

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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2014, 23:11
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Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food. Indeed, it has become a standard appliance in most households. Studies have shown, however, that microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument of the consumer advocates?

Pr.1: MO has become a standard appliance
Pr.2: MOs are not completely safe as has sometimes resulted into serious injuries.
Conc.: CAs: MOs should not be accepted as standard appliances until they are certified as completely safe.
=> Complete Safety --> Certification of Standard Appliance

For Cause-effect Strengthen type Questions, If X-->Y then,
1. only X shall lead to Y [ X --> Y ]
2. Y does not lead to X [ Y -/-> X ]
3. No other factor leads to Y [ Z -/-> Y ]
4. Non-occurrence of X leads to non-occurrence of Y [ -X --> -Y ]
5. Data given in the stem is Correct i.e. no error in data provided such as survey, sampling, group etc.

Now, for said Question, we can count it as Cause-effect type strengthen type. Therefore, whatever choice reinforces the idea further will be correct answer. Only 'C' seems to qualify for that.


a. Microwave ovens have taken much of the joy out of cooking - Question is about safety of MO and not side-effects of MOs in our daily life hence Irrelevant.
b. There have been many reported incidences of people who have been scalded by liquids superheated in microwave ovens - IMO this options seems to weaken instead strengthening the argument because it is saying super-heated liquid are responsible for injuries or burn and not some fault in MO.It might be the case the uses did not read manual properly or he did not know how to operate the oven and he set high temp. which caused injury.

c. Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.” - Go with one of our pre-thinkings that Only X-->Y hence Correct.
d. There is no such thing as a completely safe appliance - If this is not helping the conclusion then in someway it is breaking the conclusion.
e. Stoves and ovens that use natural gas consume energy much more efficiently than microwave ovens - OFS


Correct me if I am wrong in my reasoning or else give kudos if It helps you in someway.... :)
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2016, 09:31
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Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food. Indeed, it has become a standard appliance in most households. Studies have shown, however, that microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument of the consumer advocates?

A. Microwave ovens have taken much of the joy out of cooking.
out of context..we are talking of safety only

B. There have been many reported incidences of people who have been scalded by liquids superheated in microwave ovens.
It is more to do with individual fault than the safety of ovens..

C. Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.”
CORRECT.. three points..
1)studies have shown oven is not completely safe..
2)second point said is consumer advocates not to accept it as standard appliances..
3)these two points are connected through this choice..


D. There is no such thing as a completely safe appliance.
No effect, may be to some extent weakening the raguement

E. Stoves and ovens that use natural gas consume energy much more efficiently than microwave ovens.
out of context

Ans C
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2017, 06:54
Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven, mainly because microwave ovens offer a fast and convenient way of cooking and reheating food. Indeed, it has become a standard appliance in most households. Studies have shown, however, that microwave ovens are not completely safe and their use has occasionally resulted in serious injury. Because of this, some consumer advocates argue that microwave ovens should not be so readily accepted as a standard appliance until they can be certified to be completely safe.

Type - strengthen

The passage makes the premise that microwave ovens are not completely safe.This is followed by a conclusion by the consumer advocates that microwave ovens should not be accepted as standard appliances. Since there is nothing in the passage that provides an explicit link between the safety of microwave ovens and their acceptability as standard appliances, the consumer advocates’ conclusion is based on an assumption (i.e., an implied premise) that “an appliance should be accepted as standard only if it is found to be completely safe.” The most effective way to strengthen such a conclusion is to show that such an assumption is indeed true.

A. Microwave ovens have taken much of the joy out of cooking.- Irrelvant

B. There have been many reported incidences of people who have been scalded by liquids superheated in microwave ovens.- Providing a specific example of how a person might be injured, even seriously, by a microwave oven may provide emotional support for the consumer advocates’ position, but does little to strengthen the argument logically: the
possibility of injury has already been stipulated as a premise.

C. Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.”-Correct

D. There is no such thing as a completely safe appliance. - If no appliance is completely safe, then the consumer advocates’ argument is absurd: no appliance is, or ever will be, acceptable as “standard” in a modern kitchen. This choice weakens the conclusion.

E. Stoves and ovens that use natural gas consume energy much more efficiently than microwave ovens.- Irrelevant

Answer C
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Apr 2017, 03:40
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The passage makes the premise that microwave ovens are not completely safe. This is followed by a conclusion by the consumer advocates that microwave ovens should not be accepted as standard appliances. Since there is nothing in the passage that provides an explicit link between the safety of microwave ovens and their acceptability as standard appliances, the consumer advocates’ conclusion is based on an assumption (i.e., an implied premise) that “an appliance should be accepted as standard only if it is found to be completely safe.” The most effective way to strengthen such a conclusion is to show that such an assumption is indeed true.

Option C:- "Absolute safety is the only criterion by which an appliance should be judged to be acceptable as “standard.”
(C) CORRECT. This choice best strengthens the argument by making explicit the assumption upon which the consumer advocates’ argument was based.
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2019, 23:11
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

The passage makes the premise that microwave ovens are not completely safe. This is followed by a conclusion by the consumer advocates that microwave ovens should not be accepted as standard appliances. Since there is nothing in the passage that provides an explicit link between the safety of microwave ovens and their acceptability as standard appliances, the consumer advocates’ conclusion is based on an assumption (i.e., an implied premise) that “an appliance should be accepted as standard only if it is found to be completely safe.” The most effective way to strengthen such a conclusion is to show that such an assumption is indeed true.

(A) The strength of the consumer advocates’ argument hinges upon the link between the level of safety of microwave ovens and the rationale for their acceptance in the home. Any lack of joy in microwave cooking is not relevant to the argument.

(B) Providing a specific example of how a person might be injured, even seriously, by a microwave oven may provide emotional support for the consumer advocates’ position, but does little to strengthen the argument logically: the possibility of injury has already been stipulated as a premise.

(C) CORRECT.
This choice best strengthens the argument by making explicit the assumption upon which the consumer advocates’ argument was based.

(D) If no appliance is completely safe, then the consumer advocates’ argument is absurb: no appliance is, or ever will be, acceptable as “standard” in a modern kitchen. This choice weakens the conclusion.

(E) The relative energy efficiency of gas vs. microwave cooking is not relevant to this argument.
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Re: Almost every modern kitchen today is equipped with a microwave oven   [#permalink] 01 Apr 2019, 23:11
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