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Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues

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Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 115, Date : 30-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues that three of them can be identified by the type of design used to form horizontal bands: colored strips, zigzags, or diamonds. The fourth, or bordered, style he identifies by a distinct border surrounding centrally placed, dominating figures.

Amsden believes that the diamond style appeared after 1869 when, under Anglo influence and encouragement, the blanket became a rug with larger designs and bolder lines. The bordered style appeared about 1890, and, Amsden argues, it reflects the greatest number of Anglo influences on the newly emerging rug business. The Anglo desire that anything with a graphic designs have a top, bottom, and border is a cultural preference that the Navajo abhorred, as evidenced, he suggests, by the fact that in early bordered specimens strips of color unexpectedly break through the enclosing pattern.

Amsden argues that the bordered rug represents a radical break with previous styles. He asserts that the border changed the artistic problem facing weavers: a blank area suggests the use of isolated figures, while traditional, banded Navajo designs were continuous and did not use isolated figures. The old patterns alternated horizontal decorative zones in a regular order.

Amsden’s view raises several questions. First, what is involved in altering artistic styles? Some studies suggest that artisans’ motor habits and thought processes must be revised when a style changes precipitously. In the evolution of Navajo weaving, however, no radical revisions in the way articles are produced need be assumed. After all, all weaving subordinates design to the physical limitations created by the process of weaving, which includes creating an edge or border. The habits required to make decorative borders are, therefore, latent and easily brought to the surface.

Second, is the relationship between the banded and bordered styles as simple as Amsden suggests? He assumes that a break in style is a break in psychology. But if style results from constant quests for invention, such stylistic breaks are inevitable. When a style has exhausted the possibilities inherent in its principles, artists cast about for new, but not necessarily alien, principles. Navajo weaving may have reached this turning point prior to 1890.

Third, is there really a significant stylistic gap? Two other styles lie between the banded styles and the bordered styles. They suggest that disintegration of the bands may have altered visual and motor habits and prepared the way for a border filled with separate units. In the Chief White Antelope blanket, dated prior to 1865, ten years before the first Anglo trading post on the Navajo reservation, whole and partial diamonds interrupt the flowing design and become separate forms. Parts of diamonds arranged vertically at each side may be seen to anticipate the border.
1. The author’s central thesis is that

(A) the Navajo rejected the stylistic influences of Anglo culture
(B) Navajo weaving cannot be classified by Amsden’s categories
(C) the Navajo changed their style of weaving because they sought the challenge of new artistic problems
(D) original motor habits and thought processes limit the extent to which a style can be revised
(E) the casual factors leading to the emergence of the bordered style are not as clear-cut as Amsden suggests



2. It can be inferred from the passage that Amsden views the use of “strips of color” (Highlighted) in the early bordered style as

(A) a sign of resistance to a change in style
(B) an echo of the diamond style
(C) a feature derived from Anglo culture
(D) an attempt to disintegrate the rigid form of the banded style
(E) a means of differentiating the top of the weaving from the bottom



3. The author’s view of Navajo weaving suggests which one of the following?

(A) The appearance of the first trading post on the Navajo reservation coincided with the appearance of the diamond style.
(B) Traces of thought processes and motor habits of one culture can generally be found in the art of another culture occupying the same period and region.
(C) The bordered style may have developed gradually from the banded style as a result of Navajo experiencing with design.
(D) The influence of Anglo culture was not the only non-Native American influence on Navajo weaving.
(E) Horizontal and vertical rows of diamond forms were transformed by the Navajos into solid lines to create the bordered style.



4. According to the passage, Navajo weavings made prior to 1890 typically were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

(A) repetition of forms
(B) overall patterns
(C) horizontal bands
(D) isolated figures
(E) use of color



5. The author would most probably agree with which one of the following conclusions about the stylistic development of Navajo weaving?

(A) The styles of Navajo weaving changed in response to changes in Navajo motor habits and thought processes.
(B) The zigzag style was the result of stylistic influences from Anglo culture.
(C) Navajo weaving used isolated figures in the beginning, but combined naturalistic and abstract designs in later styles.
(D) Navajo weaving changed gradually from a style in which the entire surface was covered by horizontal bands to one in which central figures dominated the surface.
(E) The styles of Navajo weaving always contained some type of isolated figure.



6. The author suggests that Amsden’s claim that borders in Navajo weaving were inspired by Anglo culture could be

(A) conceived as a response to imagined correspondences between Anglo and Navajo art
(B) biased by Amsden’s feelings about Anglo culture
(C) a result of Amsden’s failing to take into account certain aspects of Navajo weaving
(D) based on a limited number of specimens of the styles of Navajo weaving
(E) based on a confusion between the stylistic features of the zigzag and diamond styles



7. The author most probably mentions the Chief White Antelope blanket in order to

(A) establish the credit influence of Anglo culture on the bordered style
(B) cast doubts on the claim that the bordered style arose primarily from Anglo influence
(C) cite an example of a blanket with a central design and no border
(D) suggest that the Anglo influence produced significant changes in the two earliest styles of Navajo weaving
(E) illustrate how the Navajo had exhausted the stylistic possibilities of the diamond style




8. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) comparing and contrasting different styles
(B) questioning a view of how a style came into being
(C) proposing alternative methods of investigating the evolution of styles
(D) discussing the influence of one culture on another
(E) analyzing the effect of the interaction between two different cultures




  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 3 (December 1991)
  • Difficulty Level: 650

Originally posted by jpv on 17 Mar 2005, 19:09.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 26 Sep 2019, 01:24, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (679).
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Re: Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2005, 09:56
It looks like a student's comment on somebody's work about Navajo rugs. Basically A said there are four styles of rugs and the last style or bordered designs respresented an abrupted change in weaver's thought process, which perhaps was influenced by the Anglo culture.
The auther, however, disagrees. He presented three points to counter that claim. First, he argues that borders are natural to weavers and the bordered style only represented a latent habit that was brought to the surface. Second, he suggested that stylistic breaks are inevitable results from artists' constant quest for inventions. Third, he believes that the second and third styles already represented a gradual shift away from the flowing pattern toward a seperate unit pattern.

1. The author’s central thesis is that

(E) the casual factors leading to the emergence of the bordered style are not as clear-cut as Amsden suggests

2. It can be inferred from the passage that Amsden views the use of “strips of colorâ€
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Re: Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2005, 13:01
:cool OA: EACDDCBB

Thanks everybody for participating. :thanks

I also got most of the questions right but I was not sure about the answers while answering them. Probably, I had not paraphrased the passage properly.



banerjeea_98 wrote:
Can anyone explain #5 ?

Blue : to refute choice (E)
Green : to establish choice (D)

jpv wrote:
Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues that three of them can be identified by the type of design used to form horizontal bands: colored strips, zigzags, or diamonds. The fourth, or bordered, style he identifies by a distinct border surrounding centrally placed, dominating figures.
Amsden believes that the diamond style appeared after 1869 when, under Anglo influence and encouragement, the blanket became a rug with larger designs and bolder lines. The bordered style appeared about 1890, and, Amsden argues, it reflects the greatest number of Anglo influences on the newly emerging rug business. The Anglo desire that anything with a graphic designs have a top, bottom, and border is a cultural preference that the Navajo abhorred, as evidenced, he suggests, by the fact that in early bordered specimens (line 18) strips of color unexpectedly break through the enclosing pattern.
Amsden argues that the bordered rug represents a radical break with previous styles. He asserts that the border changed the artistic problem facing weavers: a blank area suggests the use of isolated figures, while traditional, banded Navajo designs were continuous and did not use isolated figures. The old patterns alternated horizontal decorative zones in a regular order.
Amsden’s view raises several questions. First, what is involved in altering artistic styles? Some studies suggest that artisans’ motor habits and thought processes must be revised when a style changes precipitously. In the evolution of Navajo weaving, however, no radical revisions in the way articles are produced need be assumed. After all, all weaving subordinates design to the physical limitations created by the process of weaving, which includes creating an edge or border. The habits required to make decorative borders are, therefore, latent and easily brought to the surface.
Second, is the relationship between the banded and bordered styles as simple as Amsden suggests? He assumes that a break in style is a break in psychology. But if style results from constant quests for invention, such stylistic breaks are inevitable. When a style has exhausted the possibilities inherent in its principles, artists cast about for new, but not necessarily alien, principles. Navajo weaving may have reached this turning point prior to 1890.
Third, is there really a significant stylistic gap? Two other styles lie between the banded styles and the bordered styles. They suggest that disintegration of the bands may have altered visual and motor habits and prepared the way for a border filled with separate units. In the Chief White Antelope blanket, dated prior to 1865, ten years before the first Anglo trading post on the Navajo reservation, whole and partial diamonds interrupt the flowing design and become separate forms. Parts of diamonds arranged vertically at each side may be seen to anticipate the border.
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Re: Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2005, 14:31
The stuff in 'green'in jpv's msg is what Amsden believes and not the author. The question is asking for:
5. The author would most probably agree with which one of the following conclusions about the stylistic development of Navajo weaving?

Evidence to support D by the author is provided in the last paragraph of the passage. This is an inference question and the flow of the passage gives clues as well to picking D. E ruled out because of distortion and Q4 already tested this aspect in that isolated figures were not part of the navajo art prior to 1890, so 'always' in E is not something that the author would agree with.
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Re: Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2016, 22:38
Got all but 6) right

can somebody explain Q 6?

6.The author suggests that Amsden’s claim that borders in Navajo weaving were inspired by Anglo culture could be

(A) conceived as a response to imagined correspondences between Anglo and Navajo art
(B) biased by Amsden’s feelings about Anglo culture
(C) a result of Amsden’s failing to take into account certain aspects of Navajo weaving
(D) based on a limited number of specimens of the styles of Navajo weaving
(E) based on a confusion between the stylistic features of the zigzag and diamond styles

I marked D), i guess its mentioned in the last para, about changes in style way before anglo influence
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Re: Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2019, 03:35
Funny thing that for a non-native speaker, who I am, RC passage is a bit of a lottery - I can easily crack 700+ passages with low rates of correctly solved questions, passages which talk about familiar topics, but sometimes find difficult to complete some 600+ passages on unrelated topics like this one. Anyone has the same feeling?
Double read and 2 mistakes ...
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Re: Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2019, 09:05
Could anyone explain Q2 please? don't get why the correct answer is A.

How can " strips of color " be resistance to changes of style.
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Re: Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2019, 00:08
kwanatk wrote:
Could anyone explain Q2 please? don't get why the correct answer is A.

How can " strips of color " be resistance to changes of style.


Explanation


2. It can be inferred from the passage that Amsden views the use of “strips of color” (Highlighted) in the early bordered style as

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The author mentions the strips of color breaking through the enclosed border as evidence of Navajo distaste for the Anglo preference that graphic designs have a top, bottom, and border. (A) paraphrases this sentiment, albeit in abstract language.

(B) Amsden depicts the strips of color as signs of general Navaho abhorrence for borders, not necessarily an “echo” of the diamond style.

(C) Au contraire. For Amsden, the strips of color bursting through the border reflect resistance to Anglo culture.

(D) According to Amsden, the Navajo resisted the bordered style, not the banded style.

(E) The desire for designs with a top, bottom, and border is presented as an Anglo desire.

Answer: A


Hope it helps
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Re: Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2019, 23:01
saurabh9gupta wrote:
Q7 explanation please


Explanation


7. The author most probably mentions the Chief White Antelope blanket in order to

Difficulty Level: 550-600

Explanation

In the final paragraph, the author makes the point that some stylistic changes that led the way to the border style can't be attributed to Anglo influence, and uses the Chief White Buffalo blanket as an example to illustrate this point.

(A) On the contrary. The Chief White Antelope blanket argues against the influence of Anglo culture on the bordered style.

(C) On the contrary, too. The author says that the vertically arranged diamonds in the Chief White Antelope blanket anticipate the border. Moreover, this blanket has a “flowing design,” not a central design.

(D) The Chief White Antelope blanket questions the idea of Anglo influence.

(E) This blanket seems to illustrate innovation within the diamond style.

Answer: B


Hope it helps
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Re: Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2019, 02:29
Hi everyone,
Got 7/8 correct in a little more than 15 minutes.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



P1

A has identified 4 different weaving styles: 3 are similar for the usage of horizontal bands and one is characterized by a distinct border surrounding dominant figures.


Brief summary: A's classification

P2

We are given the time frames in which the diamond and the bordered style became popular. These 2 had to do with the anglo influence and the increasing popularity of rugs.
We also know that the navajo did not like the anglo desire according to which everything had to have a bottom, top and border

Brief summary: time frame of diamond and bordered style and influence of rugs and anglos

P3

In this para we are given the opinion of A about the change from the 3 similar styles to the border one. A claims that there was an absolute change between the 2 styles and the rest of the paragraph explains why.

Brief summary: A's opinion about the border style vs the other 3

P4

Paragraph 4 starts questioning A's view. the author wonders what happens when an artistic style changes. Usually a good analysis involves studying the habits and mental process of the artists and these habits and processes are supposed to change BUT this does not happen with the case at hand. We are also given that weavers are limited by the physical conditions of the weaving process

Brief summary: One doubt is cast on A's interpretation about the change in style from D to B

P5

Para 5 further doubts A's view according to which there was a break in psychology when there was the transition from D to B. The author states that when an artist exhausts the principles related to a specific artistic style, such artists will look for new ones but not necessary different ones.

Brief summary: Doubt #2 is cast

P6

Para 6 casts the last doubt on A's view. The author suggests that there is not a big stylistic gap between the banded and the bordered style. This claim is supported by the fact that there was a blanket realized prior to the contact with anglos that adopted the diamond style but anticipated the bordered style

Brief summary:

Author suggests no big stylistic gap between banded and bordered style


Main point

The main point is to evaluate A's study/interpretation

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



1. The author’s central thesis is that

Pre-thinking

Main point question

Refer to main point above


(A) the Navajo rejected the stylistic influences of Anglo culture
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) Navajo weaving cannot be classified by Amsden’s categories
too extreme

(C) the Navajo changed their style of weaving because they sought the challenge of new artistic problems
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) original motor habits and thought processes limit the extent to which a style can be revised
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) the casual factors leading to the emergence of the bordered style are not as clear-cut as Amsden suggests
in line with pre-thinking

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. It can be inferred from the passage that Amsden views the use of “strips of color” (Highlighted) in the early bordered style as

Pre-thinking

Inference question

An indication that the navajos abhorred a cultural preference typical of the anglos.


(A) a sign of resistance to a change in style
in line with pre-thinking

(B) an echo of the diamond style
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) a feature derived from Anglo culture
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) an attempt to disintegrate the rigid form of the banded style
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) a means of differentiating the top of the weaving from the bottom
Not in line with pre-thinking

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


3. The author’s view of Navajo weaving suggests which one of the following?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

We know that the author does not agree with A on several things such as the change in style from the banded to the bordered style


(A) The appearance of the first trading post on the Navajo reservation coincided with the appearance of the diamond style.
out of scope

(B) Traces of thought processes and motor habits of one culture can generally be found in the art of another culture occupying the same period and region.
out of scope

(C) The bordered style may have developed gradually from the banded style as a result of Navajo experiencing with design.
in line with pre-thinking and can be inferred from last para

(D) The influence of Anglo culture was not the only non-Native American influence on Navajo weaving.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) Horizontal and vertical rows of diamond forms were transformed by the Navajos into solid lines to create the bordered style.
Not in line with pre-thinking

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. According to the passage, Navajo weavings made prior to 1890 typically were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

Pre-thinking

Detail question

The bordered style.


(A) repetition of forms
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) overall patterns
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) horizontal bands
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) isolated figures
Isolated figures are typical of the bordered style, hence correct

(E) use of color
Not in line with pre-thinking

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


5. The author would most probably agree with which one of the following conclusions about the stylistic development of Navajo weaving?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

[b]A pre-thought inference is that the change was gradual and not psychological

[/b]

(A) The styles of Navajo weaving changed in response to changes in Navajo motor habits and thought processes.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) The zigzag style was the result of stylistic influences from Anglo culture.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) Navajo weaving used isolated figures in the beginning, but combined naturalistic and abstract designs in later styles.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) Navajo weaving changed gradually from a style in which the entire surface was covered by horizontal bands to one in which central figures dominated the surface.
in line with pre-thinking

(E) The styles of Navajo weaving always contained some type of isolated figure.
Not in line with pre-thinking


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. The author suggests that Amsden’s claim that borders in Navajo weaving were inspired by Anglo culture could be

Pre-thinking

Inference question

According to the last example in the last para the author suggests that anglos do not have anything to do with the change


(A) conceived as a response to imagined correspondences between Anglo and Navajo art
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) biased by Amsden’s feelings about Anglo culture
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) a result of Amsden’s failing to take into account certain aspects of Navajo weaving
in line with pre-thinking

(D) based on a limited number of specimens of the styles of Navajo weaving
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) based on a confusion between the stylistic features of the zigzag and diamond styles
Not in line with pre-thinking

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


7. The author most probably mentions the Chief White Antelope blanket in order to

Pre-thinking

Purpose question

The aim is to suggest that anglos did not influence that much the weaving change occurred among navajos


(A) establish the credit influence of Anglo culture on the bordered style
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) cast doubts on the claim that the bordered style arose primarily from Anglo influence
in line with pre-thinking

(C) cite an example of a blanket with a central design and no border
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) suggest that the Anglo influence produced significant changes in the two earliest styles of Navajo weaving
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) illustrate how the Navajo had exhausted the stylistic possibilities of the diamond style
Not in line with pre-thinking


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


8. The passage is primarily concerned with

Pre-thinking

Main point question

Refer to main point above


(A) comparing and contrasting different styles
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) questioning a view of how a style came into being
in line with pre-thinking

(C) proposing alternative methods of investigating the evolution of styles
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) discussing the influence of one culture on another
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) analyzing the effect of the interaction between two different cultures
Not in line with pre-thinking


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Re: Amsden has divided Navajo weaving into four distinct styles. He argues   [#permalink] 11 Nov 2019, 02:29
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