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An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority

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An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2013, 11:10
2
13
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

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  35% (medium)

Question Stats:

68% (01:21) correct 32% (01:26) wrong based on 516 sessions

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An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority applicants for spaces in exclusive co-op apartment buildings had a significantly greater chance of rejection than did white applicants with similar profiles.

(A) a significantly greater chance of rejection than did

(B) a significantly greater chance of rejection in comparison with

(C) a great likelihood of a rejection more significant than did

(D) a significantly better likelihood of rejection as compared to

(E) a significantly greater chance of rejection than those
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2013, 12:35
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wastedyouth wrote:
An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority applicants for spaces in exclusive co-op apartment buildings had a significantly greater chance of rejection than did white applicants with similar profiles

(A) a significantly greater chance of rejection than did
(B) a significantly greater chance of rejection in comparison with
(C) a great likelihood of a rejection more significant than did
(D) a significantly better likelihood of rejection as compared to
(E) a significantly greater chance of rejection than those

Dear Wasted Youth,
I'm happy to help with this. :-)

Split #1: here, "significantly" is used in the sense of statistical significance. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/statistica ... -the-gmat/
"Significantly greater chance" is idiomatically correct. The phrase "significantly better likelihood" is a little colloquial, and it sounds particularly out of place with something negative, as it is here --- choice (D) is suspect. Choice (C) changes the meaning to something that doesn't make sense --- a more significant rejection; (C) has to be wrong.

Split #2: "than" vs. "in comparison with" vs. "as compared to". For an ordinary comparison, with a comparative adjective (here "greater"), the GMAT prefers "than", and doesn't like longer substitutes for "than". Both (B) & (D) are incorrect.

Split #3: verb after "than". The verb after "than" is not strictly necessary, but it adds clarity. This makes (A) preferable.

Split #4: the demonstrative pronoun "those".
Consider the difference
(i) .... than white applicants with similar profiles
(ii) ... than those white applicants with similar profiles
The word "those" is extraneous. It doesn't add anything at all. The sentence means exactly the same thing with or without it. This makes (E) less preferable.

Understand, (E) is not grammatically incorrect, but it lacks the verb after "than" that adds clarity, and instead it tosses in a word that doesn't add bupkis to the sentence. These points make (A) meaningfully better than (E), and therefore (A) is the best answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2013, 07:26
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minority applicants had a significantly greater chance of rejection than did white applicants with similar profiles.

Hi, I am not much familiar with the way did or do is used in second half of the comparison, presence of did sounds awkward to my non native ears, could you please help me to understand in general what this "did" is expressing in second part of the comparison.

Thanks
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2013, 08:01
I couldn't understand the role of 'did' in the OA; please explain...
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2013, 11:29
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PiyushK wrote:
minority applicants had a significantly greater chance of rejection than did white applicants with similar profiles.

Hi, I am not much familiar with the way did or do is used in second half of the comparison, presence of did sounds awkward to my non native ears, could you please help me to understand in general what this "did" is expressing in second part of the comparison.
Thanks

neoB wrote:
I couldn't understand the role of 'did' in the OA; please explain...

Dear PiyushK & neoB,

I'm happy to help. :-)

First of all, I am going to chastise both of you. If this grammatical form sounds unnatural to you, that means you are not reading enough. The only way all the sophisticated grammatical forms on the GMAT will sound natural to you is if you are reading, every day, at least half an hour a day over and above any GMAT prep. Here are some suggestions about what you should be reading:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-reading-list/
The more your read, the more natural all of this will sound.

As you probably know, in comparisons and in parallelism in general, it is not necessary to repeat all the words --- words that would be repeated are omitted. That's very easy for things such as nouns & prepositional phrases & so forth, but what if the verb would be repeated? The verb "to do" is the universal "substitute" verb that can fill in as a replacement for the repetition of any other verb. More than than, if the verb is followed by a long phrase (direct object, verb modifiers, etc.), then that entire verb phrase can be abbreviated by the words "do so". See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/repeating- ... -the-gmat/

I bought a new car before my friend could do so.
She plays piano better than I do.

In those sentences, the green words at the end are "substitutes" that take the place of the verb or verb phrase that would have been repeated.

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2013, 13:26
Thanks for the explanation...
But, I wanted to mean that I think there should be 'had' instead of 'did'.
I mean wouldn't "An investigative reporter xxxxx that minority applicants xxxxx had a significantly greater chance of rejection than had white applicants with similar profiles" sound better?
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2013, 15:00
Santi1 wrote:
Thanks for the explanation...
But, I wanted to mean that I think there should be 'had' instead of 'did'.
I mean wouldn't "An investigative reporter xxxxx that minority applicants xxxxx had a significantly greater chance of rejection than had white applicants with similar profiles" sound better?

Dear Santi1,
Believe it or not, that is not correct, and in fact, sounds awkward. This is one of these examples of the rules of language not following logic. Logically, it certainly seems that "had" would be the better choice, but that's not how English works, and not what the GMAT expects.
Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2013, 00:18
Thanks Mike,

In your examples do is representing some action like "bought a new car" or "plays piano", which I can relate with first half of the sentence without any problem, but in this sentence "minority applicants had a significantly greater chance of rejection than did white applicants with similar profiles." I am not able to identify the action replaced by did and who is the do'er of that action, bcz minority applicants are also not doing any action, we are just stating that "had greater chance of rejection", overall we are comparing here (statements) chances of rejection of minority applicant and white applicant, and it looks like that did is replacing a statement, not any action in the second half of the comparison.

"minority applicants had a significantly greater chance of rejection than did white applicants with similar profiles."

Thanks :)
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2013, 17:59
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PiyushK wrote:
Thanks Mike,

In your examples do is representing some action like "bought a new car" or "plays piano", which I can relate with first half of the sentence without any problem, but in this sentence "minority applicants had a significantly greater chance of rejection than did white applicants with similar profiles." I am not able to identify the action replaced by did and who is the do'er of that action, bcz minority applicants are also not doing any action, we are just stating that "had greater chance of rejection", overall we are comparing here (statements) chances of rejection of minority applicant and white applicant, and it looks like that did is replacing a statement, not any action in the second half of the comparison.

"minority applicants had a significantly greater chance of rejection than did white applicants with similar profiles."

Thanks :)

Dear PiyushK,

Start with
Minority applicants had a high chance of rejection.
In that sentence "minority applicants" are the "actor", but it's not really much of an action. The action "to have a high chance of rejection" is funny because, even though the verb "have" is active, the sense of the entire phrase is passive. If I "have a high chance of rejection", then the paradox is --- logically & contextually, I am much more on the "receiving" end of things, not the "doing" end, but the verb "have" is grammatically an active verb.
Now, let's add on:
Minority applicants had a high chance of rejection.
White applicants with similar profiles had a high chance of rejection.

That's two facts, side by side, with no comparison. Now, toss in comparative words:
Minority applicants had a significantly greater chance of rejection.
White applicants with similar profiles had a significantly lower chance of rejection.

Now, combine those two into one sentence:
Minority applicants had a significantly greater chance of rejection than the chance of rejection that white applicants with similar profiles had.
That sentence is a distended disaster that should be take out back and shot. Let's shorten that by dropping repeated words and the logical connectors these repeated words imply --- everything underlined.
Minority applicants had a significantly greater chance of rejection than did white applicants with similar profiles.
The repeated verb "had" is replaced by the generic substitute "did".

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2013, 10:56
Thanks Mike, now I can digest it.
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2019, 01:44
if the element compared is in the object phrase of the first clause, we have two ways to make comparison.
case 1. show the second subject of the second clause and "helping verb". if we do not add helping verb. the element after "than,as" can be object or subject of the second clause. this is ambiguity.

I have a greater chance of rejection than the white persons
=
I have a greater chance of rejection than I have the white persons.

that is why choice E is ambiguous and choice A is correct

the second way to make this comparison is to explicitly shows the two nouns, one of which the object of the first clause.

if gmat show us the first way of comparison and the split do/without do, problem is easy

the problem will be harder, if gmat gives us both ways of comparison, and do not show the split do/without do in the answer choice. this will be harder for us to realize the ambiguity unless you know the two ways of comparison. look at the following from gmatprep

A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times in 1980.

(A) that CEO's now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times

(B) that, on average, CEO's now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times

(C) that, on average, CEO's now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio

(D) CEO's who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio

(E) CEO's now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times

in this above question, both ways of comparison is shown. there is no split do/without do for you to realize ambiguity easily. the second way of making comparison is to explicitly show the two nouns compared as the choice C . the comparison "419 times pay" is correct and easy. this is second way of making comparison.
the first way of making comparison is choice A "than blue colar worker " . comparison is in the object of the first clause and in the second clause we choose not to show the second objects but the second subject, "worker", . we have to add "do" after "worker" or we get ambiguity.

knowing the two ways of making comparison in the object phrase of the first clause help us quickly and actively find out the error. this skill is needed for writing. the serious problem for us is that we can understand the explanation of the errors but can not solve the problem next time we meet it.

whenever we see comparison problem, ask ourself, " is noun compared is in subject phrase or object phrase? " . if it is in subject phrase, we get an easy problem. if it is in object phrase, think of ambiguity.
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Re: An investigative reporter for the New York Times found that minority   [#permalink] 05 Sep 2019, 01:44
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