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Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St

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Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Aug 2019, 05:36
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Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United States often characterize Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 as surprisingly stable, considering that it was a period of diminution in population and pressure from contact with outside groups, factors that might be expected to cause significant changes in Hopi social arrangements.

The Hopis’ retention of their distinctive socio-cultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases. But equally important to Hopi cultural persistence may have been an inherent flexibility in their social system that may have allowed preservation of traditions even as the Hopis accommodated themselves to change. For example, the system of matrilineal clans was maintained throughout this period, even though some clans merged to form larger groups while others divided into smaller descent groups. Furthermore, although traditionally members of particular Hopi clans appear to have exclusively controlled particular ceremonies, a clan’s control of a ceremony might shift to another clan if the first became too small to manage the responsibility. Village leadership positions traditionally restricted to members of one clan might be similarly extended to members of other clans, and women might assume such positions under certain unusual conditions.
VRC000226-07

1. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the explanation outlined in highlighted text?

(A) It fails to take into account the effect of geographical circumstances on Hopi culture.
(B) It correctly emphasizes the role of the religious elite in maintaining the system of matrilineal clans.
(C) It represents a misreading of Hopi culture because it fails to take into account the actual differences that existed among the various Hopi clans.
(D) It underestimates the effect on Hopi cultural development of contact with other cultural groups.
(E) It is correct but may be insufficient in itself to explain Hopi sociocultural persistence.



2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Hopis' geographic situation between 1680 and 1880?

(A) It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population.
(B) It helped to promote flexibility within their social system.
(C) It limited but did not eliminate contact with other cultural groups.
(D) It reinforced the religious elite's determination to resist cultural change.
(E) It tended to limit contact between certain Hopi clans.


VRC000226-06

3. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) reassessing a phenomenon in light of new findings
(B) assessing the relative importance of two factors underlying a phenomenon
(C) examining the assumptions underlying an interpretation of a phenomenon
(D) expanding on an explanation of a phenomenon
(E) contrasting two methods for evaluating a phenomenon


VRC000226-02

4. The author of the passage mentions the control of ceremonies by particular Hopi clans most likely in order to

(A) provide an example of the way in which the religious elite protected their position within Hopi society
(B) note an exception to a larger pattern evident in many Native American cultures
(C) explain the connection in Hopi culture between religious and political leadership
(D) illustrate how the Hopis combined flexibility with tradition
(E) cite evidence that counters a common misconception about the structure of Hopi society



000226-04

5. The passage suggests that sociocultural change in Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 was

A. initiated primarily by contact with other cultural groups
B. greater than that experienced by many other Native American peoples during that period
C. less pronounced than might be expected, given the demographic conditions and external pressures during that period
D. less pronounced than it had been previously because of diminution in the Hopi population occurring after 1680
E. accelerated by the particular geographic circumstances of the Hopis



Originally posted by goodyear2013 on 27 Mar 2014, 11:18.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 10 Aug 2019, 05:36, edited 9 times in total.
Updated complete topic (103).
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2014, 23:34
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Really short and good passage but questions seemed on 600-700 level.

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Hopis' geographic situation between 1680 and 1880?

(A) It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population. --Cant infer this from passage certainly. A trap basically
(B) It helped to promote flexibility within their social system. --Wrong in the context of the passage.
(C) It limited but did not eliminate contact with other cultural groups.-- This is the one mentioned in the passage.
The Hopis’ retention of their distinctive sociocultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups,an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases.
(D) It reinforced the religious elite's determination to resist cultural change.-- Can't be inferred surely.
(E) It tended to limit contact between certain Hopi clans.---- Can't be inferred surely.


The passage is primarily concerned with
A) reassessing a phenomenon in light of new findings---No reassessment of new findings. Out
B) assessing the relative importance of two factors underlying a phenomenon ---Wrong
C) examining the assumptions underlying an interpretation of a phenomenon--- This was a trap. But closely reading the words, we see that the passage is not examining any assumptions
D) expanding on an explanation of a phenomenon-- Yes. Passage is expanding on the explanation of a phenomenon i.e. Hopis’ retention of their distinctive sociocultural system as stated in 1st para
E) contrasting two methodsfor evaluating a phenomenon--- Wrong

Hope it helps :-)
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New post 10 Apr 2014, 04:42
Can anyone explain the second question?

My interpretation:

".. attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases. But equally important to Hopi cultural persistence may have been an inherent flexibility in their social system"

There are two factors - preserve and isolation. No?
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2014, 03:57
pretzel wrote:
Can anyone explain the second question?

My interpretation:

".. attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases. But equally important to Hopi cultural persistence may have been an inherent flexibility in their social system"

There are two factors - preserve and isolation. No?



I also did the same mistake as you did, the only difference being I considered two factors as below:

Determined efforts and inherent flexibility.

However, here we have three factors as give below:

Attributed X to Y and Z

Here
Y=Determined Efforts
Z=Geographical isolation

.But equally important to hopi may have been INHERENT FLEXIBILITY which is the third factor. So,answer cannot be (B).

Had it been only two factors with above phrasing, (B) would have been the correct answer
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New post 25 May 2018, 21:31
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pikolo2510 wrote:
hello GMATNinja

Can you explain Q2 in this passage?


I'll volunteer.

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Hopis' geographic situation between 1680 and 1880?

(A) It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population.- the choice implies that the Geo location helpedin preventing hopis from diminution -para 1( often characterize Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 as surprisingly stable, considering that it was a period of diminution in population and pressure from contact with outside groups, factors that might be expected to cause significant changes in Hopi social arrangements. ) the anthropologists say that the hopis society was surprisingly stable . why was it surprising? read the next part after surprisingly stable. The diminution of Pop has been cited as a contast just to weigh in on the surprising stability.Nowhere is it related to Geo Loc.

(B) It helped to promote flexibility within their social system. - Entirely goes against the given facts. In fact not the GL but the society's inherent flexibilty helped the retention of culture.

(C) It limited but did not eliminate contact with other cultural groups.- para 2 (a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases). Now the passage states that the GL limited the cultural contact. it did not eliminate it! how do we know this? read the later part of the para 2. evidently other cultural groups(clans) did come into their contact and even were a part of the culture.

(D) It reinforced the religious elite's determination to resist cultural change.- para 2. (Hopis’ retention of their distinctive sociocultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation )note here that the passage states that the retention was attributed to 2 things. nowhere is it mentioned that the elite's stance was strengthed by the GL.

(E) It tended to limit contact between certain Hopi clans.- certain hopi clans? nowhere is it mentioned that there were particular clans the hopis's tried to stay away from. " certain" is the culprit here
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2018, 22:18
goodyear2013, workout, GMATNinja

Question 4 answer is D where as I think it can be answer B because passage says " Furthermore, although traditionally members of particular Hopi clans appear to have exclusively controlled particular ceremonies................" so word traditionally means Hopi clans are doing something unusual.
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New post 05 Oct 2018, 09:30
Hey leo125,

The trick with Q1 is the phrase in the highlighted text "and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases." This tells you that there was some isolation, but because it allowed for some cultural contact that isolation was not complete.

A can be eliminated since they did experience a population decline, B can be eliminated because their social system was inherently flexible - it wasn't the geography that caused the flexibility. D exists without the geographic isolation, and E is probably just not true - because the different ceremonies shifted from clan to clan, they probably didn't become isolated from one another.
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 11:37
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leo125 wrote:
Experts...plz help with Q1..??

Here's the question again:
Quote:
1. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the explanation outlined in highlighted text?

And here's the relevant portion of the passage:
Quote:
The Hopis’ retention of their distinctive socio-cultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases.

The highlighted text itself presents two factors to explain why the Hopis retained their distinctive socio-cultural system: the efforts of Hopi religious elites and the group's geographical isolation. Moving on from this highlighted text, the author presents a third factor: the flexibility of that system. The author brings this up to stress that this third factor was equally important to the retention of the Hopi's system.

As we evaluate answer choices, remember that "it" always refers to the highlighted text.

Quote:
(A)It fails to take into account the effect of geographical circumstances on Hopi culture.

This completely contradicts the highlighted text, which plainly states that geographical circumstances were one of the key factors contributing to retention of the Hopi socio-cultural system. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B)It correctly emphasizes the role of the religious elite in maintaining the system of matrilineal clans.

The phrase "matrilineal clans" stops us from accepting this answer choice. The consideration of these clans is not part of the highlighted text. It comes later, in support of the author's consideration of social flexibility. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(C)It represents a misreading of Hopi culture because it fails to take into account the actual differences that existed among the various Hopi clans.

This is totally off the mark. The highlighted text may leave out the third factor of flexibility, but the author never indicates that accepting these other two factors is a misreading of Hopi culture. Rather, the author agrees with the highlighted text and wishes to add a third piece of the puzzle to complete this picture. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D)It underestimates the effect on Hopi cultural development of contact with other cultural groups.

The author wrote this passage to explain why contact with outside groups did not lead to significant changes in Hopi society. This choice goes in a totally different direction, which doesn't reflect the highlighted text and runs completely counter to why the author writes those highlighted statements. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E)It is correct but may be insufficient in itself to explain Hopi sociocultural persistence.

This is the correct choice we've been looking for! It perfectly matches why the author is bringing up the highlighted text: the author believes that these statements are true, but also believes there is a third, equally important factor that must be considered.

(E) is the best choice, and every other choice can be eliminated confidently. I hope this helps!

AdityaHongunti wrote:
pikolo2510 wrote:
hello GMATNinja

Can you explain Q2 in this passage?


I'll volunteer.

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Hopis' geographic situation between 1680 and 1880?

(A) It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population.- the choice implies that the Geo location helpedin preventing hopis from diminution -para 1( often characterize Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 as surprisingly stable, considering that it was a period of diminution in population and pressure from contact with outside groups, factors that might be expected to cause significant changes in Hopi social arrangements. ) the anthropologists say that the hopis society was surprisingly stable . why was it surprising? read the next part after surprisingly stable. The diminution of Pop has been cited as a contast just to weigh in on the surprising stability.Nowhere is it related to Geo Loc.

(B) It helped to promote flexibility within their social system. - Entirely goes against the given facts. In fact not the GL but the society's inherent flexibilty helped the retention of culture.

(C) It limited but did not eliminate contact with other cultural groups.- para 2 (a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases). Now the passage states that the GL limited the cultural contact. it did not eliminate it! how do we know this? read the later part of the para 2. evidently other cultural groups(clans) did come into their contact and even were a part of the culture.

(D) It reinforced the religious elite's determination to resist cultural change.- para 2. (Hopis’ retention of their distinctive sociocultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation )note here that the passage states that the retention was attributed to 2 things. nowhere is it mentioned that the elite's stance was strengthed by the GL.

(E) It tended to limit contact between certain Hopi clans.- certain hopi clans? nowhere is it mentioned that there were particular clans the hopis's tried to stay away from. " certain" is the culprit here

Great work, AdityaHongunti!
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2018, 07:50
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Dear Mods workout Gnpth

Please add this missing question

000226-04
The passage suggests that sociocultural change in Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 was
A. initiated primarily by contact with other cultural groups
B. greater than that experienced by many other Native American peoples during that period
C. less pronounced than might be expected, given the demographic conditions and external pressures during that period
D. less pronounced than it had been previously because of diminution in the Hopi population occurring after 1680
E. accelerated by the particular geographic circumstances of the Hopis

Thanks
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New post 19 Dec 2018, 11:28
1
Saumya2403 wrote:
Hi All,

somebody please explain question 4 and 5.. got them wrong.


Saumya2403


4. The author of the passage mentions the control of ceremonies by particular Hopi clans most likely in order to


(D) illustrate how the Hopis combined flexibility with tradition


In the second paragraph author uses ‘example” and addition word such as “furthermore” to set up additional evidence, establish similar ideas or buffer a line of reasoning. Examples/ Addition words add on to an idea, or in the case of an argument, preceding reasons or premises.

So below author provides a reason for stability of Hopi culture.

But equally important to Hopi cultural persistence may have been an inherent flexibility in their social system that may have allowed preservation of traditions even as the Hopis accommodated themselves to change.

See here author gives a flexibility as a factor that contributed to persistence of Hopi culture.

To strengthen validity of the above line of reasoning author gives example.

For example, the system of matrilineal clans was maintained throughout this period, even though some clans merged to form larger groups while others divided into smaller descent groups.

Below author gives additional evidence in favor of flexibility factor.

Furthermore, although traditionally members of particular Hopi clans appear to have exclusively controlled particular ceremonies, a clan’s control of a ceremony might shift to another clan if the first became too small to manage the responsibility.


in the above sentence you can see combination of flexibility with tradition

So (D) is correct answer ---- > illustrate how the Hopis combined flexibility with tradition



5. The passage suggests that sociocultural change in Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 was

A. initiated primarily by contact with other cultural groups ( this is false information )
B. greater than that experienced by many other Native American peoples during that period ( on the contrary, we know that Hopi society remained stable. )
C. less pronounced than might be expected, given the demographic conditions and external pressures during that period (correct since Hopi society remained stable despite being exposed to such factors as pressure from other culture and demographic reduction of Hopi society itself)

D. less pronounced than it had been previously because of diminution in the Hopi population occurring after 1680 (this is not accurate information )
E. accelerated by the particular geographic circumstances of the Hopis (out of scope)

The answer to correct answer is in the first paragraph.

Read it below.

"Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United States often characterize Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 as surprisingly stable, considering that it was a period of diminution in population and pressure from contact with outside groups, factors that might be expected to cause significant changes in Hopi social arrangements."

So let`s summarize the first paragraph.

Despite pressure from other contacts, Hopi society that also was experiencing a demographic reduction at that time, remained SURRPRISINGLY STABLE. So it is a phenomenon, because normally when society has pressure from other communities, it undergoes some culture changes.

Now based on the summarized information lets analyze answer choices. see above.
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New post 23 Dec 2018, 00:57
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I want to say something about RC. I already said this point in a few last posting. now, I want to say it again.

there is difference between lsat passages and gmat passage. from this difference , we, non native ,can know how to study for RC.

lsat passages are harder and longer but their questions are easy, and so, we need to do prethinking for answering questions. in contrast, gmat passages are easy to understand and are shorter but their questions are harder to answer. because their questions are harder, we need to do both prethinking and POE (power of elimination) to find the correct answer. prethinking help us find some wrong answers which are contradicts the information in the passage flagrantly. POE is powerfull method and requires a higher level of infering. POE permit us to eliminate the wrong answers which is wrong in one or 2 words.

if you focus on understanding the hard passages and do not focus on inferring for answering the question , you can fail because that is not the point gmat want to test us. of course, at a 700+ level, gmat passage is also hard and long.

normally, understanding the hard passages is more easy than inferring for answering hard questions.

so, be aware that there are two skills inhere, understanding the hard passages and inferring at high level to answer the hard question. knowing these two skills is particularly helpful in studying RC for the non-natives.

thank you for reading this text.

this gmat passage is typical of gmat passage. the passage is easy to understand but answering questions are not so easy. it requires us a high level of inferring for answerng the questions.
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New post 10 Mar 2019, 02:49
The passage is primarily concerned with ?? Answer choice C vs D. Please explain
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2019, 06:40
1
mallya12 wrote:
The passage is primarily concerned with ?? Answer choice C vs D. Please explain

To understand the primary concern of the passage, let's break it down into more manageable chunks:

  • Paragraph 1: The author introduces a surprising phenomenon (the stability of the Hopi tribe despite the fact that "[1680-1880] was a period of diminution in population and pressure from contact with outside groups").
  • First sentence of paragraph 2: What this phenomenon "has been attributed to" ("the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts" and "geographical isolation").
  • The rest of the passage: Another explanation for the phenomenon ("inherent flexibility in [the Hopi] social system"), and several examples of this explanation.

From this, we can see that the author is primarily concerned with adding to an already existing explanation of a phenomenon.

Take a look at answer choice (C):
Quote:
(C) examining the assumptions underlying an interpretation of a phenomenon

This answer choice implies that the primary purpose of the passage is to examine assumptions underlying an interpretation of a phenomenon. Looking back at our breakdown of the passage, this is clearly not the case -- the author does offer several factors to explain a phenomenon, but never examines the assumptions that led to these interpretations. So, examining these assumptions cannot be the primary concern of the passage. (C) is out.

Now look at (D):
Quote:
(D) expanding on an explanation of a phenomenon

This fits nicely with our breakdown of the passage. The author introduces a surprising phenomenon, gives an existing explanation, and then expands on this explanation at length. (D) is the answer to question #3.

I hope that helps!
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New post 03 Jul 2019, 00:28
Question 2, "and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases" . The fact that geographical isolation limited exposure to European diseases made me think that (A) "It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population" is correct. Where did i go wrong?
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New post 04 Jul 2019, 03:06
GMATNinja

For Question 1, I debated between choice B & E.
Choice B has the "matrilineal clans" which was mentioned later in the passage. I agree with this elimination.
However choice E. I feel that it can only be correct if we read onto the connecting words in the next sentence "But equally important"
What's your strategy in choosing choice E ?
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New post 06 Jul 2019, 14:21
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katytranvo wrote:
GMATNinja

For Question 1, I debated between choice B & E.
Choice B has the "matrilineal clans" which was mentioned later in the passage. I agree with this elimination.
However choice E. I feel that it can only be correct if we read onto the connecting words in the next sentence "But equally important"
What's your strategy in choosing choice E ?


I'm not him but if you don't mind I can help you with that

TRANSITION WORDS and other keywords such as But, moreover etc, should be taken care of during the reading.
GMAT and B-schools for that matter are making sure that you look in multiple directions even when they are pointing out in one

Using that technique in RCs is very effective. Go through the question, read how transition words connect to that part of the passage and note it down if you are unable to understand the connection. Know two things while you read any sentence in an RC, 1. How that sentence connects to the paragraph 2. How it connects to passage as a whole

If you know those two things, you'll know what position that sentence is in. It is much like a social structure in an organisation, some are CEOs, some are COOs, some are just janitors, all connected with each other. Similarly, every sentence in an RC has responsibility for the passage(organisation), and what it is and to whom it refers to is essential in getting such questions right. I always ask myself whenever I see such Questions

If the sentence is a CEO that means it is linked to primary purpose
If a sentence is a janitor, its linked to a small detail in passage somewhere
If it is an employee, such as here, it is linked to the coming sentence and the preceding sentence


I've talked in metaphors but I'm sure you're smart enough to get it.

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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2019, 11:38
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Question 1


katytranvo wrote:
For Question 1, I debated between choice B & E.
Choice B has the "matrilineal clans" which was mentioned later in the passage. I agree with this elimination.
However choice E. I feel that it can only be correct if we read onto the connecting words in the next sentence "But equally important"
What's your strategy in choosing choice E ?

The question asks with which answer choice the author would agree concerning the highlighted text, but that does not mean that you can ONLY look at the highlighted text for clues.

Take another look at (B):
Quote:
(B) [The highlighted text] correctly emphasizes the role of the religious elite in maintaining the system of matrilineal clans.

The issue with (B) is not that matrilineal clans are mentioned outside of the highlighted text -- the problem is that the highlighted text does not, in fact, emphasize the role of the religious elite in maintaining matrilineal clans! It only mentions the role of the religious elite in preserving "their religion and way of life." The author definitely would NOT agree that the highlighted text "correctly" emphasizes the role of the religious elite in maintaining the system of matrilineal clans, because the text doesn't make this claim at all. (B) is out.

Now look at (E):
Quote:
(E) [The highlighted text] is correct but may be insufficient in itself to explain Hopi sociocultural persistence.

You are right that we cannot conclude that the author would agree with (E) if we ONLY look at the highlighted text. In that portion of the passage, he/she introduces a couple of factors to which the Hopi's stability have been attributed. Only in the subsequent part of the passage do we discover that the author agrees that the information in the highlighted text is correct, but then argues that there are additional factors at play. It is totally fine to use this additional context to answer the question, because it gives us an accurate picture of how the author views the information in the highlighted text. (E) is the correct answer to question #1.

Question 2


DiyaDutta wrote:
Question 2, "and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases" . The fact that geographical isolation limited exposure to European diseases made me think that (A) "It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population" is correct. Where did i go wrong?

The author states that Hopi society remained "surprisingly stable considering that it was a period of diminution in population." The central question explored in the passage is how Hopi society retained its "distinctive socio-cultural system" during this time despite a diminution in population and pressure from contact with outside groups.

So, while geographical isolation "limited... exposure to European diseases," we cannot say that it outright prevented a diminution in population. (A) is out.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St   [#permalink] 09 Jul 2019, 11:38
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