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Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St

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Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 24 Oct 2018, 07:11
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Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United States often characterize Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 as surprisingly stable, considering that it was a period of diminution in population and pressure from contact with outside groups, factors that might be expected to cause significant changes in Hopi social arrangements.

The Hopis’ retention of their distinctive socio-cultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases. But equally important to Hopi cultural persistence may have been an inherent flexibility in their social system that may have allowed preservation of traditions even as the Hopis accommodated themselves to change. For example, the system of matrilineal clans was maintained throughout this period, even though some clans merged to form larger groups while others divided into smaller descent groups. Furthermore, although traditionally members of particular Hopi clans appear to have exclusively controlled particular ceremonies, a clan’s control of a ceremony might shift to another clan if the first became too small to manage the responsibility. Village leadership positions traditionally restricted to members of one clan might be similarly extended to members of other clans, and women might assume such positions under certain unusual conditions.
VRC000226-07

1. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the explanation outlined in highlighted text?

(A) It fails to take into account the effect of geographical circumstances on Hopi culture.
(B) It correctly emphasizes the role of the religious elite in maintaining the system of matrilineal clans.
(C) It represents a misreading of Hopi culture because it fails to take into account the actual differences that existed among the various Hopi clans.
(D) It underestimates the effect on Hopi cultural development of contact with other cultural groups.
(E) It is correct but may be insufficient in itself to explain Hopi sociocultural persistence.



2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Hopis' geographic situation between 1680 and 1880?

(A) It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population.
(B) It helped to promote flexibility within their social system.
(C) It limited but did not eliminate contact with other cultural groups.
(D) It reinforced the religious elite's determination to resist cultural change.
(E) It tended to limit contact between certain Hopi clans.


VRC000226-06

3. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) reassessing a phenomenon in light of new findings
(B) assessing the relative importance of two factors underlying a phenomenon
(C) examining the assumptions underlying an interpretation of a phenomenon
(D) expanding on an explanation of a phenomenon
(E) contrasting two methods for evaluating a phenomenon


VRC000226-02

4. The author of the passage mentions the control of ceremonies by particular Hopi clans most likely in order to

(A) provide an example of the way in which the religious elite protected their position within Hopi society
(B) note an exception to a larger pattern evident in many Native American cultures
(C) explain the connection in Hopi culture between religious and political leadership
(D) illustrate how the Hopis combined flexibility with tradition
(E) cite evidence that counters a common misconception about the structure of Hopi society



000226-04

5. The passage suggests that sociocultural change in Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 was

A. initiated primarily by contact with other cultural groups
B. greater than that experienced by many other Native American peoples during that period
C. less pronounced than might be expected, given the demographic conditions and external pressures during that period
D. less pronounced than it had been previously because of diminution in the Hopi population occurring after 1680
E. accelerated by the particular geographic circumstances of the Hopis



Originally posted by goodyear2013 on 27 Mar 2014, 10:18.
Last edited by workout on 24 Oct 2018, 07:11, edited 8 times in total.
Added Q5
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2014, 22:34
5
Really short and good passage but questions seemed on 600-700 level.

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Hopis' geographic situation between 1680 and 1880?

(A) It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population. --Cant infer this from passage certainly. A trap basically
(B) It helped to promote flexibility within their social system. --Wrong in the context of the passage.
(C) It limited but did not eliminate contact with other cultural groups.-- This is the one mentioned in the passage.
The Hopis’ retention of their distinctive sociocultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups,an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases.
(D) It reinforced the religious elite's determination to resist cultural change.-- Can't be inferred surely.
(E) It tended to limit contact between certain Hopi clans.---- Can't be inferred surely.


The passage is primarily concerned with
A) reassessing a phenomenon in light of new findings---No reassessment of new findings. Out
B) assessing the relative importance of two factors underlying a phenomenon ---Wrong
C) examining the assumptions underlying an interpretation of a phenomenon--- This was a trap. But closely reading the words, we see that the passage is not examining any assumptions
D) expanding on an explanation of a phenomenon-- Yes. Passage is expanding on the explanation of a phenomenon i.e. Hopis’ retention of their distinctive sociocultural system as stated in 1st para
E) contrasting two methodsfor evaluating a phenomenon--- Wrong

Hope it helps :-)
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New post 10 Apr 2014, 03:42
Can anyone explain the second question?

My interpretation:

".. attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases. But equally important to Hopi cultural persistence may have been an inherent flexibility in their social system"

There are two factors - preserve and isolation. No?
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2014, 02:57
pretzel wrote:
Can anyone explain the second question?

My interpretation:

".. attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases. But equally important to Hopi cultural persistence may have been an inherent flexibility in their social system"

There are two factors - preserve and isolation. No?



I also did the same mistake as you did, the only difference being I considered two factors as below:

Determined efforts and inherent flexibility.

However, here we have three factors as give below:

Attributed X to Y and Z

Here
Y=Determined Efforts
Z=Geographical isolation

.But equally important to hopi may have been INHERENT FLEXIBILITY which is the third factor. So,answer cannot be (B).

Had it been only two factors with above phrasing, (B) would have been the correct answer
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2015, 01:18
goodyear2013 wrote:
Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United States often characterize Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 as surprisingly stable, considering that it was a period of diminution in population and pressure from contact with outside groups, factors that might be expected to cause significant changes in Hopi social arrangements.

The Hopis’ retention of their distinctive sociocultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases. But equally important to Hopi cultural persistence may have been an inherent flexibility in their social system that may have allowed preservation of traditions even as the Hopis accommodated themselves to change. For example, the system of matrilineal clans was maintained throughout this period, even though some clans merged to form larger groups while others divided into smaller descent groups. Furthermore, although traditionally members of particular Hopi clans appear to have exclusively controlled particular ceremonies, a clan’s control of a ceremony might shift to another clan if the first became too small to manage the responsibility. Village leadership positions traditionally restricted to members of one clan might be similarly extended to members of other clans, and women might assume such positions under certain unusual conditions.

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Hopis' geographic situation between 1680 and 1880?

(A) It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population.
(B) It helped to promote flexibility within their social system.
(C) It limited but did not eliminate contact with other cultural groups.
(D) It reinforced the religious elite's determination to resist cultural change.
(E) It tended to limit contact between certain Hopi clans.

OA:


The passage is primarily concerned with
A) reassessing a phenomenon in light of new findings
B) assessing the relative importance of two factors underlying a phenomenon
C) examining the assumptions underlying an interpretation of a phenomenon
D) expanding on an explanation of a phenomenon
E) contrasting two methods for evaluating a phenomenon

OA:


The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the explanation outlined in the highlightedtext?
A. It fails to take into account the effect of geographical circumstances on Hopi culture.
B. It correctly emphasizes the role of the religious elite in maintaining the system of matrilineal clans.
C. It represents a misreading of Hopi culture because it fails to take into account the actual differences that existed among the various Hopi clans.
D. It underestimates the effect on Hopi cultural development of contact with other cultural groups.
E. It is correct but may be insufficient in itself to explain Hopi socio-cultural persistence.
E(Not Sure though)



Hi, can anyone explain these questions, please.



adding one more question to the passage .
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New post 25 May 2018, 20:31
1
pikolo2510 wrote:
hello GMATNinja

Can you explain Q2 in this passage?


I'll volunteer.

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Hopis' geographic situation between 1680 and 1880?

(A) It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population.- the choice implies that the Geo location helpedin preventing hopis from diminution -para 1( often characterize Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 as surprisingly stable, considering that it was a period of diminution in population and pressure from contact with outside groups, factors that might be expected to cause significant changes in Hopi social arrangements. ) the anthropologists say that the hopis society was surprisingly stable . why was it surprising? read the next part after surprisingly stable. The diminution of Pop has been cited as a contast just to weigh in on the surprising stability.Nowhere is it related to Geo Loc.

(B) It helped to promote flexibility within their social system. - Entirely goes against the given facts. In fact not the GL but the society's inherent flexibilty helped the retention of culture.

(C) It limited but did not eliminate contact with other cultural groups.- para 2 (a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases). Now the passage states that the GL limited the cultural contact. it did not eliminate it! how do we know this? read the later part of the para 2. evidently other cultural groups(clans) did come into their contact and even were a part of the culture.

(D) It reinforced the religious elite's determination to resist cultural change.- para 2. (Hopis’ retention of their distinctive sociocultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation )note here that the passage states that the retention was attributed to 2 things. nowhere is it mentioned that the elite's stance was strengthed by the GL.

(E) It tended to limit contact between certain Hopi clans.- certain hopi clans? nowhere is it mentioned that there were particular clans the hopis's tried to stay away from. " certain" is the culprit here
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2018, 18:34
workout, can you post explanations for Q1?
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New post 21 Sep 2018, 09:26
Got Q2 wrong. Applied real-world logic and did not stick to passage :|
3/4 in 7:15
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New post 02 Oct 2018, 21:18
goodyear2013, workout, GMATNinja

Question 4 answer is D where as I think it can be answer B because passage says " Furthermore, although traditionally members of particular Hopi clans appear to have exclusively controlled particular ceremonies................" so word traditionally means Hopi clans are doing something unusual.
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New post 04 Oct 2018, 20:11
Experts...plz help with Q1..??
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New post 05 Oct 2018, 08:30
Hey leo125,

The trick with Q1 is the phrase in the highlighted text "and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases." This tells you that there was some isolation, but because it allowed for some cultural contact that isolation was not complete.

A can be eliminated since they did experience a population decline, B can be eliminated because their social system was inherently flexible - it wasn't the geography that caused the flexibility. D exists without the geographic isolation, and E is probably just not true - because the different ceremonies shifted from clan to clan, they probably didn't become isolated from one another.
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 10:37
leo125 wrote:
Experts...plz help with Q1..??

Here's the question again:
Quote:
1. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the explanation outlined in highlighted text?

And here's the relevant portion of the passage:
Quote:
The Hopis’ retention of their distinctive socio-cultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases.

The highlighted text itself presents two factors to explain why the Hopis retained their distinctive socio-cultural system: the efforts of Hopi religious elites and the group's geographical isolation. Moving on from this highlighted text, the author presents a third factor: the flexibility of that system. The author brings this up to stress that this third factor was equally important to the retention of the Hopi's system.

As we evaluate answer choices, remember that "it" always refers to the highlighted text.

Quote:
(A)It fails to take into account the effect of geographical circumstances on Hopi culture.

This completely contradicts the highlighted text, which plainly states that geographical circumstances were one of the key factors contributing to retention of the Hopi socio-cultural system. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B)It correctly emphasizes the role of the religious elite in maintaining the system of matrilineal clans.

The phrase "matrilineal clans" stops us from accepting this answer choice. The consideration of these clans is not part of the highlighted text. It comes later, in support of the author's consideration of social flexibility. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(C)It represents a misreading of Hopi culture because it fails to take into account the actual differences that existed among the various Hopi clans.

This is totally off the mark. The highlighted text may leave out the third factor of flexibility, but the author never indicates that accepting these other two factors is a misreading of Hopi culture. Rather, the author agrees with the highlighted text and wishes to add a third piece of the puzzle to complete this picture. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D)It underestimates the effect on Hopi cultural development of contact with other cultural groups.

The author wrote this passage to explain why contact with outside groups did not lead to significant changes in Hopi society. This choice goes in a totally different direction, which doesn't reflect the highlighted text and runs completely counter to why the author writes those highlighted statements. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E)It is correct but may be insufficient in itself to explain Hopi sociocultural persistence.

This is the correct choice we've been looking for! It perfectly matches why the author is bringing up the highlighted text: the author believes that these statements are true, but also believes there is a third, equally important factor that must be considered.

(E) is the best choice, and every other choice can be eliminated confidently. I hope this helps!

AdityaHongunti wrote:
pikolo2510 wrote:
hello GMATNinja

Can you explain Q2 in this passage?


I'll volunteer.

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Hopis' geographic situation between 1680 and 1880?

(A) It prevented the Hopis from experiencing a diminution in population.- the choice implies that the Geo location helpedin preventing hopis from diminution -para 1( often characterize Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 as surprisingly stable, considering that it was a period of diminution in population and pressure from contact with outside groups, factors that might be expected to cause significant changes in Hopi social arrangements. ) the anthropologists say that the hopis society was surprisingly stable . why was it surprising? read the next part after surprisingly stable. The diminution of Pop has been cited as a contast just to weigh in on the surprising stability.Nowhere is it related to Geo Loc.

(B) It helped to promote flexibility within their social system. - Entirely goes against the given facts. In fact not the GL but the society's inherent flexibilty helped the retention of culture.

(C) It limited but did not eliminate contact with other cultural groups.- para 2 (a geographical isolation greater than that of many other Native American groups, an isolation that limited both cultural contact and exposure to European diseases). Now the passage states that the GL limited the cultural contact. it did not eliminate it! how do we know this? read the later part of the para 2. evidently other cultural groups(clans) did come into their contact and even were a part of the culture.

(D) It reinforced the religious elite's determination to resist cultural change.- para 2. (Hopis’ retention of their distinctive sociocultural system has been attributed to the Hopi religious elite’s determined efforts to preserve their religion and way of life, and also to a geographical isolation )note here that the passage states that the retention was attributed to 2 things. nowhere is it mentioned that the elite's stance was strengthed by the GL.

(E) It tended to limit contact between certain Hopi clans.- certain hopi clans? nowhere is it mentioned that there were particular clans the hopis's tried to stay away from. " certain" is the culprit here

Great work, AdityaHongunti!
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2018, 03:01
5:41.
3/4
Got 2nd question wrong.
Couldn't locate the exact sentence there.
Good 600-700 passage
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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2018, 06:50
1
Dear Mods workout Gnpth

Please add this missing question

000226-04
The passage suggests that sociocultural change in Hopi society between 1680 and 1880 was
A. initiated primarily by contact with other cultural groups
B. greater than that experienced by many other Native American peoples during that period
C. less pronounced than might be expected, given the demographic conditions and external pressures during that period
D. less pronounced than it had been previously because of diminution in the Hopi population occurring after 1680
E. accelerated by the particular geographic circumstances of the Hopis

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Re: Anthropologists studying the Hopi people of the southwestern United St &nbs [#permalink] 24 Oct 2018, 06:50
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