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Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made

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Re: Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2018, 00:47
bigoyal wrote:
Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington. D.C., also established the Library of Congress.

(A) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established

(B) The act of Congress, which was approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established

(C) The act of Congress approved April 24, 1800, which made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., and established

(D) Approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., the act of Congress also established

(E) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also establishing



hello generis, any idea why D is wrong ? it was my choice :-)
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New post 02 Sep 2018, 01:13
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dave13 wrote:
bigoyal wrote:
Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington. D.C., also established the Library of Congress.

(A) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established

(B) The act of Congress, which was approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established

(C) The act of Congress approved April 24, 1800, which made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., and established

(D) Approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., the act of Congress also established

(E) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also establishing



hello generis, any idea why D is wrong ? it was my choice :-)
Hey dave13

Though, your question is not directed to me, I would like to help you with this one. The first thing that pops out in D is back to back modifier. Gmat seems to dislike back to back modifier for a subject.

Eg: modifier 1, modifier 2, subject
If modifier 1 and modifier 2 modifies subject, it is not the construction we want.

However, if modifier 1 modifies subject and modifier 2 modifies modifier 1, then this construction is perfectly ok

If that sounds too abstract, consider these examples:

1) MODIFIER 1, Subject
=ok. This is the most common one.
Having spent three months preparing for GMAT, Sumit needed to decide on a date to take the exam.

2) MODIFIER 1, more modifier referring to modifier 1, subject= this is also ok


3) MODIFIER 1+modifier of main sentence+ subject

This is NOT okay.

Eg: Approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., the act of Congress - - - > read out modifier 2 in isolation---> it seems to modify subject.
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Hope this helps. Do ask if anything remains unclear.



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New post 02 Sep 2018, 01:26
teaserbae wrote:
hazelnut GMATNinjaTwo generis Vyshak daagh @karishmab
Can you please explain why B and D is wrong ?
Hi teaserbae,

You can check out my explanation for option D and B in my above post. Verbal experts can correct me if I am wrong.

Regards,
Sumit

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New post 03 Sep 2018, 02:42
hi expert can some explain correct answer A .
which is the verb for the act of congress . as per my undertanding verb is missing
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New post 03 Sep 2018, 13:07
sumit411 wrote:
dave13 wrote:
bigoyal wrote:
Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington. D.C., also established the Library of Congress.

(A) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established

(B) The act of Congress, which was approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established

(C) The act of Congress approved April 24, 1800, which made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., and established

(D) Approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., the act of Congress also established

(E) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also establishing



hello generis, any idea why D is wrong ? it was my choice :-)
Hey dave13

Though, your question is not directed to me, I would like to help you with this one. The first thing that pops out in D is back to back modifier. Gmat seems to dislike back to back modifier for a subject.

Eg: modifier 1, modifier 2, subject
If modifier 1 and modifier 2 modifies subject, it is not the construction we want.

However, if modifier 1 modifies subject and modifier 2 modifies modifier 1, then this construction is perfectly ok

If that sounds too abstract, consider these examples:

1) MODIFIER 1, Subject
=ok. This is the most common one.
Having spent three months preparing for GMAT, Sumit needed to decide on a date to take the exam.

2) MODIFIER 1, more modifier referring to modifier 1, subject= this is also ok


3) MODIFIER 1+modifier of main sentence+ subject

This is NOT okay.

Eg: Approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., the act of Congress - - - > read out modifier 2 in isolation---> it seems to modify subject.
__________________

Hope this helps. Do ask if anything remains unclear.



Thank you = Kudos



thank you Sumit for taking time to explain, but i still dont get this concept, may be you could explain MagooshExpert :-)
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Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2018, 19:49
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teaserbae wrote:
generis
Can you please explain why B and D is wrong ?

dave13 wrote:
bigoyal wrote:
Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington. D.C., also established the Library of Congress.

(A) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established

(B) The act of Congress, which was approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established

(C) The act of Congress approved April 24, 1800, which made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., and established

(D) Approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., the act of Congress also established

(E) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also establishing

hello generis, any idea why D is wrong ? it was my choice :-)

Hi dave13 and teaserbae ,

(I am not the expert from Magoosh, but I am replying to your callout from yesterday.)

Although sumit411 is partly correct about GMAC's preference for modifiers that are not back-to-back, the rules that govern the different types of possible combinations are complex and subject to exceptions and variations that make my head hurt.

Options B and D can be eliminated on fairly straightforward grounds.

This question tests logical predication and parallelism.

The sentence is supposed to describe two separate things about an act of Congress.

Fact #1: the act was passed on April 24, 1800.

Fact #2: its provisions made two things happen: "A" (moved the government to a new city); and "B" (established the Library of Congress)

Both options B and D fail at that descriptive task.

Look at the modifiers.

Essential and nonessential modifiers (and "that" vs. "which")

Note: in this post, "restrictive" and "essential" are interchangeable. Similarly, "non-restrictive" and "nonessential" are interchangeable.

The modifiers in B and D are set off by commas. The modifiers, therefore, allegedly are not essential.

Logically, however, the modifiers are essential to convey the two different facts about the act (when it was passed and what it did).

The absence of commas signals that a modifier is restrictive. Only restrictive modifiers are not set off by commas.
Stated differently, only essential modifiers have no commas.

Hence the "THAT without commas" construction signals an essential part of the sentence. Removing an essential modifier changes the core of the sentence.

The "WHICH + commas" construction indicates that the information is not essential to the core of the sentence and can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence.

So -- remove the "comma WHICH" clause from B (allegedly that "which" clause merely provides some extra information). We have:

(B) The act of Congress making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established the Library of Congress.

Incorrect. We can't just remove the date on which an important piece of legislation was approved! When it was approved makes a difference to the meaning of the sentence.

Option B also sets off "making provision for" with commas. We will remove that modifier, too -- right below, in option D.

In Option D, again we have an allegedly nonessential modifier ("making provision for" is set off by commas). Remove that phrase.

(B) and (D): The act of Congress also established the Library of Congress.

Definitely not correct. (Date of approval? First provision of the act? We cannot have an "also" without a second something to which the "also" refers.)

Parallel verb forms

In addition, if you missed the modifier issue (learn about essential and nonessential modifiers HERE), the verb forms that describe the act's provisions are not parallel in options B and D.

As both original options stand, we have:

X makING provision for A . . . and establishED B

(We can use "and" in place of "also" in discussing the contents of the act in these two options. The comma that precedes "also" exists only because a city and its territory are named. If the sentence used "new city" instead of "Washington, D.C.," there would be no comma before "also.")

MakING and establishED are not parallel. The CORRECT construction is:

X made provision for A and established B

OR (in correct option A): The X that made provision for A also established B.

The weird modifier: [date], making?

Finally, most of the time, a comma + ___ ING (present participle modifier) refers to whatever precedes it. B and D say:

. . . April 24, 1800, making . . .

The date that the act was passed and the content of the act have nothing to do with each other.
The modifier is illogical at best.

Avoid confusion, remember the "touch" rule, and use option A as a benchmark

Okay, I fibbed. I have one more thought. We should think explicitly about the "touch" rule. (So far we have been using the rule tacitly.)

The "touch" rule states that a noun and its modifier should be placed next to each other, and if that construct is not possible they should be placed as close together as possible.

Remember the reason for the rule. A sentence may contain many nouns. If the sentence also contains noun modifiers, the reader needs to know which noun is being modified (and by which modifier).

The basic idea is very simple. If I am writing some information about something, I should put that information close to what I am writing about.

Answer A sets the two important facts about the act right next to the act. The two separate facts are placed right before and right after "the act."
Option A uses the essential modifier THAT and thus is crystal clear that all of the information contained in the description of the act's provisions is vital.

Although finding four wrong answers is the best strategy, sometimes that strategy must include comparing answers.
Whittle down the options. Compare those that remain. (Ideally none remain, but that scenario will not happen every time.)

Some very hard SCs may look as if no answer could be correct. In this case, however, at the least option A is a clear possibility.

As you try to sort through all the issues that B and D present, remember to compare what you like with options that have no glaring errors.

dave13 and teaserbae - I hope that answer helps. :-)

If not, ask your question a bit more specifically and we'll be glad to help.
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New post 03 Sep 2018, 20:34
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jafy wrote:
hi expert can some explain correct answer A .
which is the verb for the act of congress . as per my undertanding verb is missing

jafy , the verb is not missing. :-)

Here is option A:

(A) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established the Library of Congress.

"Made provision for" is a rarely-used way to say "arranged for" or "organized."

We can think of option A as if it stated, "Approved April 24, 1800, the congressional act that arranged for the removal of the government to a new city also established the Library of Congress."

The act that did A . . . also did B.

The opening phrase "Approved [date]" modifies the noun "the act of Congress." That opening phrase is a participial modifier ("approved" is the past participle of approve)

Hope that helps. :-)
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Re: Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 10:12
generis wrote:
teaserbae wrote:
generis
Can you please explain why B and D is wrong ?


dave13 wrote:
bigoyal wrote:
Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington. D.C., also established the Library of Congress.

(A) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established

(B) The act of Congress, which was approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established

(C) The act of Congress approved April 24, 1800, which made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., and established

(D) Approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., the act of Congress also established

(E) Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress made provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also establishing

hello generis, any idea why D is wrong ? it was my choice :-)

Hi dave13 and teaserbae ,

(I am not the expert from Magoosh, but I am replying to your callout from yesterday.)

Although sumit411 is partly correct about GMAC's PREFERENCE for modifiers that are not back-to-back, the exceptions and variations make my head hurt.

Options B and D can be eliminated on more straightforward grounds.

This question tests logical predication and parallelism.

The sentence is supposed to describe two separate things about an act of Congress.

Fact one: the act was passed on April 24, 1800.

Fact two: its provisions made two things happen: A (moved the government to a new city); and B (established the Library of Congress)

Both options B and D fail at that task.

Look at the modifiers.

The modifiers in B and D are set off by commas. The modifiers allegedly are not essential.

Logically, however, the modifiers are essential to convey the two different facts about the act: when it was passed, and what it did.

The absence of commas signals that the modifier is restrictive; only restrictive modifiers are not set off by commas.

Hence the THAT without commas signals an essential part of the sentence; removing an essential modifier changes the core of the sentence.

The "WHICH + commas" construction indicates that the information is not essential to the core of the sentence and can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence.

So -- remove the "comma WHICH" clause from B (allegedly the "which" clause just provides some extra information). We have:

The act of Congress making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., also established the Library of Congress.

Incorrect. We can't just remove the date an important piece of legislation was approved. When it was approved makes a difference.

In Option D, we have nonessential modifiers (they are set off by commas). Remove them.

(D) The act of Congress also established the Library of Congress.

Definitely not correct.

In addition, if you missed the modifiers (learn about essential and nonessential!), the verb forms that describe the act's provisions are not parallel.

As the options stand, we have

X makING provision for A and establishED B

(we can use "and" to describe "also" because the comma that precedes also exists only because a city is named)

Making and established are not parallel. The CORRECT construction would be

X made provision for A and established B

Finally, in its typical usage, a comma + ___ ING (present participle modifier) refers to whatever precedes it. B and D say:

April 24, 1800, making

The date the act was passed and the content of the act have nothing to do with each other; the modifier is illogical at best.

Okay, I fibbed. One more thought: Answer A sets the two important facts about the act right next to the act and uses the essential modifier THAT. Although finding four wrong answers is the best strategy, sometimes that strategy includes comparing answers. Whittle them down. Compare those that remain. (Ideally, none remain, but that scenario probably will not happen 100% of the time.)

Some very hard SCs may look as if no answer is correct. But option A is very clear.

With all the issues that B and D present, remember to compare what you like with options that have no glaring errors.

dave13 and teaserbae - I hope that answer helps. :-)

If not, ask your question a bit more specifically and we'll be glad to help.


generis if there was no also in B would that be correct sentence ?
Or we will still require essential modifer ?

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Re: Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 11:16
egmat can you please take this question and explain how in (A) made is verb .

At times its difficult to check if the help verb is required with the words to make them verbs ex, Found etc.
Can you please explain.
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Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 12:37
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generis wrote:

(I am not the expert from Magoosh, but I am replying to your callout from yesterday.)



Dear generis, you are not an expert from Magoosh ,

but you are messiah ,SC heaven knight, sent by SC gods from Olympus to teach us how modifiers can modify everything ...even life :-)

For example compare following sentences :

How pity, you are finally leaving. :lol: VS Finally, how pity, you are leaving.

thanks a lot for wonderful explanation, should i have any questons i will ask you :)
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Approved April 24, 1800, the act of Congress that made  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 18:58
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teaserbae wrote:
generis wrote:
I hope that answer helps. :-)

If not, ask your question a bit more specifically and we'll be glad to help.

generis if there was no also in B would that be correct sentence ?
Or we will still require essential modifer ?

Thanks

teaserbae removing ALSO does not solve the problems in option B.

The problems stem from misuse of modifiers. As you suspected, the modifiers in option B should be essential (no commas) rather than nonessential (and set off by commas).

Rewriting options is often a tough exercise.

So let's look at B without "also" but WITH the allegedly nonessential modifiers in plain text:

(B) The act of Congress, which was approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., established the Library of Congress.

Now we will remove the allegedly nonessential modifiers. We have

The act of Congress established the Library of Congress.

In a strict sense, that sentence has no grammatical errors.

We know, though, that the sentence should convey more information about a particular act of Congress than our revised option B just did.

The sentence should describe the act's approval date and its two separate provisions (moving the government and establishing the Library of Congress).

Removing "also" did not help. "Also" is not the problem.

Back to our revised version of option B (without also): The act of Congress established the Library of Congress. :o

The problems in original option B now are really evident.

The "comma WHICH" clause and the "comma makING" phrase are nonessential modifiers but SHOULD BE essential modifiers.

That fact becomes clear upon inspection of the results of the revised option B.

We removed the information that followed "which."

1) Date of approval? GONE

Conclusion about #1? That essential information should not have been attached to a WHICH set off by commas.

"Comma makING" similarly indicates that its information is not essential. We removed the phrase.

2) First provision of the act? GONE.

CONCLUSION about #2? That information was essential. It should not have been in a phrase set off by commas.

Finally, as I mentioned above, even if "making" were not stuck in a nonessential phrase, making is the wrong verb form.

Change both participles to ___ ING verb forms to make them parallel:

The act of Congress, which was approved April 24, 1800, making provision for the removal of the government of the United States to the new federal city, Washington, D.C., establishing the Library of Congress.

The second part of that sentence is a fragment that lacks a verb.

"Making" and "establishing" are present participles, not verbs.
To be a verb, a ___ING word needs another verb right before it, such as "was making." If there is no prior verb, the ___ ING word is not a verb.

Option B needs essential modifiers and a different verb form for "making."

To get a better understanding of modifiers, a good starting point is the difference between THAT and WHICH. The distinction is fairly simple and very reliable.

This article discusses essential and nonessential modifiers and contains a good section dedicated to THAT vs. WHICH.

The article is not long. At minimum I would read from the beginning of the article to the end of the section titled "THAT/WHICH."

Below is a general guide for that/which.

Essential modifier?
If removed, meaning changes.
Use THAT. No commas

Nonessential modifier?
If removed, meaning does not change.
Use WHICH. With comma(s)

I hope this analysis answers your question. :-)
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