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As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participa

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As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participate in over 30 minutes of aerobic exercise at least three times a week have a significantly lower prevalence of respiratory illness than those who do not. In recent years, studies have consistently confirmed these same statistics. It can be concluded, therefore, that regular aerobic exercise can be helpful in preventing respiratory illness.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?


A. Some respiratory illnesses are hereditary and therefore minimally affected by lifestyle choices.
B. The amount of air pollution, a common cause of respiratory illness, has increased dramatically since the 1950s.
C. People with respiratory illnesses are generally told by doctors that they must limit or cease their aerobic exercise routines.
D. Recent studies have debunked the conventional wisdom that aerobic exercise is an effective preventer of heart disease.
E. The lengths of the average workday and commute have increased markedly since the 1950s, leaving the average person with less time for aerobic exercise.

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Originally posted by Bunuel on 25 Jun 2018, 22:19.
Last edited by Bunuel on 29 Jun 2018, 04:15, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participa [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2018, 23:16
Question Type: Weaken

Argument: Regular aerobic exercise can be helpful in preventing respiratory illness

A. Some respiratory illnesses are hereditary and therefore minimally affected by lifestyle choices. - Irrelevant. This doesn't mean practicing aerobic exercise cannot reduce the risk of respiratory illnesses.

B. The amount of air pollution, a common cause of respiratory illness, has increased dramatically since the 1950s. - Out of context.

C. People with respiratory illnesses are generally told by doctors that they must limit or cease their aerobic exercise routines. - Focuses on people with respiratory illnesses. Argument focuses on preventing respiratory illnesses.

D. Recent studies have debunked the conventional wisdom that aerobic exercise is an effective preventer of heart disease. - Correct.

E. The lengths of the average workday and commute have increased markedly since the 1950s, leaving the average person with less time for aerobic exercise. - Irrelevant. No connection is established between aerobic exercise and the risk of developing respiratory illness.

Answer: D
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Re: As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participa [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2018, 23:41
Vyshak wrote:
Question Type: Weaken

Argument: Regular aerobic exercise can be helpful in preventing respiratory illness

A. Some respiratory illnesses are hereditary and therefore minimally affected by lifestyle choices. - Irrelevant. This doesn't mean practicing aerobic exercise cannot reduce the risk of respiratory illnesses.

B. The amount of air pollution, a common cause of respiratory illness, has increased dramatically since the 1950s. - Out of context.

C. People with respiratory illnesses are generally told by doctors that they must limit or cease their aerobic exercise routines. - Focuses on people with respiratory illnesses. Argument focuses on preventing respiratory illnesses.

D. Recent studies have debunked the conventional wisdom that aerobic exercise is an effective preventer of heart disease. - Correct.

E. The lengths of the average workday and commute have increased markedly since the 1950s, leaving the average person with less time for aerobic exercise. - Irrelevant. No connection is established between aerobic exercise and the risk of developing respiratory illness.

Answer: D


can you explain how you arrived at D? as d is talking about an unrelated disease
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Re: As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participa [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 00:13
IMO, the answer is C.
If patients are told to stop aerobic exercise, then the author cannot claim that aerobic alleviates respiratory disease.

D seems to be a strengthener to me?
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New post 26 Jun 2018, 00:15
gzsakuraz wrote:
IMO, the answer is C.
If patients are told to stop aerobic exercise, then the author cannot claim that aerobic alleviates respiratory disease.

D seems to be a strengthener to me?


do u think A can be the answer? the conclusion is that exercise will help prevent the illness. [ a general blanket statement]
But A says that you cant prevent a few of them even with exercises.
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New post 26 Jun 2018, 00:22
rahulkashyap wrote:
gzsakuraz wrote:
IMO, the answer is C.
If patients are told to stop aerobic exercise, then the author cannot claim that aerobic alleviates respiratory disease.

D seems to be a strengthener to me?


do u think A can be the answer? the conclusion is that exercise will help prevent the illness. [ a general blanket statement]
But A says that you cant prevent a few of them even with exercises.


I am not sure whether "some" can cover respiratory illness in general.

What do you think?
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New post 26 Jun 2018, 00:24
gzsakuraz wrote:
IMO, the answer is C.
If patients are told to stop aerobic exercise, then the author cannot claim that aerobic alleviates respiratory disease.

D seems to be a strengthener to me?


the issue at hand is to prevent and not to alleviate, though
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Re: As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participa [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 00:29
D is a bit specific. Vyshak 's same reasoning for (eliminating A) can be applied to D as well.

Not sure which one to select between A and D. Vyshak , GMATNinja - your thoughts?
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New post 26 Jun 2018, 00:30
rahulkashyap wrote:
gzsakuraz wrote:
IMO, the answer is C.
If patients are told to stop aerobic exercise, then the author cannot claim that aerobic alleviates respiratory disease.

D seems to be a strengthener to me?


the issue at hand is to prevent and not to alleviate, though


Oh, I think you are right. *my fault

Thanks a lot!
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Re: As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participa [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 00:40
I agree with you but for me D is the best among the given options. A says "Some respiratory illnesses are hereditary and therefore minimally affected by lifestyle choices". - You have 2 keywords here 'some' and 'minimally affected'. 'Some' brings in a lot of ambiguity and covers only hereditary illnesses. 'Minimally affected' - You are not ruling out the possibility that there is some level of impact by the lifestyle choices one adopts. So, A can't be the answer.

pikolo2510 wrote:
D is a bit specific. Vyshak 's same reasoning for (eliminating A) can be applied to D as well.

Not sure which one to select between A and D. Vyshak , GMATNinja - your thoughts?
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New post 26 Jun 2018, 00:44
Vyshak wrote:
I agree with you but for me D is the best among the given options. A says "Some respiratory illnesses are hereditary and therefore minimally affected by lifestyle choices". - You have 2 keywords here 'some' and 'minimally affected'. 'Some' brings in a lot of ambiguity and covers only hereditary illnesses. 'Minimally affected' - You are not ruling out the possibility that there is some level of impact by the lifestyle choices one adopts. So, A can't be the answer.

pikolo2510 wrote:
D is a bit specific. Vyshak 's same reasoning for (eliminating A) can be applied to D as well.

Not sure which one to select between A and D. Vyshak , GMATNinja - your thoughts?


Can you detail how an unrelated disease could have any bearing on this issue?

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 00:59
How do you know that heart disease is unrelated to a respiratory illness?

Moreover, the argument uses the evidence of a recent study ('In recent years, studies have consistently confirmed these same statistics.") before arriving at the conclusion ("It can be concluded, therefore, that regular aerobic exercise can be helpful in preventing respiratory illness").

D directly attacks the conclusion by stating one more evidence that's contrary to the evidence stated in the argument.

rahulkashyap wrote:

Can you detail how an unrelated disease could have any bearing on this issue?

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 01:03
Well you have sort of assumed that heart diseases are related to respiratory ones...and I do not think that is a valid assumption that can be made

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 01:21
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Bunuel wrote:
As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participate in over 30 minutes of aerobic exercise at least three times a week have a significantly lower incidence of respiratory illness than those who do not. In recent years, studies have consistently confirmed these same statistics. It can be concluded, therefore, that regular aerobic exercise can be helpful in preventing respiratory illness.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?


A. Some respiratory illnesses are hereditary and therefore minimally affected by lifestyle choices.

B. The amount of air pollution, a common cause of respiratory illness, has increased dramatically since the 1950s.

C. People with respiratory illnesses are generally told by doctors that they must limit or cease their aerobic exercise routines.

D. Recent studies have debunked the conventional wisdom that aerobic exercise is an effective preventer of heart disease.

E. The lengths of the average workday and commute have increased markedly since the 1950s, leaving the average person with less time for aerobic exercise.



Question Type: Weaken

Premise: Research in 1950's & recently has confirmed that adults who participate in 30 mins of aerobic exercise three times per week, have lower incidence of respiratory illness, than adults who do not.

Conclusion: Regular aerobic exercise can be helpful in preventing respiratory illness

Analysis: The argument is based on a sample of adults & the conclusion is extrapolated. The tone of the conclusion is speculative affirmation rather than a claim.


A. Some respiratory illnesses are hereditary and therefore minimally affected by lifestyle choices. - If some respiratory illnesses are still prone to occur irrespective of aerobic exercise than the conclusion does not hold. Correct

B. The amount of air pollution, a common cause of respiratory illness, has increased dramatically since the 1950s. - The study is also conducted in recent year & has shown same results. Incorrect

C. People with respiratory illnesses are generally told by doctors that they must limit or cease their aerobic exercise routines. This means that people who have already developed respiratory illness, are generally told by doctors, not to exercise. However the argument is talking about prevention of respiratory illnesses & not curing or aggravation of respiratory illness which might be case if adults with respiratory illness indulge in aerobic exercise. Incorrect.

D. Recent studies have debunked the conventional wisdom that aerobic exercise is an effective preventer of heart disease.- We do not know whether heart disease & respiratory illness are related. Incorrect.

E. The lengths of the average workday and commute have increased markedly since the 1950s, leaving the average person with less time for aerobic exercise. Out of scope. Incorrect

Answer A.



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Re: As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participa [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 01:28
Hmmm, if my answer is correct then the assumption is made by the person who set the question and not by me :-). My answer may be wrong and I haven't checked the answer choice in the official material. You can provide your reasoning, if you feel that some other option is correct.

rahulkashyap wrote:
Well you have sort of assumed that heart diseases are related to respiratory ones...and I do not think that is a valid assumption that can be made

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 01:49
Vyshak wrote:
Hmmm, if my answer is correct then the assumption is made by the person who set the question and not by me :-). My answer may be wrong and I haven't checked the answer choice in the official material. You can provide your reasoning, if you feel that some other option is correct.

rahulkashyap wrote:
Well you have sort of assumed that heart diseases are related to respiratory ones...and I do not think that is a valid assumption that can be made

Posted from my mobile device


alright so here is my reasoning why you may be wrong.

So the conclusion says A causes B. and it asks you to weaken this statement.
What choice D says is that another incident, A causes C was believed to be true until now. Now the statement A causes C is no longer valid.

So i am not sure what bearing this has on A causes B.

I think A should be the answer and here is my reasoning:

A causes B ... exercise prevents illness.
This is a blanket statement. Lets say i have an illness that is hereditary. Now according to A, even if i do exercise, the illness is not prevented. Hence the blanket conclusion falls apart.
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New post 26 Jun 2018, 05:47
Vyshak wrote:
I agree with you but for me D is the best among the given options. A says "Some respiratory illnesses are hereditary and therefore minimally affected by lifestyle choices". - You have 2 keywords here 'some' and 'minimally affected'. 'Some' brings in a lot of ambiguity and covers only hereditary illnesses. 'Minimally affected' - You are not ruling out the possibility that there is some level of impact by the lifestyle choices one adopts. So, A can't be the answer.

pikolo2510 wrote:
D is a bit specific. Vyshak 's same reasoning for (eliminating A) can be applied to D as well.

Not sure which one to select between A and D. Vyshak , GMATNinja - your thoughts?


Got it, thanks Vyshak

Here's why we should eliminate A
Lets suppose there are 100 respiratory illnesses. Now as per option A, lets think about the possible outcomes

Case 1 : -
2 illnesses hereditary - minimally affected by lifestyle choices (aerobic exercises)
98 illnesses not hereditary - not minimally affected by lifestyle choices (aerobic exercises)

The above case is strengthening the argument

Case 2 : -
2 illnesses not hereditary - not minimally affected by lifestyle choices(aerobic exercises)
98 illnesses hereditary - minimally affected by lifestyle choices(aerobic exercises)

The above case is weakening the argument

Hence, I think we can safely eliminate option A. By POE, answer should be D
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New post 27 Jun 2018, 06:04
We need to find an option which weakens the conclusion

A. Some respiratory illnesses are hereditary and therefore minimally affected by lifestyle choices. ==> Ambiguous =>Eliminate

B. The amount of air pollution, a common cause of respiratory illness, has increased dramatically since the 1950s.==> could be more causes which we can control with exercise ==> Eliminate

C. People with respiratory illnesses are generally told by doctors that they must limit or cease their aerobic exercise routines.==> Who does not have any illness can prevent it from occurring==>eliminate

D. Recent studies have debunked the conventional wisdom that aerobic exercise is an effective preventer of heart disease.==> Shows that it reduces heart but not respiratory ==> Contradicts the study ==> Weaken

E. The lengths of the average workday and commute have increased markedly since the 1950s, leaving the average person with less time for aerobic exercise.==> Eliminate


Generally we can eliminate the sentences with words " Generally , Average , few " which does not give us a definitive meaning.

Even if one is not sure how to eliminate Option D , if we eliminate remaining options for their reasoning only left out is Option D
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New post 27 Jun 2018, 06:18
[quote="baru"]We need to find an option which weakens the conclusion

A. [color=#ff0000]Some respiratory[/color] illnesses are hereditary and therefore minimally affected by lifestyle choices. ==> Ambiguous =>Eliminate

B. The amount of air pollution,[color=#ff0000] a common cause of respiratory illness[/color], has increased dramatically since the 1950s.==> could be more causes which we can control with exercise ==> Eliminate

C. People with respiratory illnesses are generally told by doctors that they must limit or cease their aerobic exercise routines.==> Who does not have any illness can prevent it from occurring==>eliminate

[color=#00ff00]D. Recent studies have debunked the conventional wisdom that aerobic exercise is an effective preventer of heart disease.==> Shows that it reduces heart but not respiratory ==> Contradicts the study ==> Weaken
[/color]
E. The lengths of the [color=#ff0000]average workday[/color] and commute have increased markedly since the 1950s, leaving the average person with less time for aerobic exercise.==> Eliminate


Generally we can eliminate the sentences with words " Generally , Average , few " which does not give us a definitive meaning.

Even if one is not sure how to eliminate Option D , if we eliminate remaining options for their reasoning only left out is Option D[/quote]

Even if you got the answer as D through POE, it needs to ultimately make sense as the answer. Heart disease has no bearing on pulmonary diseases..

[size=80][b][i]Posted from my mobile device[/i][/b][/size]
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Re: As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participa [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2018, 07:39
I would say the answer is A. Looking forward to the OA!

The only other possible choice is D, however D states that " aerobic exercise is not an effective preventer of heart disease.", nowhere in the argument have they mentioned that heart disease is linked to respiratory illness, hence it would be out of scope.
Even if this claim is true, it would have no effect on the conclusion of the argument stating that - that regular aerobic exercise can be helpful in preventing respiratory illness.
Re: As far back as the 1950s, research has shown that adults who participa   [#permalink] 27 Jun 2018, 07:39

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