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# As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2

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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
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generis GMATNinja

Maybe I am too picky, but while I totally agree that (D) is the best option, I have some concerns about the meaning... Let me explain why.

The production is expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide. The parallelism is correct, my concern is about the placement of almost

Would it be logical to say the production is expected almost to provide? This makes little sense to me... The production either provides or not. IMO, the sentence would have been much clearer if it said

The production is expected to almost double by the end of the year and thus to provide.

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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
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mykrasovski wrote:
generis GMATNinja

Maybe I am too picky, but while I totally agree that (D) is the best option, I have some concerns about the meaning... Let me explain why.

The production is expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide. The parallelism is correct, my concern is about the placement of almost

Would it be logical to say the production is expected almost to provide? This makes little sense to me... The production either provides or not. IMO, the sentence would have been much clearer if it said

The production is expected to almost double by the end of the year and thus to provide.

The problem is the word "thus". If we apply "almost" to both parts of the parallel list, we get:

"Production is expected almost to double and [almost] thus to provide." That clearly doesn't make any sense, so we can't apply "almost" to both parts.

More importantly, if you know why the other four are wrong, you don't need to worry about this minor point.
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
Dear EMPOWERgmatVerbal

Regarding choice D, should “expected almost to double” be rewritten by “expected to almost double”? Because in the choice D, “almost” technically modifies for “expected”, but not “double?

EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the right choice quickly! First, let's take a look at the original question and highlight any major differences in orange:

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing
(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

After a quick glance over the options, a couple key differences jump out that we can focus on:

1. almost expected vs. expected almost (Adverbs & Meaning)
2. which would provide / thus providing / to provide / and thus to provide / which would thus be providing (Modifiers)

Let's start with #1 on our list because it will eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly. What we're dealing with here is adverb placement. We need to figure out what the adverb "almost" SHOULD be paired up with to determine which one we need:

almost expected to double = refers to the likelihood that production will double at all
expected almost to double = refers to the amount by which production will change

It makes more sense to say that the amount of production might double, and not that production might be expected. So let's rule out any options that don't clearly place the adverb "almost" with "double/s":

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing
(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

We can eliminate options A & B because they don't have the adverb "almost" in the proper place to convey the meaning we're after. Now that we have things narrowed down, let's take a closer look at each remaining option with the non-underlined parts plugged in and determine which is the best one:

(C) As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

This option is INCORRECT because it contains a vague pronoun! It's not clear at all what the pronoun "it" is referring to here - windmills, production, megawatts? If we read this sentence through, the phrase "production is expected that it will almost double" sounds incredibly clunky and awkward as well.

(D) As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

This is CORRECT! The adverb "almost" is in the right place, there are no issues with parallelism (to double/to provide), and there are no modifier issues.

(E) As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

This option is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, it has a ", which"modifier that's being used incorrectly. "Which" modifiers are NOUN modifiers, and they can only modify the noun closest to them. In this case, the modifier is trying to modify the noun "year," which isn't right. The modifier should refer back to "production." It's also incorrect because the two things that production accomplishes aren't written using parallel format (to double / be providing).

There you have it - option D is the correct choice! By focusing on the obvious differences between the options, we can easily weed out wrong choices to get to the right one quickly!

Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
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TrungTiger wrote:
Dear EMPOWERgmatVerbal

Regarding choice D, should “expected almost to double” be rewritten by “expected to almost double”? Because in the choice D, “almost” technically modifies for “expected”, but not “double?

EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the right choice quickly! First, let's take a look at the original question and highlight any major differences in orange:

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing
(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

After a quick glance over the options, a couple key differences jump out that we can focus on:

1. almost expected vs. expected almost (Adverbs & Meaning)
2. which would provide / thus providing / to provide / and thus to provide / which would thus be providing (Modifiers)

Let's start with #1 on our list because it will eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly. What we're dealing with here is adverb placement. We need to figure out what the adverb "almost" SHOULD be paired up with to determine which one we need:

almost expected to double = refers to the likelihood that production will double at all
expected almost to double = refers to the amount by which production will change

It makes more sense to say that the amount of production might double, and not that production might be expected. So let's rule out any options that don't clearly place the adverb "almost" with "double/s":

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing
(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

We can eliminate options A & B because they don't have the adverb "almost" in the proper place to convey the meaning we're after. Now that we have things narrowed down, let's take a closer look at each remaining option with the non-underlined parts plugged in and determine which is the best one:

(C) As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

This option is INCORRECT because it contains a vague pronoun! It's not clear at all what the pronoun "it" is referring to here - windmills, production, megawatts? If we read this sentence through, the phrase "production is expected that it will almost double" sounds incredibly clunky and awkward as well.

(D) As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

This is CORRECT! The adverb "almost" is in the right place, there are no issues with parallelism (to double/to provide), and there are no modifier issues.

(E) As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

This option is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, it has a ", which"modifier that's being used incorrectly. "Which" modifiers are NOUN modifiers, and they can only modify the noun closest to them. In this case, the modifier is trying to modify the noun "year," which isn't right. The modifier should refer back to "production." It's also incorrect because the two things that production accomplishes aren't written using parallel format (to double / be providing).

There you have it - option D is the correct choice! By focusing on the obvious differences between the options, we can easily weed out wrong choices to get to the right one quickly!

Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.

Posted from my mobile device

If we were able to rewrite the sentence the way we'd want to, then we would absolutely change the phrase to "expected to almost double." There isn't anything wrong with option D how it's written, but we do agree that most people are used to reading a phrase like that the way you suggested it.

One of the tricky issues with the harder GMAT questions is that the correct answer isn't always perfect - or at least not the way WE would write it. We have to find the BEST option of the 5, and option D has the fewest big errors.

We hope that helps!
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
dear AndrewN,

from the initial sentence, I thought there is a production comparison between only 2500 megawatts and double by the end, the last part intend to point the result of the double production.

I am not sure whether the comma providing in B is correct. it loos ok for me if we consider logical reasoning.

by the way, how do you choose between B and D? would you please point out the logical reasoning between B and D?
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
egmat wrote:
pikolo2510 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja, daagh and other experts,

In option D, when we are considering parallelism, do we ignore "almost" and "thus" in the list? I eliminated D because I thought parallelism cannot fit here. The two things is the list are

1. Production is expected almost to double by the end of the year
2. Production is expected almost thus to provide enough electricity.....

I repeated "almost" because the first list started after "almost"

the #2 in the list doesn't make any sense at all. But upon reading other replies on this thread I found that others have ignored "almost" and "thus" . So do we need to exclude "adverbs" (I am assuming they are adverbs, i can't think of anything else:-( ) when we check for parallelism?

Please throw some light on this

Hello pikolo2510,

First of all, it is imperative to identify the correct parallel list.

Following is the sentence with the correct answer choice D:

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected
almost to double by the end of the year and
thus to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

The thing to understand here is that the words almost and thus are adverbs = action modifiers.

Hence, their presence before the core parallel entities to double and to provide does not affect the intended parallelism because the modifiers attached to the core parallel entities have no bearing on parallelism.

Hence, Choice D is perfectly parallel.

We do cover this point about modifiers of core parallel entities not affecting the parallel list in our concept named Parallelism: Helpful Tips.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

In this question, in option D (which is the correct form), why "expected almost to double..." is correct? Shouldn't it be expected to almost double? The infinitive "to" should be right after "expected" and almost should be close to "double". because if you see the word "almost" would be common for both "double" and "provide". And it makes no sense to say ...expected almost to double...and thus to provide..
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
kittle wrote:
In this question, in option D (which is the correct form), why "expected almost to double..." is correct? Shouldn't it be expected to almost double? The infinitive "to" should be right after "expected" and almost should be close to "double". because if you see the word "almost" would be common for both "double" and "provide". And it makes no sense to say ...expected almost to double...and thus to provide..

Have you tried reviewing this post?
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
Please help with option D analysis. I want to understand whether the parallelism is correct. Breaking the two parts before and after AND in option D:
"production is expected almost to double..." sounds good.
But doesn't "production is expected almost to provide electricity for 1.3 mil household" sound weird? I mean, how can you "almost provide" something to somebody?
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
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SUV0508 wrote:
Please help with option D analysis. I want to understand whether the parallelism is correct. Breaking the two parts before and after AND in option D:
"production is expected almost to double..." sounds good.
But doesn't "production is expected almost to provide electricity for 1.3 mil household" sound weird? I mean, how can you "almost provide" something to somebody?

We can't assume that every modifier in the first part of a parallel construction applies to the second part as well.

For instance, if I write, "Tim is a terrible cook and world-class canasta player," it wouldn't be terribly logical to apply the modifier "terrible" to both noun phrases and conclude that Tim is a "terrible world-class canasta player," right?

Same deal here. That "almost" doesn't apply to both elements. So the production is expected almost to double and production is expected to provide enough electricity. Makes sense.

And for what it's worth, I could see myself having the same question you did, especially under time pressure. The key is to pause and ask if you're CERTAIN that the construction is wrong. If you can see how the parallelism could work, but you're not sure, don't treat it as a concrete error, and look for other decision points.

I hope that helps!
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
Dear Experts,

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide

(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing

(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide

(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide

(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

I read all comments but I still doubt why (C) is wrong.

I understand that ["it will almost double...." in (C) ] it is wordy and not required. However, the intended meaning should be the production is expected to double "to provide enough....". We need to provide enough electricity.... Then we double the production. the meaning in (C) is clear and logical.
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
Tanchat wrote:
Dear Experts,

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide

(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing

(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide

(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide

(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

I read all comments but I still doubt why (C) is wrong.

I understand that ["it will almost double...." in (C) ] it is wordy and not required. However, the intended meaning should be the production is expected to double "to provide enough....". We need to provide enough electricity.... Then we double the production. the meaning in (C) is clear and logical.

Hello Tanchat,

We hope this finds you well.

To answer your query, Option C suffers from pronoun ambiguity, as "it" lacks a clear referent.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
Experts' Global Team
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As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
ExpertsGlobal5 wrote:
Tanchat wrote:
Dear Experts,

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide

(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing

(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide

(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide

(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

I read all comments but I still doubt why (C) is wrong.

I understand that ["it will almost double...." in (C) ] it is wordy and not required. However, the intended meaning should be the production is expected to double "to provide enough....". We need to provide enough electricity.... Then we double the production. the meaning in (C) is clear and logical.

Hello Tanchat,

We hope this finds you well.

To answer your query, Option C suffers from pronoun ambiguity, as "it" lacks a clear referent.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
Experts' Global Team

Dear ExpertsGlobal5,

Thank you for your response If I remember correctly, I find this explanation on the first page, but I am still not convinced.
Pronoun ambiguity is not an absolute rule. "it" can refer to electrical power and production. only production logically makes sense. Should we consider other parts first? I think meaning in C is much better than D
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
Tanchat wrote:
ExpertsGlobal5 wrote:
Tanchat wrote:
Dear Experts,

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide

(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing

(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide

(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide

(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

I read all comments but I still doubt why (C) is wrong.

I understand that ["it will almost double...." in (C) ] it is wordy and not required. However, the intended meaning should be the production is expected to double "to provide enough....". We need to provide enough electricity.... Then we double the production. the meaning in (C) is clear and logical.

Hello Tanchat,

We hope this finds you well.

To answer your query, Option C suffers from pronoun ambiguity, as "it" lacks a clear referent.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
Experts' Global Team

Dear ExpertsGlobal5,

Thank you for your response If I remember correctly, I find this explanation on the first page, but I am still not convinced.
Pronoun ambiguity is not an absolute rule. "it" can refer to electrical power and production. only production logically makes sense. Should we consider other parts first? I think meaning in C is much better than D

"Production is expected that it will double" is the structure of C, and this structure is incorrect. This is, I suppose, idiomatic--but it's also structural.

FINE:
Production is expected to double...
It is expected that production will double...
He/she/they/it expect(s) production to double...
He/she/they/it expect(s) that production will double...
A doubling of production is expected... (sounds crummy, but I don't see anything strictly wrong with this)

NOT FINE:
Production is expected that it will double...
It is expected production to double...
It is expected a doubling of production...
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
As sources of electrical power ( as + noun: used to represent roles ), windmills ( Main subject ) now account ( Main verb ) for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide ( PP modifying account ), but production ( subject ) is almost expected (verb phrase )
to double by the end of the year, which ( should modify year ) would provide ( verb phrase ) enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide (almost is modifying expected which does not make sense, almost: adverb, which is modifying year, making no sense )

(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing ( "It" is modifying production, so the sentence would be, the product is almost expected to increase )

(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide ( Same error as option B )

(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide

(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide

(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing

(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide

(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide

(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

In option A, which modifies year which means that it is the year that will provide the electricity. Hence eliminate
For options B, C when the sentence clearly mentions the production is going to double, the extra it (pronoun) causes awkwardness in the sentence.
Left are D & E. again in E, which modifies the year hence reject. Left is our answer as D.
Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2 [#permalink]
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