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Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel

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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 07:50
Could I also eliminate based on the word “since” in the sentence ? It demands that I use the present tense and I narrow down to D and E and chose D because it mentions the noun that is being compared.

Can someone please let me know if my approach is correct.

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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2019, 20:59
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We are using and after a , - is that a correct approach?
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2019, 14:42
subramanya1991 wrote:
Could I also eliminate based on the word “since” in the sentence ? It demands that I use the present tense and I narrow down to D and E and chose D because it mentions the noun that is being compared.

Can someone please let me know if my approach is correct.

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If you're asking whether you can eliminate (A), (B), and (C) based on a tense issue, the answer is not really.

Those options all use the participle "costing," which is functioning here as an adjective. VERB-ing words, when used as adjectives, don't have a tense. I can write, "The man running with scissors stabbed himself in the face," or I can write, "The man running with scissors will stab himself in the face. "Running" describes the man. It doesn't tell me when he injures himself. (Much more on "-ing" words in this article.)

Also, "ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960," is an independent clause, so it's true that "since" dictates the verb tense for this clause, but it wouldn't necessarily do so for another one.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2020, 14:44
Hi,

Can someone please explain what does 'DID' refer to in options C and D? Clearly, there is no costed used anywhere in the sentence so how can the use of DID be justified?

Thanks in advance.
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2020, 15:36
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jayarora wrote:
Hi,

Can someone please explain what does 'DID' refer to in options C and D? Clearly, there is no costed used anywhere in the sentence so how can the use of DID be justified?

Thanks in advance.

Hello, jayarora. The verb cost is one of those weird ones in English that is the same, under certain circumstances, in both the present and past tense, so you would not be looking for costed anywhere. Here is a sample sentence that could discuss either a present or past situation:

The kiwis cost $3.50 per half dozen.

You would have to rely on contextual information to confirm whether these fruits had been purchased or you were being informed as to what they would cost if someone were to purchase them. In the sentences at hand, we can replace did in the following manner:

(C) Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel, ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than it had cost in 1960.

The meaning of the sentence is askew, as GMATNinja pointed out earlier, among others. Looking at the other sentence,

(D) Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel, ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it had cost in 1960.

Make what you will of (D)--I see some disagreement above--but did itself is not an issue. I hope that helps. Good luck with your studies.

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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2020, 22:56
A, C and D are out because they use wrong idiom As much Y than X. B & D use correct idiom as much X as Y.
In B, there is a verb-ing modifier which should be modifying the whole preceding clause.
ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in . Whenever there is such usage of verb-ing modifier then the subject of proceeding clause should have done this action as well. As in, Ten million acres of forest cannot result in woods being costlier. The subject should've been the deforestation. Hence (D) is a better choice over (B)

egmat, can someone please verify whether my thought process is correct.
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2020, 06:29
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
Experts, could you please explain the official solution a lil more as to why exactly is B incorrect? I was stuck b/w B and D. I just couldn't point to an error in B. 'resulting' is actually modifying the previous whole clause right? Is the 'as much .. as in 1960' not correct in B? Please help. Thanks :)

Good question! The phrase "resulting in," because it contains a preposition, should introduce a noun or noun phrase that is a result. For example,

    "Tim fed undercooked burritos to the neighbor's children, resulting in mass indigestion." --> What was the result of Tim's culinary negligence? Mass indigestion. Makes sense.

Now look at the relevant portion in (B):

    "Ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood..."

The result of 10 million acres of forest disappearing was...wood? No. That's illogical. So (B) is out.

The phrase "as a result" will introduce a full clause. Again, poor beleaguered Tim will will help illustrate:

    "Tim fed undercooked burritos to the neighbor's children, and as a result, everyone in town hates him." --> What was the result of Tim poisoning the neighborhood kids? The clause: everyone hates him. Of course they do.

This is the same usage we see in (D):

    "Ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did."

What is the result of the 10 million acres of forest disappearing? It's the entire clause: wood now costs eight times as much as it used to. Makes perfect sense. Because (D) is logical and (B) is nonsense, (D) is our winner.

I hope that helps!


GMATNinja
Hi GMAT Ninja,

Two questions
1. In an example above, you refer to C as wrong because of resulting in wood. Any reason you are not considering the entire phrase 'resulting in wood now costing eight times more to collect and distribute' because then 'resulting in' makes perfect logical sense. Also, the phrase 'wood now costing eight times more to collect and distribute' has no verb so resulting in can modify the entire phrase right?
2. Considering wrong usage of 'resulting in wood' in C is why D is the right answer, what if Ans D was written ' as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as in 1960'. Would this be considered correct comparison?
I think the comparison is now incorrect because 'wood now costs' is now a clause and needs another clause after the second 'as' to be parallel. Also 'as in 1960' will incorrectly compare costs vs costs and not the clause 'wood costs eight times as to collect and distribute'

Please provide your advice.

Thanks
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New post 16 Mar 2020, 00:11
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GMATNinja wrote:
abhishek001 wrote:
Hey gmat ninja can the comparison be an issue to eliminate B and select D as an option. Thanku in advance and also like to state your videos and explanations are really helpful in getting a hold on verbal gmat. Thanku.

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Thank you for the kind words! And yes, the meaning issue in (B) also creates a problematic comparison. When we use a prepositional phrase such as "in 1960" that phrase will typically be used to modify an action.

For example, "Tim dropped as many babies in 1997 as he did in 1994." Notice that the comparison is between how many babies Tim dropped in one year and how many babies he dropped in another year. Most importantly, the prepositional phrases need to modify an action ("dropped", in this case).

In (B) we have "resulting in wood now costing eight times as much... as in 1960." There's no verb for "in 1960" to modify! Contrast this with (D) in which we have "wood now costs eight times as much.. as it did in 1960. Now there's an action, "costs" for "in 1960" to modify, and so we have a logical comparison.

So you were definitely on the right track, abhishek001!


GMATNinja

If Option D were : "(D) and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as" ie, if the helping verb at the end of option D were omitted, would it still be the correct choice?
Can we argue that ellipsis would take care of the verb to modify? (Or NOT ?, because the shift in verb tense - costs now v/s costed in 1960 - doesn't allow the ellipsis in the first place)

Thanks in advance!
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2020, 12:09
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Hi GMAT Ninja,

Two questions
1. In an example above, you refer to C as wrong because of resulting in wood. Any reason you are not considering the entire phrase 'resulting in wood now costing eight times more to collect and distribute' because then 'resulting in' makes perfect logical sense. Also, the phrase 'wood now costing eight times more to collect and distribute' has no verb so resulting in can modify the entire phrase right?

Good question! It's certainly fair to consider the entire noun phrase, but the noun phrase is, in essence, about a certain kind of wood, one that happens to have the characteristic of "costing eight times as much..."

So we have to ask ourselves which is clearer: (1) that the result of the lost forest acres is expensive wood, or (2) that the result of the lost acres is that something happened -- specifically, that wood became more expensive.

At first glance, it might seem like there's no real difference between the two, but the problem with interpretation (1) is that it has two potential meanings: if something results in expensive wood, does it mean that the wood became more expensive or that expensive wood just suddenly appeared? Sure, if you read (C) a few times, you can figure out what the author likely meant, but it simply isn't as clear or direct as (D), which has only one reasonable interpretation (wood became more expensive).

And if you want an easier, more concrete error in (C), "as much...than" is clearly wrong. :)

Quote:
2. Considering wrong usage of 'resulting in wood' in C is why D is the right answer, what if Ans D was written ' as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as in 1960'. Would this be considered correct comparison?
I think the comparison is now incorrect because 'wood now costs' is now a clause and needs another clause after the second 'as' to be parallel. Also 'as in 1960' will incorrectly compare costs vs costs and not the clause 'wood costs eight times as to collect and distribute'

It's true that your hypothetical is problematic, but I'd be careful about making comparison generalizations. It's certainly possible for a clause to be implied. For example, saying "The Warriors won fewer games in 2019 than in 2017" is fine, because "in 2017" seems to function the same way that "in 2019" functions: both phrases modify when the Warriors won games.

The difference between this example and yours is that it's not as clear what "in 1960" is doing, because there's no other prepositional phrase to give us a clue. So I wouldn't say this sentence would be wrong because it violates a rule. The problem is that the sentence is really confusing.

The takeaway: don't try to make universal rules about something as complicated as comparisons! You have to consider how context informs the clarity and logic of every option. (And if you want more on comparisons, check out this video and this sequel.)

I hope this helps!
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2020, 09:25
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Debo1988 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
abhishek001 wrote:
Hey gmat ninja can the comparison be an issue to eliminate B and select D as an option. Thanku in advance and also like to state your videos and explanations are really helpful in getting a hold on verbal gmat. Thanku.

Posted from my mobile device

Thank you for the kind words! And yes, the meaning issue in (B) also creates a problematic comparison. When we use a prepositional phrase such as "in 1960" that phrase will typically be used to modify an action.

For example, "Tim dropped as many babies in 1997 as he did in 1994." Notice that the comparison is between how many babies Tim dropped in one year and how many babies he dropped in another year. Most importantly, the prepositional phrases need to modify an action ("dropped", in this case).

In (B) we have "resulting in wood now costing eight times as much... as in 1960." There's no verb for "in 1960" to modify! Contrast this with (D) in which we have "wood now costs eight times as much.. as it did in 1960. Now there's an action, "costs" for "in 1960" to modify, and so we have a logical comparison.

So you were definitely on the right track, abhishek001!


GMATNinja

If Option D were : "(D) and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as" ie, if the helping verb at the end of option D were omitted, would it still be the correct choice?
Can we argue that ellipsis would take care of the verb to modify? (Or NOT ?, because the shift in verb tense - costs now v/s costed in 1960 - doesn't allow the ellipsis in the first place)

Thanks in advance!
Debo

We have, "wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as {blank}." If we fill that blank with "it did in 1960", it's clear that we are comparing how much wood costs to collect/distribute NOW and how much wood cost to collect/distribute IN 1960."

If we fill that blank with "in 1960", the comparison becomes less clear: wood costs eight times as much to collect/distribute as what in 1960? Sure, we can logically fill in the blank with something that makes sense, but with (D) we aren't forced to do that.

Does that make your version wrong? Maybe. As I've said before, it's rarely a good idea to waste brain cells on tweaked versions of answer choices. If you understand why (D) is the best choice out of the five options here, then you've done your job!

Looking at a single sentence in a bubble and trying to determine whether it's "correct" or "incorrect" is an entirely different job -- one that you'll never actually have to do on the GMAT. :)

I hope that helps!
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2020, 04:22
egmat, could you please explain why the comma+verbing modifier , resulting in is wrong here?

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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2020, 11:22
sakshiagarwal96 wrote:
egmat, could you please explain why the comma+verbing modifier , resulting in is wrong here?

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Explained in detail here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/because-70-p ... l#p2404243.
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2020, 23:18
This question is not very hard to understand.
Both resulting and as a result are correct usage.
The problem lies as much as not As much than.
The usage of wood now costing is not correct, it implies at this moment the price is 8 times higher than previously. Since it is a fact, we need simple presence.
That boils down to option D.

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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2020, 00:37
Hey GMATNinja, thank you for the excellent explanation as always.

I have a follow-up query. Isn't costing available as an action (even though it isn't a verb) for "in 1960" to modify?



GMATNinja wrote:
abhishek001 wrote:
Hey gmat ninja can the comparison be an issue to eliminate B and select D as an option. Thanku in advance and also like to state your videos and explanations are really helpful in getting a hold on verbal gmat. Thanku.

Posted from my mobile device

Thank you for the kind words! And yes, the meaning issue in (B) also creates a problematic comparison. When we use a prepositional phrase such as "in 1960" that phrase will typically be used to modify an action.

For example, "Tim dropped as many babies in 1997 as he did in 1994." Notice that the comparison is between how many babies Tim dropped in one year and how many babies he dropped in another year. Most importantly, the prepositional phrases need to modify an action ("dropped", in this case).

In (B) we have "resulting in wood now costing eight times as much... as in 1960." There's no verb for "in 1960" to modify! Contrast this with (D) in which we have "wood now costs eight times as much.. as it did in 1960. Now there's an action, "costs" for "in 1960" to modify, and so we have a logical comparison.

So you were definitely on the right track, abhishek001!
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2020, 06:40
I think that in this question, the problem is in COSTING.
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel   [#permalink] 06 Jun 2020, 06:40

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