GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 22 Sep 2018, 14:01

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Director
Director
User avatar
B
Joined: 03 Feb 2013
Posts: 888
Location: India
Concentration: Operations, Strategy
GMAT 1: 760 Q49 V44
GPA: 3.88
WE: Engineering (Computer Software)
Reviews Badge
Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Sep 2014, 11:02
3
10
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  65% (hard)

Question Stats:

61% (02:18) correct 39% (01:50) wrong based on 498 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe the universe in terms of four universal forces. Experiments then suggested, however, a fifth universal force of mutual repulsion between particles of matter. This fifth force would explain the occurrence in the experiments of a smaller measurement of the gravitational attraction between bodies than the established theory predicted.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument that there is a fifth universal force?

A) The extremely sophisticated equipment used for the experiments was not available to physicists before the 1970’s.
B) No previously established scientific results are incompatible with the notion of a fifth universal force.
C) Some scientists have suggested that the alleged fifth universal force is an aspect of gravity rather than being fundamental in itself.
D) The experiments were conducted by physicists in remote geological settings in which factors affecting the force of gravity could not be measured with any degree of precision.
E) The fifth universal force was postulated at a time during which many other exciting and productive ideas in theoretical physics were developed.

_________________

Thanks,
Kinjal
My Debrief : http://gmatclub.com/forum/hardwork-never-gets-unrewarded-for-ever-189267.html#p1449379
My Application Experience : http://gmatclub.com/forum/hardwork-never-gets-unrewarded-for-ever-189267-40.html#p1516961
Linkedin : https://www.linkedin.com/in/kinjal-das/

Please click on Kudos, if you think the post is helpful

Most Helpful Expert Reply
Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
User avatar
S
Joined: 01 Jul 2017
Posts: 49
Location: United States
Concentration: Leadership, Organizational Behavior
Re: Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Jun 2018, 15:40
4
1
Okay, let's take this baby down. Here is the full "GMAT Jujitsu" for this question:

First, we need to recognize the problem type. This is a Strengthen question, as evidenced by the phrase, “which of the following…most strengthens the argument.” Our first item of business is to identify the conclusion of the argument and then look for gaps between the conclusion and the premises. However, here the GMAT throws a small curveball at us. Question stems given in problems often contain much more than just clues to the problem’s type. The conclusion in this argument is actually embedded in the question stem: “there is a fifth universal force.” The link between this conclusion and the evidence is tenuous, based off of the interpretation of data in a set of experiments, whose results merely imply the possibility of an additional force heretofore unknown. We must look for an answer that strengthens this logical link.

Answer choice “A” is completely irrelevant to the logical gap. Think about the conclusion we want to strengthen: "there is a fifth universal force." The majority of the problem focuses on the experimental evidence accrued after 1986. Whether scientists had sophisticated equipment prior to the 1970’s sheds no additional light on the existence of a fifth universal force. While scientists may not have had the technology before the 1970s to detect the small perturbations measured in the 1986 experiments, the existence (or lack) of equipment that could measure the force doesn't do anything to prove (or disprove) the conclusion. It is the data discovered by the equipment that matters. When the equipment was invented is mere context. This one is easy to eliminate.

The Testmaker intentionally disguised answer choice “B” with a double negative. This is classic trap of the GMAT. I call it "Convoluted Camouflage" in my classes. Rephrasing this answer choice by cancelling out the double negative may make the statement easier to understand: instead of saying, “no previously established scientific results are incompatible with the notion of a fifth universal force,” we could say, “previously established scientific results are compatible with the notion of a fifth universal force.” While this is a very weak statement – it demonstrates the lack of disconfirming evidence more than it provides new evidence – this is the only answer that nudges us in the right direction. Remember: “Strengthen” questions are not “Prove” questions – we are looking for the answer that “most strengthens” the existing argument.

Another way to think about the question of whether a statement is required by an argument is to think about what happens to that argument if the assumption turns out to be false. If the argument cannot possibly succeed when the assumption in an answer choice were false, then the original answer choice is an assumption required by the argument. This is the fundamental idea behind a strategy I call the "Assumption Negation Technique", which we can also apply to answer choice “B”. If we were to logically negate answer choice “B”, it would tell us that there were some "experimental results incompatible with a fifth force." This negation directly undermines the conclusion we are trying to strengthen. Any way you look at it, “B” is the correct answer.

Answer choice “C” gives a possible alternative explanation to the evidence in the original experiments. In other words, it suggests there may be another way of interpreting the same results without relying on the existence of a fifth universal force. As a result, “C” actually weakens the argument. Since we are trying to strengthen the argument, “C” cannot be the correct answer. Get rid of it!

Answer choice “D” also weakens the argument by suggesting a profound lack of precision with respect to the experiments noted in the argument. If the experiments were not precise, this implies that any interpretation based on the data may be incorrect. However, we are looking for statements that confirm the possibility of the fifth universal force -- not imply that the force is merely noisy experimental data. “D” simply undermines the existing experiments.

Answer choice “E” is completely irrelevant to the logical gap. Whether other “exciting ideas” were being developed at the same time sheds no additional light on the possible existence of a fifth universal force. “E” is just context. We can quickly eliminate it.

In the end, only one answer choice even gets us close to strengthening the argument. Two answer choices ("A" and "E") provide context behind the story but don't focus on the logical gap. Two answer choices actually weaken the argument ("C" and "D".) Only one is left over. And it is total weak sauce. With Strengthen questions, people look for an answer that so perfectly fixes the logic that Aristotle himself rises from the grave and gives you a round of applause. But that approach is a deliberate trap in many GMAT questions. Don't fall for it. Notice even in the question stem that it reads, "most strengthens". You just need the answer choice that does it best. And "B" is the only one that gets close.
_________________

Aaron J. Pond
Veritas Prep Elite-Level Instructor

Hit "+1 Kudos" if my post helped you understand the GMAT better.
Look me up at https://www.veritasprep.com/gmat/aaron-pond/ if you want to learn more GMAT Jujitsu.

General Discussion
Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 05 Sep 2010
Posts: 753
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Sep 2014, 12:07
B seems best here: No previously established scientific results are incompatible with the notion of a fifth universal force.----->the fact that no previously established results are incompatible with the this 5th force is indicative of its existence.
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Status: I am not a product of my circumstances. I am a product of my decisions
Joined: 20 Jan 2013
Posts: 124
Location: India
Concentration: Operations, General Management
GPA: 3.92
WE: Operations (Energy and Utilities)
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Sep 2014, 22:19
kinjiGC wrote:
Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe the universe in terms of four universal forces. Experiments then suggested, however, a fifth universal force of mutual repulsion between particles of matter. This fifth force would explain the occurrence in the experiments of a smaller measurement of the gravitational attraction between bodies than the established theory predicted.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument that there is a fifth universal force?

A) The extremely sophisticated equipment used for the experiments was not available to physicists before the 1970’s.
B) No previously established scientific results are incompatible with the notion of a fifth universal force.
C) Some scientists have suggested that the alleged fifth universal force is an aspect of gravity rather than being fundamental in itself.
D) The experiments were conducted by physicists in remote geological settings in which factors affecting the force of gravity could not be measured with any degree of precision.
E) The fifth universal force was postulated at a time during which many other exciting and productive ideas in theoretical physics were developed.



Answer is B for sure.

This statement directly says that the previous theories / experimental results show no incompatibility with the existence of the fifth force. This implies that the forces existed during previous experiments and hence strengthen the conclusion.
Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 04 Sep 2015
Posts: 522
Location: India
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
CAT Tests
Re: Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 09 Mar 2017, 09:04
Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe the universe in terms of four universal forces. Experiments then suggested, however, a fifth universal force of mutual repulsion between particles of matter. This fifth force would explain the occurrence in the experiments of a smaller measurement of the gravitational attraction between bodies than the established theory predicted.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument that there is a fifth universal force?

A) The extremely sophisticated equipment used for the experiments was not available to physicists before the 1970’s.
The argument is discussing about the viability of the theroy of the fifth force and argues about its existance and not the scientific method to discover it.

B) No previously established scientific results are incompatible with the notion of a fifth universal force.
Correct answer which supports the vability of teh fifth force and strengthens its existance by eliminating possibility of a opposite hypothesis.

C) Some scientists have suggested that the alleged fifth universal force is an aspect of gravity rather than being fundamental in itself.
out of scope.
D) The experiments were conducted by physicists in remote geological settings in which factors affecting the force of gravity could not be measured with any degree of precision.
Weakener

E) The fifth universal force was postulated at a time during which many other exciting and productive ideas in theoretical physics were developed.
out of scope
SVP
SVP
User avatar
D
Joined: 26 Mar 2013
Posts: 1808
Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Jun 2018, 02:10
AaronPond wrote:

Okay, let's take this baby down. Here is the full "GMAT Jujitsu" for this question:



Dear AaronPond

What an explanation!! Really thanks for your effort and taking time to write such long explanation. :clap:

Can you please share your "GMAT Jujitsu" in this Veritas assumption question:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/pundit-by-pa ... l#p2084425

Thanks in advance
Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
User avatar
S
Joined: 01 Jul 2017
Posts: 49
Location: United States
Concentration: Leadership, Organizational Behavior
Re: Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 28 Jun 2018, 18:17
1
Mo2men wrote:
What an explanation!! Really thanks for your effort and taking time to write such long explanation. :clap:

Can you please share your "GMAT Jujitsu" in this Veritas assumption question:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/pundit-by-pa ... l#p2084425

Thanks in advance


Absolutely! I just finished typing up a full explanation of the question you were wondering about. Here is the link:

https://gmatclub.com/forum/pundit-by-pa ... l#p2085899

Good luck, and good studying!
_________________

Aaron J. Pond
Veritas Prep Elite-Level Instructor

Hit "+1 Kudos" if my post helped you understand the GMAT better.
Look me up at https://www.veritasprep.com/gmat/aaron-pond/ if you want to learn more GMAT Jujitsu.

GMAT Club Bot
Re: Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe &nbs [#permalink] 28 Jun 2018, 18:17
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Before 1986 physicists believed they could describe

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Events & Promotions

PREV
NEXT


Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.