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Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s

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Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 27 Aug 2018, 00:37
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Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have safety belts and power steering. Previously, most cars in Morodia were without these features. Safety belts help to prevent injuries in collisions, and power steering helps to avoid collisions in the first place. But even though in 1966 one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars, the number of car collisions and collision-related injuries did not decline.

Which of the following, if true about Morodia, most helps to explain why the number of collisions and collision-related injuries in Morodia failed to decline in 1966?


A. Because of a driver-education campaign, most drivers and passengers in cars that did have safety belts used them in 1966.

B. Most of the new cars bought in 1966 were bought in the months of January and February.

C. In 1965, substantially more than one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars.

D. An excessive reliance on the new safety features led many owners of new cars to drive less cautiously in 1966 than before.

E. The seat belts and power steering put into new cars sold in 1966 had to undergo strict quality-control inspections by manufacturers, whether the cars were manufactured in Morodia or not.


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Practice Question
Critical Reasoning
Question No.: 556
ID - CR00766

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Originally posted by AbdurRakib on 11 Jun 2017, 13:26.
Last edited by Bunuel on 27 Aug 2018, 00:37, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2017, 13:33
D? Drive less cautiously led to more accidents

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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 19:12
a clear D

rest all options are either irrelevant or out of scope
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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 21:38
Imo D
If the drivers are not cautious while driving then the accidents will happen .
D is essentially saying this .
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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2017, 17:46
Could someone please explain A
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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2017, 15:03
iloveTroyeSivan wrote:
Could someone please explain A


I think A adds to the paradox instead of resolving it. A says that drivers / passengers were educated on the use of seat belts. These drivers / passengers previously had not used them. But after the education, they starting using it.
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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2017, 01:45
Question asked her is to explain why the number of collisions and collision-related injuries in Morodia failed to decline in 1966

As per argument, Power steering and Safety Seat belts were added as new features which will protect the accident, then what was the reason why still the no of collisions in the area didn't decline.

So when the new feature was added to cars, the owners became less cautious in their driving. they didn't have a fear that driving less cautiously will lead to accident.

The suitable answer is D
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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2017, 09:54
A very straightforward question -

Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have safety belts and power steering. Previously, most cars in Morodia were without these features. Safety belts help to prevent injuries in collisions, and power steering helps to avoid collisions in the first place. But even though in 1966 one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars, the number of car collisions and collision-related injuries did not decline.

We need to find out, why even after replacement of old cars with new ones, the number of car collisions and injuries did not decline.

Prethinking - This could be because of various reasons like - the safety features are not correctly installed, people are taking these safety features for granted and driving rashly or some other factor not taken into account because of which accidents could still happen...


Which of the following, if true about Morodia, most helps to explain why the number of collisions and collision-related injuries in Morodia failed to decline in 1966?

A. Because of a driver-education campaign, most drivers and passengers in cars that did have safety belts used them in 1966.
[if they used the safety belts, then the accidents should have been less, but it is not! This statement does not provide us with the answer why not??!!]

B. Most of the new cars bought in 1966 were bought in the months of January and February.
[We are not interested in knowing when they were bought - eliminated]

C. In 1965, substantially more than one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars.
[Did the cars replaced in 1965 have safety features? We don't know that. Also, we are interested in knowing what happened in 1966, so we can eliminate this option.]

D. An excessive reliance on the new safety features led many owners of new cars to drive less cautiously in 1966 than before.
[Now this matches with the pre-thinking! The people relied so much on the new safety, that drove less cautiously and hence were involved in collisions]

E. The seatbelts and power steering put into new cars sold in 1966 had to undergo strict quality-control inspections by manufacturers, whether the cars were manufactured in Morodia or not.
[Even if they were manufactured somewhere else, does that help us in answering why the accidents did not decrease? Nah! it doesn't, thus we can eliminate this option too!]
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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2017, 15:39
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AbdurRakib wrote:
Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have safety belts and power steering. Previously, most cars in Morodia were without these features. Safety belts help to prevent injuries in collisions, and power steering helps to avoid collisions in the first place. But even though in 1966 one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars, the number of car collisions and collision-related injuries did not decline.

Which of the following, if true about Morodia, most helps to explain why the number of collisions and collision-related injuries in Morodia failed to decline in 1966?
A. Because of a driver-education campaign, most drivers and passengers in cars that did have safety belts used them in 1966.
B. Most of the new cars bought in 1966 were bought in the months of January and February.
C. In 1965, substantially more than one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars.
D. An excessive reliance on the new safety features led many owners of new cars to drive less cautiously in 1966 than before.
E. The seat belts and power steering put into new cars sold in 1966 had to undergo strict quality-control inspections by manufacturers, whether the cars were manufactured in Morodia or not.


PREMISE: In 1966, safety belts (SB) and power steering (PS) required in new cars
PREMISE: Previously, most cars didn't have SB and PS
PREMISE: In 1966, 1/7 of old cars were replaced with new cars (with SB and PS)
CONCLUSION: In 1966, no reduction in Collisions and collision related injuries

PARADOX: Increase in number of safer cars did NOT result in fewer collisions and injuries

Let's check the answer choices while also reminding ourselves what the paradox is...

A) Does this explain why the increase in number of safer cars did NOT result in fewer collisions and injuries?
NO.
In fact this makes the paradox even more confusing since having more people use seat belts should have resulted in fewer injuries.
ELIMINATE A

B) Does this explain why the increase in number of safer cars did NOT result in fewer collisions and injuries?
NO.
IF it had been the case that most of the new cars were bought at the END of 1996, then it is conceivable that there would have been little change to the number of accidents and injuries. However, statement B says the opposite; it says that these new cars were around for pretty much the entire year. As such, these new and safer cars should have helped reduce the collisions and injuries.
ELIMINATE B

C) Does this explain why the increase in number of safer cars did NOT result in fewer collisions and injuries?
NO.
We're told that most cars made before 1966 did not have good safety features. So it makes no difference how many cars were sold in 1965
ELIMINATE C

D) Does this explain why the increase in number of safer cars did NOT result in fewer collisions and injuries?
YES!!
The new safety features made the owners drive more recklessly. THIS is why the new features did not reduce collisions and injuries
KEEP D

E) Does this explain why the increase in number of safer cars did NOT result in fewer collisions and injuries?
NO.
The fact of the matter is that the cars sold in 1966 had better safety features.
ELIMINATE E

Answer: E
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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2018, 23:20
AbdurRakib wrote:
Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have safety belts and power steering. Previously, most cars in Morodia were without these features. Safety belts help to prevent injuries in collisions, and power steering helps to avoid collisions in the first place. But even though in 1966 one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars, the number of car collisions and collision-related injuries did not decline.

Which of the following, if true about Morodia, most helps to explain why the number of collisions and collision-related injuries in Morodia failed to decline in 1966?
A. Because of a driver-education campaign, most drivers and passengers in cars that did have safety belts used them in 1966.
B. Most of the new cars bought in 1966 were bought in the months of January and February.
C. In 1965, substantially more than one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars.
D. An excessive reliance on the new safety features led many owners of new cars to drive less cautiously in 1966 than before.
E. The seat belts and power steering put into new cars sold in 1966 had to undergo strict quality-control inspections by manufacturers, whether the cars were manufactured in Morodia or not.


Question Type: Resolve the Paradox

Premise 1: New cars sold in Morodia were required to have safety belts and power steering, since Safety belts help to prevent injuries in collisions, and power steering helps to avoid collisions in the first place. Prior to 1966, most cars in Morodia were without these features.

Premise 2: The number of car collisions and collision-related injuries did not decline, even after replacing 1/7th of the old cars with new cars.

Analysis: We need to find an answer which provides additional information for the reason for no decline in occurrence of collisions & collision-related injuries. Either the answer should provide stats on # of cars with safety belts, etc. or should site another safety risk, not covered by seat belts.

A. Because of a driver-education campaign, most drivers and passengers in cars that did have safety belts used them in 1966. - Its a fact that is stated, but it doesn't help resolve the the paradox. Incorrect
B. Most of the new cars bought in 1966 were bought in the months of January and February. - Out of scope. Incorrect.
C. In 1965, substantially more than one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars. - In 1965, the safety belts in cars, weren't required as per law, hence doesn't to resolve the paradox in 1966. Incorrect
D. An excessive reliance on the new safety features led many owners of new cars to drive less cautiously in 1966 than before. - Driver carelessnes, led to collisions, even after implementing safety belt law. That explains why there is no decline in collisions. Correct.
E. The seat belts and power steering put into new cars sold in 1966 had to undergo strict quality-control inspections by manufacturers, whether the cars were manufactured in Morodia or not.- Doesn't explain why the collisions haven't declined, even after such strict quality control. Incorrect.


Answer D.

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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2018, 04:26
Quote:
Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have safety belts and power steering. Previously, most cars in Morodia were without these features. Safety belts help to prevent injuries in collisions, and power steering helps to avoid collisions in the first place. But even though in 1966 one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars, the number of car collisions and collision-related injuries did not decline.

Argument Analysis:
Conclusion: But even though in 1966 one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars, the number of car collisions and collision-related injuries did not decline.
Premises:
1. Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have safety belts and power steering.
2. Previously, most cars in Morodia were without these features. Safety belts help to prevent injuries in collisions, and power steering helps to avoid collisions in the first place.

Quote:
Which of the following, if true about Morodia, most helps to explain why the number of collisions and collision-related injuries in Morodia failed to decline in 1966?

The question asks us to explain the paradox, that despite the enforcement of the safety features, why the decline in the collision related injuries didn't happen.

Quote:
A. Because of a driver-education campaign, most drivers and passengers in cars that did have safety belts used them in 1966.

This sounds great that the drivers and passengers that did have used them in 1966 because of the driver education campaign. Which means that the campaign that they organised was a success. But this doesn't explain the paradox that why the decline in the injuries still didn't happen.
This goes out.

Quote:
B. Most of the new cars bought in 1966 were bought in the months of January and February.

When the cars were bought is of no effect here. what we are looking for is to bridge the paradox of having the safety equipments in place, replacing one-seventh of the cars in Morodia and still unable to bring a decline in the collision related injuries.
This option doesn't address this, at the max even if it does, it just strengthen the fact that since the cars were sold in Jan and Feb, the data we had to support the claim mentioned in the argument is of almost whole of the year.

Quote:
C. In 1965, substantially more than one-seventh of the cars in Morodia were replaced with new cars.

1965 is not the year that needs to be addressed here.

Quote:
D. An excessive reliance on the new safety features led many owners of new cars to drive less cautiously in 1966 than before.

This seems to be a legitimate option to bridge the requirement. The car owners of new cars drove less cautiously in 1966 than before, due to excessive reliance on the new safety features. This answers the paradox. Just by having the safety equipment in place won't help reduce the collision related injuries if the car owners drive less cautiously.
We may keep this option.

Quote:
E. The seat belts and power steering put into new cars sold in 1966 had to undergo strict quality-control inspections by manufacturers, whether the cars were manufactured in Morodia or not.

It strengthen the case of safety equipments being in place, If at all this argument does something. But what we are looking for is to bridge the paradox of having the safety equipments in place, replacing one-seventh of the cars in Morodia and still unable to bring a decline in the collision related injuries.

Option D is the best Option here.
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Re: Beginning in 1966 all new cars sold in Morodia were required to have s &nbs [#permalink] 03 Sep 2018, 04:26
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