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Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2020, 09:11
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Project RC Butler 2020 - Participate and win GMAT Club Tests.
Passage # 59, Date: 30-Apr-2020
This post is a part of Project RC Butler 2020. Click here for Details


Biologists have long suspected that vegetal
behavior is exceptionally complex, but such
hypotheses were impossible to test due to limited
technical resources. We assumed that plants are able to
(5) adaptively respond to stimuli, but were unable to test
our assumptions. Similarly, we observed that plants
can process informational input on humidity and light,
but could not analyze the physiological mechanisms
allowing them to do so. Until recently, it was impossible
(10) to compare the neural architecture that gives rise to
animal cognition to biologically plausible forms of
learning in plants. Consequently, no one suspected that
plants could anticipate imminent hazards, let alone
communicate these hazards through biochemical cues.
(15) Today, with the advent of plant neurobiology, scientists
can finally shed light on the incredible complexity that
underlies vegetal behavior.

Plant neurobiology studies the complex patterns
of behavior of plants through information-processing
(20) systems. Research in plant neurobiology has not only
deepened our knowledge of vegetal behavior, but has
also prompted a critical reevaluation of “cognition” as
an operative term in a variety of seemingly unrelated
fields, such as linguistics, philosophy, and anthropology.
(25) Thanks to plant neurobiologists, we now have definitive
proof that plants possess cognitive capacities even
though they lack the synaptic structures that give rise to
animal cognition.

The accelerated pace of discoveries involving
(30) plant intelligence warrants significant institutional
commitment, which can only be provided by
establishing a Department of Plant Neurobiology at
our university. Some of my colleagues worry that this
department would have no clear rationale, because
(35) its objectives are in principle achievable by plant
physiologists. This is not true. By assembling scientists
to study vegetal behavior under one roof, a department
dedicated solely to plant neurobiology will be uniquely
capable of addressing issues far beyond the scope of
(40) plant physiology. Not before long, we will discover
that plants are capable of not only experiencing pain,
but also of employing complex cost-benefit analysis to
adapt and learn from their mistakes. Our appreciation
of vegetal behavior is attainable if, but only if, we
(45) recognize the value of plant neurobiology as an
autonomous discipline worthy of institutional support.

1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Plant neurobiology has deepened our understanding of the incredible complexity that underlies vegetal behavior.
(B) Thanks to recent advances in plant neurobiology, our understanding of cognition has evolved.
(C) Advances in the field of plant intelligence require establishing an autonomous department dedicated to the study of plant neurobiology.
(D) Plant neurobiology has accelerated the pace of scientific discoveries involving vegetal behavior.
(E) Plants possess cognitive capacities even though they lack the neural architecture that gives rise to animal cognition.


2. Each one of the following is mentioned in the passage as an example of known vegetal behavior, EXCEPT:

(A) to process environmental input
(B) to communicate information
(C) to experience pain
(D) to interact through signals
(E) to use biochemical cues


3. The author observes that plants “lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition” (lines 27-28) mainly in order to

(A) indicate a necessary precondition for cognitive function
(B) differentiate the cognitive abilities of plants from those of animals
(C) explain why scientists find it difficult to attribute cognitive abilities to plants
(D) show that certain physiological attributes are no longer sufficient to prove cognitive function
(E) suggest a way in which our understanding of “cognition” has changed over time


4. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

(A) The second paragraph anticipates the objections raised in the final paragraph.
(B) The second paragraph helps to justify the course of action recommended in the final paragraph.
(C) The final paragraph supports the argument made in the second paragraph by clarifying the potential significance of an academic initiative.
(D) The second paragraph describes a controversial view that the author defends in the final paragraph.
(E) The final paragraph debates the significance of a biological phenomenon, which is described in the second paragraph.


5. The passage provides information that answers each of the following questions EXCEPT:

(A) How can research in plant physiology contribute to our future understanding of vegetal behavior?
(B) Has plant neurobiology altered our conception of cognition?
(C) What impact has the study of plant neurobiology made on other academic fields?
(D) How do plant neurobiologists study vegetal behavior?
(E) What are some of the directions for future research in vegetal behavior?


6. Given its tone and content, from which one of the following was the passage most likely drawn?

(A) a textbook on plant neurobiology
(B) a grant application for an experimental study
(C) an editorial published in a national newspaper
(D) a strategic initiative proposed by an academic dean
(E) a study focusing on vegetal behavior


7. Which one of the following is most analogous to the position discussed in lines 33-35?

(A) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the currently existing hybrid model is environmentally friendly.
(B) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the cost of research and development is far greater than the potential earnings from the sale of such cars.
(C) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because such cars merely exchange one form of pollution for another, equally destructive form.
(D) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because there is no scientific consensus on the issue of global warming.
(E) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the infrastructure required to support such cars is not yet available.


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New post 30 Apr 2020, 20:31
1
1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Plant neurobiology has deepened our understanding of the incredible complexity that underlies vegetal behavior.
(B) Thanks to recent advances in plant neurobiology, our understanding of cognition has evolved.[This is mentioned only in the second para and that too briefly, and is not the main point of the passage]
(C) Advances in the field of plant intelligence require establishing an autonomous department dedicated to the study of plant neurobiology.[This limits to only the third para and is not the main point of the passage]
(D) Plant neurobiology has accelerated the pace of scientific discoveries involving vegetal behavior.[A strong contender to A but in my opinion we are not only talking about discoveries related to vegetal behaviour but also its complexity, as mentioned in the first line of the first para. Hence for me A seems to be a better choice.]
(E) Plants possess cognitive capacities even though they lack the neural architecture that gives rise to animal cognition. [This is mentioned briefly in both the first and second para,but is certainely not the main point of the passage]


Answer should be A, IMO. Elimination points mentioned against each option

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Each one of the following is mentioned in the passage as an example of known vegetal behavior, EXCEPT:

(A) to process environmental input [Mentioned in first para - we observed that plants can process informational input on humidity and light]
(B) to communicate information [Mentioned in first para - plants are able to adaptively respond to stimuli]
(C) to experience pain [Mentioned in third para - we will discover that plants are capable of not only experiencing pain, but also of employing complex cost-benefit analysis]
(D) to interact through signals
(E) to use biochemical cues [Mentioned in first para - Consequently, no one suspected that plants could anticipate imminent hazards, let alone communicate these hazards through biochemical cues.]

Answer should be D, IMO. Elimination points mentioned against each option

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. The author observes that plants “lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition” (lines 27-28) mainly in order to

(A) indicate a necessary precondition for cognitive function [We don't know if it is a necessary precondition or not.]
(B) differentiate the cognitive abilities of plants from those of animals[It may be one of the differentiators out of many. It might not be sufficient itself to differentitate]
(C) explain why scientists find it difficult to attribute cognitive abilities to plants[Quite the opposite of what passage is saying. Scientists are now able to explain how w/o these important attributes also coginition is as is ]
(D) show that certain physiological attributes are no longer sufficient to prove cognitive function
(E) suggest a way in which our understanding of “cognition” has changed over time[Understanding of 'Cognition' has not changed rather how it is operated is to be re-evaluated]


Answer should be D, IMO. Elimination points mentioned against each option.

The previous line to the highlighted line denotes why the author is stating this finding. Lines are as follows -

Research in plant neurobiology has not only deepened our knowledge of vegetal behavior, but has also prompted a critical reevaluation of “cognition” as an operative term in a variety of seemingly unrelated fields, such as linguistics, philosophy, and anthropology. (25) Thanks to plant neurobiologists, we now have definitive proof that plants possess cognitive capacities even though they lack the synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

(A) The second paragraph anticipates the objections raised in the final paragraph.[2nd para only provides discoveries. No anticipation done here]
(B) The second paragraph helps to justify the course of action recommended in the final paragraph.
(C) The final paragraph supports the argument made in the second paragraph by clarifying the potential significance of an academic initiative.[2nd para only provides discoveries. No argument raised here]
(D) The second paragraph describes a controversial view that the author defends in the final paragraph. [2nd para only provides discoveries. No controversies raised here]
(E) The final paragraph debates the significance of a biological phenomenon, which is described in the second paragraph.[No debates done in the final para. Only a point raised keeping in mid the discoveries stated as part of 2nd Para]


Answer should be B, IMO. Elimination points mentioned against each option

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. The passage provides information that answers each of the following questions EXCEPT:

(A) How can research in plant physiology contribute to our future understanding of vegetal behavior?
(B) Has plant neurobiology altered our conception of cognition?[Answered in second para]
(C) What impact has the study of plant neurobiology made on other academic fields?[Answered in second para]
(D) How do plant neurobiologists study vegetal behavior? [Answered in second para]
(E) What are some of the directions for future research in vegetal behavior? [Answered in third para]


Answer should be A, IMO. Elimination points mentioned against each option

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Given its tone and content, from which one of the following was the passage most likely drawn?

(A) a textbook on plant neurobiology
(B) a grant application for an experimental study
(C) an editorial published in a national newspaper
(D) a strategic initiative proposed by an academic dean
(E) a study focusing on vegetal behavior


Answer should be D, IMO.

Can be directly inferred from the below mentioned lines -
The accelerated pace of discoveries involving (30) plant intelligence warrants significant institutional commitment, which can only be provided by establishing a Department of Plant Neurobiology at our university.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Which one of the following is most analogous to the position discussed in lines 33-35?

(A) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the currently existing hybrid model is environmentally friendly.
(B) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the cost of research and development is far greater than the potential earnings from the sale of such cars.
(C) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because such cars merely exchange one form of pollution for another, equally destructive form.
(D) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because there is no scientific consensus on the issue of global warming.
(E) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the infrastructure required to support such cars is not yet available.


Answer should be C, IMO.

Below mentioned lines are to be referred -
Some of my colleagues worry that this department would have no clear rationale, because (35) its objectives are in principle achievable by plant
physiologists.


From these lines author tries to convey that his colleagues are saying that even if a department is put up, its objectives, for now atleast, will be same as that of a plant physiologist and hence making a seperate department for the same objective will not be fruitful.

C matches this meaning, although in a negative way but still seems to be the best of the lot.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Re: Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2020, 03:56
Q1.
A. This is the main point of para1 only.
B. This is the main point of para2 only.
C. Correct. Useful reference from para3. "The accelerated pace of discoveries involving plant intelligence warrants significant institutional commitment" and "Our appreciation of vegetal behavior is attainable if, but only if, we recognize the value of plant neurobiology as an autonomous discipline worthy of institutional support." Para1 and para2 acts as premise for conclusion in para3.
D. Nothing is discussed that plant neurobilogy accelerated the studies on vegetal behaviour. Its is only mentioned that accelerated pace of studies shows need for institutional commitment. (In para3)
E. We can see this discussed in the passage. Out of scope.

Q2.
A. This is mentioned in para1 - "we observed that plants can process informational input on humidity and light"
B. and E. This is mentioned in para1 - "no one suspected that plants could anticipate imminent hazards, let alone communicate these hazards through biochemical cues."
C. It is mentioned in para2 - "plants are capable of not only experiencing pain"
D. Correct

Q3.
E. Correct Till the time, scientists were assuming that cognition is result of synaptic structures in both plants and animals. But because of new studies on plan neurobiology, this came to light. Hence the author intends to convey that the there is a development in our understanding of the "cognition".

Q4.
Para2 talks about the developments in our understanding of "plant cognition".
Para3 talks about author suggesting to establish a dedicated department for plant nuerology. Refer - "provided by establishing a Department of Plant Neurobiology at our university."

Hence the author used para2 as a premise to arrive at the conclusion in para3.

Option B. exactly says this.

Q5.
A. This is answered in para3 - "By assembling scientists to study vegetal behavior under one roof, a department dedicated solely to plant neurobiology will be uniquely capable of addressing issues far beyond the scope of plant physiology. Not before long, we will discover that plants are capable of not only experiencing pain, but also of employing complex cost-benefit analysis to adapt and learn from their mistakes."
B. and C. can be answered by the following sentence from para2. "Research in plant neurobiology has not only deepened our knowledge of vegetal behavior, but has also prompted a critical reevaluation of “cognition” as an operative term in a variety of seemingly unrelated fields, such as linguistics, philosophy, and anthropology."
D. Correct This is not answered in the passage.
E. This is answered in para3 - "Not before long, we will discover that plants are capable of not only experiencing pain, but also of employing complex cost-benefit analysis to adapt and learn from their mistakes. "

Q6.
From para3 - "which can only be provided by establishing a Department of Plant Neurobiology at our university." we can infer option D

Q7.
Option A is correct. This analogy is similar to the one in the discussion. scope of small thing falls in scope of large thing.
Small scope - Plant Neurobiology and Electric cars
Large Scope - Plant Physiology and Hybrid Cars.
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Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2020, 08:40
1
1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Plant neurobiology has deepened our understanding of the incredible complexity that underlies vegetal behavior.
(B) Thanks to recent advances in plant neurobiology, our understanding of cognition has evolved.
(C) Advances in the field of plant intelligence require establishing an autonomous department dedicated to the study of plant neurobiology.
(D) Plant neurobiology has accelerated the pace of scientific discoveries involving vegetal behavior.
(E) Plants possess cognitive capacities even though they lack the neural architecture that gives rise to animal cognition.

As stated in the final paragraph, we get to know that the main reason behind writing this passage was to advocate the need to ahve a separate department dedicated to the study of neurobiology. The first two paragraphs are merely used to set context for the same. Thus, the correct option should be (C). A very close second option IMO is option D. Since the first two paragraphs talk extensively about plant neurobiology, it makes sense to assume it to be the correct option. However, it says that plant neurobiolody has "ACCELERATED" the pace of scientific discoveries incolving vegetal behaviour. According to the first sentence in the passage, any scientific discovery in this arena was IMPOSSIBLE. One can't accelerate something that doesn't exist. To accelerate, something must exist, even though its rate is slow. This is my reason for rejecting (D).

2. Each one of the following is mentioned in the passage as an example of known vegetal behavior, EXCEPT:

(A) to process environmental input
(B) to communicate information
(C) to experience pain
(D) to interact through signals
(E) to use biochemical cues

(A) Consider this sentence: "we observed that plants can process informational input on humidity and light". This means that plants are able to process environmental (humdiity and light) input.
(B) "...let alone communicate these hazards through biochemical cues". Hence, the plants are also able to communicate information.
(C) This is not inferrable from the passage. Remember, stimuli is NOT EQUAL to pain.
(D) This is also clear as explained in option B reasoning. the biochemical cues referred to in the passage are the signals that plants use to communicate with each other.
(E) This is also stated well in the explanation option B.

3. The author observes that plants “lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition” (lines 27-28) mainly in order to

(A) indicate a necessary precondition for cognitive function
(B) differentiate the cognitive abilities of plants from those of animals
(C) explain why scientists find it difficult to attribute cognitive abilities to plants
(D) show that certain physiological attributes are no longer sufficient to prove cognitive function
(E) suggest a way in which our understanding of “cognition” has changed over time

This is an inference question as we have not been given any explicit statement as to what the author means by stating the aforementioned.

4. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

(A) The second paragraph anticipates the objections raised in the final paragraph.
(B) The second paragraph helps to justify the course of action recommended in the final paragraph.
(C) The final paragraph supports the argument made in the second paragraph by clarifying the potential significance of an academic initiative.
(D) The second paragraph describes a controversial view that the author defends in the final paragraph.
(E) The final paragraph debates the significance of a biological phenomenon, which is described in the second paragraph.

(A) is incorrect because the objections raised by the author in the final sentence (that his/her colleagues views are incorrect) are not anticipated by the second paragraph.
(B) is the correct option because the information given in second paragraph helps explain why a dedicated department for plant neurobiology might be a good idea for the advancement of research in this area.
(C) The second paragrpah states facts and does NOT make any argument. Also, the final paragraph does not support any argument.
(D) This is incorrect as there is not controversial view put forth by the author in the second paragraph.
(E) This final paragraph does not debate the significance of any biological phenomenon. This choice is also incorrect.

5. The passage provides information that answers each of the following questions EXCEPT:

(A) How can research in plant physiology contribute to our future understanding of vegetal behavior?
(B) Has plant neurobiology altered our conception of cognition?
(C) What impact has the study of plant neurobiology made on other academic fields?
(D) How do plant neurobiologists study vegetal behavior?
(E) What are some of the directions for future research in vegetal behavior?

6. Given its tone and content, from which one of the following was the passage most likely drawn?

(A) a textbook on plant neurobiology
(B) a grant application for an experimental study
(C) an editorial published in a national newspaper
(D) a strategic initiative proposed by an academic dean
(E) a study focusing on vegetal behavior

(A) is incorrect because it is highly unlikely for a textbook on plant biology to advocate a dedicated department in what appears to be a university. Textbooks on plant neurobiology should contain information as stated in para 1 and 2.
(B) No grant application will contain information about the future work that is to be done to advance reserach in a field.
(C) This doesn't make sense, though can be true if the editorial is written by a student or professor of an academic institution. Let's keep it but try and look for better option.
(D) This is better than (C). so we can discard (C).
(E) This is also not relevant.

7. Which one of the following is most analogous to the position discussed in lines 33-35?

(A) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the currently existing hybrid model is environmentally friendly.
(B) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the cost of research and development is far greater than the potential earnings from the sale of such cars.
(C) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because such cars merely exchange one form of pollution for another, equally destructive form.
(D) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because there is no scientific consensus on the issue of global warming.
(E) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the infrastructure required to support such cars is not yet available.

According to lines 33-35, there is no need for a separate department of plant neurobiology because its objectives can be acheived by the existing plant physiologists. So, we have to find an topiton where both the entities do the same task, therefore, there is not reason to introduce the second one. The most unlikely option here is the correct choice as it captures the essence of these lines. Option (C) states that a car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of car because another one just like it already exists.

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New post 01 May 2020, 09:15
1
OAs of this RC are as follow:

1. C
2. C
3. E
4. B
5. A
6. D
7. A

5/7 is not a bad result good job done by Gautam12121991 and abcdddddd. Welcome back abcdddddd.
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Re: Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2020, 02:19
SajjadAhmad wrote:
OAs of this RC are as follow:

1. C
2. C
3. E
4. B
5. A
6. D
7. A

5/7 is not a bad result good job done by Gautam12121991 and abcdddddd. Welcome back abcdddddd.


Please share the OE for ques 5.
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Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2020, 10:22
1
abcdddddd wrote:

Please share the OE for ques 5.


Official Explanation


5. The passage provides information that answers each of the following questions EXCEPT:

Difficulty Level: Hard

Explanation

To answer this Must Be True/EXCEPT question, proceed by the process of elimination: four of the answer choices will contain examples of known vegetal behavior, and will be incorrect.

Answer choice (A) is the correct answer choice, because the author only discusses the research significance of plant neurobiology, not plant physiology. No information is given as to how research in plant physiology can contribute to our future understanding of vegetal behavior.

Answer choice (B) is incorrect, because the question is answered in lines 20-24.

Answer choice (C) is incorrect, because the question is answered in line 24.

Answer choice (D) is incorrect, because the question is answered in lines 18-20.

Answer choice (E) is incorrect, because the question is answered in lines 39-46.

Answer: A

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Re: Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2020, 04:31
SajjadAhmad Can you please provide the OE for Q2?

Thanks in advance.
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New post 04 May 2020, 10:53
1
TarPhi wrote:
SajjadAhmad Can you please provide the OE for Q2?

Thanks in advance.


Official Explanation


2. Each one of the following is mentioned in the passage as an example of known vegetal behavior, EXCEPT:

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

To answer this Must Be True/EXCEPT question, proceed by the process of elimination: four of the answer choices will contain examples of known vegetal behavior, and will be incorrect. Questions of this type are usually time-consuming, because the correct answer choice must be the one we cannot prove by referring to information contained in the passage.

Answer choice (A) is incorrect, because the ability of plants to process informational input is discussed in line 7.

Answer choice (B) is incorrect, because the ability of plants to communicate danger, which is a type of information, is discussed in lines 12-13.

Answer choice (C) is the correct answer choice, because experiencing pain is not an example of known vegetal behavior. Instead, it is discussed in line 41 as an example of something scientists are bound to discover in the future.

Answer choice (D) is incorrect, because the ability of plants to communicate hazards through biochemical cues, which is an example of signal-interaction behavior, is discussed in lines 13-14.

Answer choice (E) is incorrect, because the ability of plants to use biochemical cues is discussed in line 14.

Answer: C


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Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally  [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2020, 17:35
1
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Project RC Butler 2020 - Participate and win GMAT Club Tests.
Passage # 59, Date: 30-Apr-2020
This post is a part of Project RC Butler 2020. Click here for Details


Biologists have long suspected that vegetal
behavior is exceptionally complex, but such
hypotheses were impossible to test due to limited
technical resources. We assumed that plants are able to
(5) adaptively respond to stimuli, but were unable to test
our assumptions. Similarly, we observed that plants
can process informational input on humidity and light,
but could not analyze the physiological mechanisms
allowing them to do so. Until recently, it was impossible
(10) to compare the neural architecture that gives rise to
animal cognition to biologically plausible forms of
learning in plants. Consequently, no one suspected that
plants could anticipate imminent hazards, let alone
communicate these hazards through biochemical cues.
(15) Today, with the advent of plant neurobiology, scientists
can finally shed light on the incredible complexity that
underlies vegetal behavior.

Plant neurobiology studies the complex patterns
of behavior of plants through information-processing
(20) systems. Research in plant neurobiology has not only
deepened our knowledge of vegetal behavior, but has
also prompted a critical reevaluation of “cognition” as
an operative term in a variety of seemingly unrelated
fields, such as linguistics, philosophy, and anthropology.
(25) Thanks to plant neurobiologists, we now have definitive
proof that plants possess cognitive capacities even
though they lack the synaptic structures that give rise to
animal cognition.

The accelerated pace of discoveries involving
(30) plant intelligence warrants significant institutional
commitment, which can only be provided by
establishing a Department of Plant Neurobiology at
our university. Some of my colleagues worry that this
department would have no clear rationale, because
(35) its objectives are in principle achievable by plant
physiologists. This is not true. By assembling scientists
to study vegetal behavior under one roof, a department
dedicated solely to plant neurobiology will be uniquely
capable of addressing issues far beyond the scope of
(40) plant physiology. Not before long, we will discover
that plants are capable of not only experiencing pain,
but also of employing complex cost-benefit analysis to
adapt and learn from their mistakes. Our appreciation
of vegetal behavior is attainable if, but only if, we
(45) recognize the value of plant neurobiology as an
autonomous discipline worthy of institutional support.

1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Plant neurobiology has deepened our understanding of the incredible complexity that underlies vegetal behavior.
(B) Thanks to recent advances in plant neurobiology, our understanding of cognition has evolved.
(C) Advances in the field of plant intelligence require establishing an autonomous department dedicated to the study of plant neurobiology.
(D) Plant neurobiology has accelerated the pace of scientific discoveries involving vegetal behavior.
(E) Plants possess cognitive capacities even though they lack the neural architecture that gives rise to animal cognition.


2. Each one of the following is mentioned in the passage as an example of known vegetal behavior, EXCEPT:

(A) to process environmental input
(B) to communicate information
(C) to experience pain
(D) to interact through signals
(E) to use biochemical cues


3. The author observes that plants “lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition” (lines 27-28) mainly in order to

(A) indicate a necessary precondition for cognitive function
(B) differentiate the cognitive abilities of plants from those of animals
(C) explain why scientists find it difficult to attribute cognitive abilities to plants
(D) show that certain physiological attributes are no longer sufficient to prove cognitive function
(E) suggest a way in which our understanding of “cognition” has changed over time


4. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

(A) The second paragraph anticipates the objections raised in the final paragraph.
(B) The second paragraph helps to justify the course of action recommended in the final paragraph.
(C) The final paragraph supports the argument made in the second paragraph by clarifying the potential significance of an academic initiative.
(D) The second paragraph describes a controversial view that the author defends in the final paragraph.
(E) The final paragraph debates the significance of a biological phenomenon, which is described in the second paragraph.


5. The passage provides information that answers each of the following questions EXCEPT:

(A) How can research in plant physiology contribute to our future understanding of vegetal behavior?
(B) Has plant neurobiology altered our conception of cognition?
(C) What impact has the study of plant neurobiology made on other academic fields?
(D) How do plant neurobiologists study vegetal behavior?
(E) What are some of the directions for future research in vegetal behavior?


6. Given its tone and content, from which one of the following was the passage most likely drawn?

(A) a textbook on plant neurobiology
(B) a grant application for an experimental study
(C) an editorial published in a national newspaper
(D) a strategic initiative proposed by an academic dean
(E) a study focusing on vegetal behavior


7. Which one of the following is most analogous to the position discussed in lines 33-35?

(A) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the currently existing hybrid model is environmentally friendly.
(B) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the cost of research and development is far greater than the potential earnings from the sale of such cars.
(C) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because such cars merely exchange one form of pollution for another, equally destructive form.
(D) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because there is no scientific consensus on the issue of global warming.
(E) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the infrastructure required to support such cars is not yet available.





para1
narrate the limited resources to vegetal behavior that made lots of assumption as well as observation fail to work in the old days, and how nowadays the advent of plant neurobiology shed light on the puzzle of vegetal behavior

para2
follow para1, the author praise the usefulness to plant neurobiology, not only academic side but also on the study of “cognition” field, which later be confirmed explicitly by neurobiologist that plant indeed posses this capacities

para3
to eliminate the doubts that it be too narrow the scope concern with plant intelligence, which can only be achievable by plant experts—institutional support, and this follow by the recommendation on the institutional scientific effort in para1&2 of the plant neurobiology which further raise up the future prospect in the study of vegetal behavior





1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?


(A) Plant neurobiology has deepened our understanding of the incredible complexity that underlies vegetal behavior.

see para2
Research in plant neurobiology has not only deepened our knowledge of vegetal behavior,

....this only cover part of the passage and cannot constitute the main point of the passage

(B) Thanks to recent advances in plant neurobiology, our understanding of cognition has evolved.

“recent advances in plant neurobiology” is correct, but whether “our understanding of cognition has evolved or not”
we don’t know for sure, it just prompted a critical reevaluation of “cognition” as we know from the sentences in para2

see sentence in para3
Research in plant neurobiology has not only deepened our knowledge of vegetal behavior, but has also prompted a critical
reevaluation of “cognition” as an operative term in a variety of seemingly unrelated fields, such as linguistics, philosophy, and anthropology.

(C) Advances in the field of plant intelligence require establishing an autonomous department dedicated to the study of plant neurobiology.

…this one is correct, I cannot quite understand why at first and I think (A) or (D) better suit, but you had to notice the naunces

Gautam12121991
The accelerated pace of discoveries involving (30) plant intelligence warrants significant institutiona lcommitment,
which can only be provided by establishing a Department of Plant Neurobiology at our university.

"Our appreciation of vegetal behavior is attainable if, but only if, we recognize the value of plant neurobiology as an autonomous discipline worthy of institutional support."

Para1 and para2 acts as premise for conclusion in para3.
….I am wrong for that I miss this point in my thinking

(D) Plant neurobiology has accelerated the pace of scientific discoveries involving vegetal behavior.

I share the same thinking as adstudy, (A)&(D) are quite similar-contender, I chose (D) at first, but as to why (D) is also incorrect
see the last sentence in para1:
Today, with the advent of plant neurobiology, scientists can finally shed light on the incredible complexity that underlies vegetal behavior.
“plant neurobiology” just shed light on “vegetal behavior”, but about its pace, whether accelerate or not, we don’t know for sure


(E) Plants possess cognitive capacities even though they lack the neural architecture that gives rise to animal cognition.

….only cover part of para3




2. Each one of the following is mentioned in the passage as an example of known vegetal behavior, EXCEPT:


(A) to process environmental input

para1
(6)we observed that plants can process informational input on humidity and light

(B) to communicate information

para1
(13)let alone communicate these hazards through biochemical cues.
(we have already suspect vegetal behavior communicate information, but cannot prove)


(C) to experience pain

....correct
I chose (D) same as adstudy at first, since no direct words in the passage ever show (D) “interact through signals”
However, we should notice some indirect words imply the meaning of “interact through signals”, refer to line (5) “adaptively respond to stimuli”
I think the reason why (C) be the correct answer is in this time phrase ‘’not before long’’
see the sentence in para3, “not before long, we will discover that plants are capable of not only experiencing pain….”
so “experiencing pain”, at least for now, is still an unknown vegetal behavior

(D) to interact through signals

see para1
We assumed that plants are able to (5) adaptively respond to stimuli,

(E) to use biochemical cues

para1
(13)let alone communicate these hazards through biochemical cues.




3. The author observes that plants “lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition” (lines 27-28) mainly in order to


(25) Thanks to plant neurobiologists, we now have definitive
proof that plants possess cognitive capacities even
though they lack the synaptic structures that give rise to
animal cognition.

(A) indicate a necessary precondition for cognitive function

does the neural or synaptic structures a “necessary” precondition for cognitive function?
think of “necessary” in logic
if A is necessary for B, then no A must lead to no B
if we assume A is neural or synaptic structure; B is animal cognition, but here we already know “ if A doesn’t exist, B still occur”, so B is not a necessary condition for B


(B) differentiate the cognitive abilities of plants from those of animals

out of scope

(C) explain why scientists find it difficult to attribute cognitive abilities to plants

The author mention “plants lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition” is not aim at “attribute sth, attribute abilities to plants”


(D) show that certain physiological attributes are no longer sufficient to prove cognitive function

if we think of “sufficient” in logic way
“certain physiological attributes” such as “neural or synaptic structures” –A is sufficient for “cognitive”—B, we can try to negate A, but here from the sentence above we know if A doesn’t occur, B will still occur, so this is truly a “sufficient” rather than “no sufficient” condition

or think of it in another way
“no longer sufficient to prove cognitive function” is away from the topic, since here we’re talking about “the lacking of neural or synaptic structure which give rise to animal cognition”, we are not intend to prove anything related cognitive function


(E) suggest a way in which our understanding of “cognition” has changed over time


…..correct
for this sentence, we know that “synaptic structures”, which is missing in the plants we study, is a definite “physiological attributes” for animal cognition, however, the plants we study still own the cognitive capacities albeit they have no these structure, this is totally divert from how people think in the past, thus the author wrote this sentence is aim at suggesting a way which our understanding of “cognition” has changed over time




4. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?


(A) The second paragraph anticipates the objections raised in the final paragraph.
(B) The second paragraph helps to justify the course of action recommended in the final paragraph. ......correct
(C) The final paragraph supports the argument made in the second paragraph by clarifying the potential significance of an academic initiative.
(D) The second paragraph describes a controversial view that the author defends in the final paragraph.
(E) The final paragraph debates the significance of a biological phenomenon, which is described in the second paragraph.

sec para doesn’t “anticipate、argue、describe a controversial view”
the author used para2 as a premise to arrive at the conclusion in para3.




5. The passage provides information that answers each of the following questions EXCEPT:


(A) How can research in plant physiology contribute to our future understanding of vegetal behavior?

…correct
refer to para3
By assembling scientists to study vegetal behavior under one roof, a department dedicated solely(only, this is the key to this choice) to plant neurobiology will be uniquely capable of addressing issues far beyond the scope of (40) plant physiology.


(B) Has plant neurobiology altered our conception of cognition?

para 2
(20) Research in plant neurobiology has not only deepened our knowledge of vegetal behavior, but has also prompted a critical reevaluation of “cognition” as an operative term in a variety of seemingly unrelated fields, such as linguistics, philosophy, and anthropology.


(C) What impact has the study of plant neurobiology made on other academic fields?

para 2
Research in plant neurobiology has not only deepened our knowledge of vegetal behavior, but has also prompted a critical reevaluation of “cognition” as an operative term in a variety of seemingly unrelated fields, such as linguistics, philosophy, and anthropology.


(D) How do plant neurobiologists study vegetal behavior?

para 2
Plant neurobiology studies the complex patterns of behavior of plants through information-processing (20) systems.

(E) What are some of the directions for future research in vegetal behavior?

para3
capable of addressing issues far beyond the scope of (40) plant physiology. Not before long, we will discover that plants are capable of not only experiencing pain, but also of employing complex cost-benefit analysis to adapt and learn from their mistakes. Our appreciation of vegetal behavior is attainable if, but only if, we (45) recognize the value of plant neurobiology as an autonomous discipline worthy of institutional support.




6. Given its tone and content, from which one of the following was the passage most likely drawn?


(A) a textbook on plant neurobiology
(B) a grant application for an experimental study
(C) an editorial published in a national newspaper
(D) a strategic initiative proposed by an academic dean

….correct
Can be directly inferred from the below mentioned lines -
The accelerated pace of discoveries involving (30) plant intelligence warrants significant institutional commitment, which can only be provided by establishing a Department of Plant Neurobiology at our university.


(E) a study focusing on vegetal behavior

(A)&(E) are quite confusing, but they both can’t be the best source for this passage as (D)-a strategic initiative, they’re just smaller set under the bigger picture-a strategic initiative

also, see the first sentence in para1
Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally complex, but such hypotheses were impossible to test due to limited technical resources.
and last sentence
Today, with the advent of plant neurobiology, scientists can finally shed light on the incredible complexity that underlies vegetal behavior.

rather saying the author “focus” on the study of vegetal behavior, it is better to say that this is a study “try to solve the complexity of vegetal behavior”, since we know some of its complexity still remain unresolved, see from sentence in para3:
Not before long, we will discover that plants are capable of not only experiencing pain, but also of employing complex cost-benefit analysis to adapt and learn from their mistakes.




7. Which one of the following is most analogous to the position discussed in lines 33-35?


Some of my colleagues worry that this department would have no clear rationale, because (35) its objectives are in principle achievable by plant physiologists.
- this department has no clear intention/direction—of little use-- to its study, because it is mostly achievable by plant “physiologist”
-plant physiologists itself is enough good to this study, no need other department

(A) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the currently existing hybrid model is environmentally friendly.

.....correct
(refuse to change because current physiologist is already good)
-we don’t need this department(electric car), since the current physiologist(hybrid car) is already enough to achieve its goal


(B) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the cost of research and development is far greater than the potential earnings from the sale of such cars.

cost is not concern here

(C) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because such cars merely exchange one form of pollution for another, equally destructive form.

(refuse to change is because if change will be equally bad)


(D) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because there is no scientific consensus on the issue of global warming.

(refuse to change is because of no consensus, but does there any consensus exist between “this department & physiologist”? clearly not)

(E) A car manufacturer refuses to develop a new type of electric car, because the infrastructure required to support such cars is not yet available.

(refuse to change is because of no supported infrastructure)
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Re: Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2020, 00:26
SajjadAhmad wrote:
OAs of this RC are as follow:

1. C
2. C
3. E
4. B
5. A
6. D
7. A

5/7 is not a bad result good job done by Gautam12121991 and abcdddddd. Welcome back abcdddddd.



Can you please explain for question 3 why D is not the answer?
As in the passage it states that study has prompted to reevaluate the cognition term in other fields
This can an interpretation that we used to think that physical attribute are necessary to have cognitive abilities.
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New post 12 May 2020, 00:47
kunalc20 wrote:

Can you please explain for question 3 why D is not the answer?
As in the passage it states that study has prompted to reevaluate the cognition term in other fields
This can an interpretation that we used to think that physical attribute are necessary to have cognitive abilities.


Official Explanation


3. The author observes that plants “lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition” (lines 27-28) mainly in order to

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

This Specific Reference/Purpose question asks us to explain why the author observes that “plants lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition” in lines 27-28. Such questions almost always require a more thorough understanding of the context in which the quoted reference appears, and their answers should always be prephrased.

Answer choice (A) is the Opposite answer. The author argues that plants possess cognitive capacities even without exhibiting neural or synaptic structures, suggesting that such structures are not a necessary precondition for cognitive function.

Answer choice (B) is incorrect, because the author does not seek to differentiate between plant and animal cognition. On the contrary: she argues that both possess cognitive capacities, despite their physiological differences.

Answer choice (C) is incorrect, because the difficulty of attributing cognitive abilities to plants is not discussed in the second paragraph of the passage.

Answer choice (D) is incorrect, because it confuses a necessary condition for a sufficient one. The author observes that plants lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition in order to show that certain physiological attributes are no longer necessary to prove cognitive function. The author never discusses what conditions might be sufficient to prove cognitive function.

Answer choice (E) is the correct answer choice. The author mentions the fact that plants lack neural structures in order to show that such physiological attributes are no longer necessary to establish cognitive function. This, in turn, supports the author’s contention that plant neurobiology has prompted a critical reevaluation of “cognition” as an operative term in various fields.

Answer: E

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New post 12 May 2020, 00:53
SajjadAhmad wrote:
kunalc20 wrote:

Can you please explain for question 3 why D is not the answer?
As in the passage it states that study has prompted to reevaluate the cognition term in other fields
This can an interpretation that we used to think that physical attribute are necessary to have cognitive abilities.


Official Explanation


3. The author observes that plants “lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition” (lines 27-28) mainly in order to

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

This Specific Reference/Purpose question asks us to explain why the author observes that “plants lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition” in lines 27-28. Such questions almost always require a more thorough understanding of the context in which the quoted reference appears, and their answers should always be prephrased.

Answer choice (A) is the Opposite answer. The author argues that plants possess cognitive capacities even without exhibiting neural or synaptic structures, suggesting that such structures are not a necessary precondition for cognitive function.

Answer choice (B) is incorrect, because the author does not seek to differentiate between plant and animal cognition. On the contrary: she argues that both possess cognitive capacities, despite their physiological differences.

Answer choice (C) is incorrect, because the difficulty of attributing cognitive abilities to plants is not discussed in the second paragraph of the passage.

Answer choice (D) is incorrect, because it confuses a necessary condition for a sufficient one. The author observes that plants lack the neural or synaptic structures that give rise to animal cognition in order to show that certain physiological attributes are no longer necessary to prove cognitive function. The author never discusses what conditions might be sufficient to prove cognitive function.

Answer choice (E) is the correct answer choice. The author mentions the fact that plants lack neural structures in order to show that such physiological attributes are no longer necessary to establish cognitive function. This, in turn, supports the author’s contention that plant neurobiology has prompted a critical reevaluation of “cognition” as an operative term in various fields.

Answer: E




Ohk, now i got it
Its a necessary condition and the not the sufficient condition
means that physical attribute are necessary but we cant say its a sufficient or not.

Thank you
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New post 29 May 2020, 09:41
SajjadAhmad wrote:
abcdddddd wrote:

Please share the OE for ques 5.


Official Explanation


5. The passage provides information that answers each of the following questions EXCEPT:

Difficulty Level: Hard

Explanation

To answer this Must Be True/EXCEPT question, proceed by the process of elimination: four of the answer choices will contain examples of known vegetal behavior, and will be incorrect.

Answer choice (A) is the correct answer choice, because the author only discusses the research significance of plant neurobiology, not plant physiology. No information is given as to how research in plant physiology can contribute to our future understanding of vegetal behavior.

Answer choice (B) is incorrect, because the question is answered in lines 20-24.

Answer choice (C) is incorrect, because the question is answered in line 24.

Answer choice (D) is incorrect, because the question is answered in lines 18-20.

Answer choice (E) is incorrect, because the question is answered in lines 39-46.

Answer: A


Hi SajjadAhmad - thanks this is helpful. Could you please help me with the below?

The lines you've referenced for answer choice (B) state: Research in plant neurobiology has not only deepened our knowledge of vegetal behavior, but has also prompted a critical reevaluation of “cognition” as an operative term in a variety of seemingly unrelated fields, such as linguistics, philosophy, and anthropology.


I'm not clear how there is an answer within this? It seems to say there is a critical evaluation of "cognition" as a term but offers no detail on how (i.e. replaced with another word, used more frequently etc.).
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Re: Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally   [#permalink] 29 May 2020, 09:41

Biologists have long suspected that vegetal behavior is exceptionally

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