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# Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal

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Manager
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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2012, 22:23
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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborat society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2012, 22:53
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(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting->wrong
the three phrases are not parallel
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of-->correct the three noun phrases are parallel ,please see the bold faced nouns(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of-->parallelism error
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting--> unnecessary use of the word they and also parallelism error
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited-->wrong use of the pronoun their and also parallelism error.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2012, 23:16
saikarthikreddy wrote:
(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting->wrong
the three phrases are not parallel
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of-->correct the three noun phrases are parallel ,please see the bold faced nouns(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of-->parallelism error
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting--> unnecessary use of the word they and also parallelism error
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited-->wrong use of the pronoun their and also parallelism error.

Hi saikarthikreddy, the cultivation and the harvesting are not in parallel. It should be cultivating & harvesting.
Correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2012, 03:34
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subhajeet wrote:
saikarthikreddy wrote:
(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting->wrong
the three phrases are not parallel
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of-->correct the three noun phrases are parallel ,please see the bold faced nouns(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of-->parallelism error
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting--> unnecessary use of the word they and also parallelism error
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited-->wrong use of the pronoun their and also parallelism error.

Hi saikarthikreddy, the cultivation and the harvesting are not in parallel. It should be cultivating & harvesting.
Correct me if I am wrong.

based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of

"the harvesting of " - complex gerund
"cultivation" and "exploitation" - action noun

complex gerund and action noun can be parallel.

Hope this helps..!!
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2012, 05:57
harvesting is used as a noun, it is a gerund. Also every article (a,an,the) must be followed by a NOUN so there you go
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2012, 14:19
I can't point to a specific rule or terminology, but such shouldn't be followed by like when providing examples. It's either "such as" or "like"

"such crops like" - wrong
"such crops as" - correct
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2012, 22:13
Went for B. Great information above, I still can't dissect the answers with specifics though. C D E sounded awkward to me and B had the correct usage of "such crops as".
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2012, 07:33
vikram4689 wrote:
aalba005 wrote:
Went for B. Great information above, I still can't dissect the answers with specifics though. C D E sounded awkward to me and B had the correct usage of "such crops as".

do you have any specific doubt

No, after I read the explainations it was clear why C D and E were incorrect but I still need more practice in this regard.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2012, 08:02
aalba005 wrote:
vikram4689 wrote:
aalba005 wrote:
Went for B. Great information above, I still can't dissect the answers with specifics though. C D E sounded awkward to me and B had the correct usage of "such crops as".

do you have any specific doubt

No, after I read the explainations it was clear why C D and E were incorrect but I still need more practice in this regard.

Great, let us know wherever you have any queries
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2013, 10:36
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2013, 23:35
Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborat society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting - > like cant be used for examples and not parallel
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of -> correct answer
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of - > like cant be used for examples
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting- > not parallel
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited ->not parallel

Hope it helps.
Kudos pls if it helps
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2013, 04:23
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Bumping for review and further discussion*.
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subhajeet wrote:
Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborat society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

The pattern in the original sentence is based on cultivating.......(verb), the harvesting of.......(Gerund), and exploiting ..........(verb), which is clearly an issue of Parallelism. Moreover this choice uses such crops like which is not idiomatic. The accepted usage is such crops as or crops such as

For the sentence to have parallel structure, we would need 3 things followed by based on, to be noun or something that plays the role of a noun (e.g. Gerund)

A) INCORRECT - for the reasons cited above

B) CORRECT - This choice maintains the parallelism. based on the cultivation of.......(noun phrase), the harvesting of..........(gerund phrase), and the exploitation of.........(noun phrase). Such crops as is idiomatic.

C) INCORRECT - basing it.....(verb), harvesting......(verb), and exploiting of.......(noun)

D) INCORRECT - their has no logical referent.

E) INCORRECT - for the same reason cited in Choice D.

Hope that helps!
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2014, 21:09
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
Parrallel
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2016, 12:09
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2017, 18:36
Hi Experts,

Could you please comment on the summary below? Below is my understanding; Correct/Wrong?

Concrete Noun || Action Noun - OK
Concrete Noun || Complex Gerund - OK
Concrete Noun || Simple Gerund - OK

Action Noun || Complex Gerund - OK
Action Noun || Simple Gerund - NOT OK

Complex Gerund || Simple Gerund - NOT OK

Simple Gerund || Simple Gerund - OK

Best
RzS
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2017, 03:03
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TheRzS wrote:
Hi Experts,

Could you please comment on the summary below? Below is my understanding; Correct/Wrong?

1.Concrete Noun || Action Noun - OK
2.Concrete Noun || Complex Gerund - OK
3. Concrete Noun || Simple Gerund - OK

4. Action Noun || Complex Gerund - OK
5. Action Noun || Simple Gerund - NOT OK

6. Complex Gerund || Simple Gerund - NOT OK

7. Simple Gerund || Simple Gerund - OK

Best
RzS

Manhattan SC guide summarizes the rules regarding use of simple gerund and complex gerund:
In brief, there are three categories of nouns: (1) Concrete Nouns, (2) Action Nouns and Complex Gerunds, and (3) Simple Gerunds. Do not mix these categories.

Thus you may see that your following points are incorrect:
1, 2, 3,

The following are correct:
4, 5, 6, 7.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2017, 18:59
Hi sayantanc2k

So with exception of Action Noun || Complex Gerund, we cannot mix the categories?
Hence Concrete Noun can only be || with Concrete noun?

Regards
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2017, 04:30
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TheRzS wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k

So with exception of Action Noun || Complex Gerund, we cannot mix the categories?
Hence Concrete Noun can only be || with Concrete noun?

Regards
RzS

However, I definitely remember one example ( either from official guide or from Manhattan), in which one had to chose between concrete noun - action noun and concrete noun - gerund combination. In such case, concrete noun - action noun is a better choice. I shall revert to you if i get hold of that example.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2017, 08:15

1. the meaning of the sentence

2. what them refers to

thanks
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2017, 23:23
AR15J wrote:

1. the meaning of the sentence

2. what them refers to

thanks

hi,
'them' is referring to 'the Mochica' . 'The Mochica' is plural as in the non underlined part of the sentence 'their' pronoun is used to refer 'the mochinca' civilization.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal   [#permalink] 15 Mar 2017, 23:23

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