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# By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen

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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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12 May 2012, 04:35
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80% (01:05) correct 20% (01:10) wrong based on 4448 sessions

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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia  [#permalink]

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12 May 2012, 08:02
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A. and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be------ flew to be -- is bad usage; to be is not a verb. We need a past tense verb such as were to mark the plural subject planes. (For is used in the menaing of because)

B. earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were --- at a time needs when as the relative pronoun

C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were—at a time where is wrong

D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were—at a time in which is not proper - when is required; in addition so new such that is bad idiom.

E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were; --- correct structure; earned is not a verb here. It is a past participle

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2013, 06:11
5
suyash23n wrote:
Though i figured out that the OA is E, i was wondering if the grammatical error in option A is rectified, and the new answer choices are :

A- and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
E - earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Will we still eliminate Option A ? (may be just because it is wordy).

Need help!!

A is still wrong IMO.

A did X and Y. Here, X and Y should be independent; i.e Y cannot be describing X further.

However, the original sentence intends to give further information ( a modifier) about the awards won. So using a "and" conjunction distorts the meaning.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2012, 15:12
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Quote:
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were; --- correct structure; earned is not a verb here. It is a past participle

if it is a past participle, should it be used without comma??
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2012, 21:38
1
Without the comma it will directly refer to the noun before. But even without comma, logically the past participle can only refer to the records, as it can not refer to any other meaningful noun. Also considering that GMAT isn’t fastidious about comma usage, E is acceptable, IMO
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2013, 01:10
1
Though i figured out that the OA is E, i was wondering if the grammatical error in option A is rectified, and the new answer choices are :

A- and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
E - earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Will we still eliminate Option A ? (may be just because it is wordy).

Need help!!
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2013, 01:49
2
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Though i could figure out the best answer,E, i am not satisfied with the explanation OG13 has given for eleminating option B and C.
It says, " the word earning takes the pilot herself, not the records, as its subject. However, earning is close to the records, not toJacqueline Cochran, making this sentence hard to process."

But how can verb-ing modivier placed after clause preceded with comma, can modify noun/subject for the modified clause. As far as eGmat tmaterials on Verbing modifiers are concerned, the construction ---clause + , + verbing---smodifies the whole clause.

Can anyone validate the conflicting ideas? OG or Egmat... I expect Shraddha, Rajat, to pitch in.

Thnx

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2014, 10:29
For those interested in a video walkthrough of this question, we've posted our approach to eliminating A, B, C, and D in the OG13 Tracker here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc35
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Re: OG 13 # 35  [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2014, 11:33
Hi there - Can you please validate my analysis and help with the below questions

Sentence structure analysis -

Clause 1: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records
, and

Clause 2: she earned them at a time when

Clause 3: aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

Error -

(1) Idiom Error - so ..for is wrong. It needs to be so that. Also the sentence structure is not proper because of missing "that". It is required to introduce the dependent clause "she flew..."
(2) Verb Tense Error - planes .. to be is not right, it needs past tense here. Simple past tense is required as it talks about a fact (design) in past. So "were" is
required.

POE

(a) and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be - WRONG because of reasons stated above

(b) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were - WRONG
(1) Idiom error same as (a)

Question -
(1) I am not clear on the position on "earning" and explanation given in OG? To me it seems that comma + verb-ing is presenting additional information about the main clause. Please provide your insight.
(2) Can "that" refer to time?

(c) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were - WRONG
(1) "where" referring to time is wrong. When required instead

(d) earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were - WRONG
(1) Idiom error - so ..such that
Question - Is "in which" wrong here? please explain the usage if "in which". Some forums say it is interchangeable with when

(e) earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were - RIGHT
(1) earned refers to closest preceding noun "records" - Right
(2) when refers to time
(3) correct verb tense were
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Re: Pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen national records  [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2014, 05:59
1
Hi crackball,

Let's begin by the correct question here:

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A) and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
C) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D) earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E) earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Option A - Yes, you are correct. When we say that something was so X, we must then say "that Y". So "that Y" part is missing from this sentence. However, it is not necessary to have "that" before the clause "she flew". Even without "that", the meaning is absolutely clearly that "she flew" is about the planes that she flew. Also "she flew" is a Dependent Clause here.

Option B - This one has the same idiom error as in Choice A. Also use of "that" to modify "time" is absolutely incorrect. Only "when" can modify "time". Use of comma + verb-ing "earning" is correct in the context as it says that she held the records "by earning them...".

Option C - Correct Analysis.

Option D - You are right about the incorrect idiom use in this sentence. I would say for time, "when" is the relative pronoun to be used.

Option E - Correct analysis.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia  [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2014, 06:30
daagh wrote:
A. and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be------ flew to be -- is bad usage; to be is not a verb. We need a past tense verb such as were to mark the plural subject planes. (For is used in the menaing of because)

B. earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were --- at a time needs when as the relative pronoun

C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were—at a time where is wrong

D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were—at a time in which is not proper - when is required; in addition so new such that is bad idiom.

E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were; --- correct structure; earned is not a verb here. It is a past participle

E was looking most suitable but I got confused as earned I found is an orphan verb with no Clause or Subject to envelope it. How to save myself from such traps?
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Re: Pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen national records  [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2014, 08:11
egmat wrote:
Hi crackball,

Let's begin by the correct question here:

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

B) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
C) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Option B - This one has the same idiom error as in Choice A. Also use of "that" to modify "time" is absolutely incorrect. Only "when" can modify "time". Use of comma + verb-ing "earning" is correct in the context as it says that she held the records "by earning them...".

I am not completely convinced with the usage of Verb + ing ("earning them..." ) in this sentence.
As the sentence doesn't want to convey that because JC flew dangerous planes she held those records.

Please let me know if I am missing out something.
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Re: Pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen national records  [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2014, 20:45
Mission2012 wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi crackball,

Let's begin by the correct question here:

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

B) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
C) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Option B - This one has the same idiom error as in Choice A. Also use of "that" to modify "time" is absolutely incorrect. Only "when" can modify "time". Use of comma + verb-ing "earning" is correct in the context as it says that she held the records "by earning them...".

I am not completely convinced with the usage of Verb + ing ("earning them..." ) in this sentence.
As the sentence doesn't want to convey that because JC flew dangerous planes she held those records.

Please let me know if I am missing out something.

Dear Student,

This indeed is a tricky spot. Although I do agree with you that the meaning added by the verb –ing modifier in the choice under discussion is not really the one conveyed by ‘by” or “because”, I do think that the use of the modifier is correct in the context. Here the modifier “earning” expands on the preceding clause by giving us additional information on the timing of the event, i.e. when Jacqueline held the records. In context, it kind of also establishes on how these records were exceptional.

Hope the above discussion helps!

Regards,

Neeti.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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26 May 2014, 09:42
Hi There,

Option B and C starts with earning . here it looks to me earning is modifying records not pilot .I know B and C are wrong as" at a time " followed by wrong word.

But I do not understand , why all explanation says earning is modifying pilot not the records?

Thank you .

GMATPill wrote:
For those interested in a video walkthrough of this question, we've posted our approach to eliminating A, B, C, and D in the OG13 Tracker here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc35

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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26 May 2014, 10:10
I have already gone through the video.
in video,they say earning modifies pilot . that is my doubt. Earning is placed near to record , that means earning is modifying records not the pilot.

sunita123 wrote:
Hi There,

Option B and C starts with earning . here it looks to me earning is modifying records not pilot .I know B and C are wrong as" at a time " followed by wrong word.

But I do not understand , why all explanation says earning is modifying pilot not the records?

Thank you .

GMATPill wrote:
For those interested in a video walkthrough of this question, we've posted our approach to eliminating A, B, C, and D in the OG13 Tracker here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc35

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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27 May 2014, 07:50
2
2
sunita123 wrote:
I have already gone through the video.
in video,they say earning modifies pilot . that is my doubt. Earning is placed near to record , that means earning is modifying records not the pilot.

sunita123 wrote:
Hi There,

Option B and C starts with earning . here it looks to me earning is modifying records not pilot .I know B and C are wrong as" at a time " followed by wrong word.

But I do not understand , why all explanation says earning is modifying pilot not the records?

Thank you .

GMATPill wrote:
For those interested in a video walkthrough of this question, we've posted our approach to eliminating A, B, C, and D in the OG13 Tracker here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc35

Hi sunita123,

Thank you for the post.

As it is clear from your post, you are facing problems in the concept of verb-ing modifiers. The verb-ing modifiers modify different entities depending on their placement:

If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause and it is preceded by a comma, then it modifies the preceding clause. This modifier:

Tom killed the snake, using a stick. (Additional information)

2. Or it presents the result of the preceding clause.

The recession adversely affected the company’s business, reducing its profits by 50%. (Outcome)

If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause and it is not preceded by a comma then it modifies the preceding noun.

Ron got into the cab waiting outside his house. (‘waiting’ modifies ‘the cab’)

If you want to learn more about the verb-ing modifiers, please go through the following two articles. Once you have finished the articles, try to attempt the question above. In case, you still have doubt, look at the explanation below.

usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html
verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html

Let’s take option B of this sentence to understand the usage of the modifier ‘earning’ in this sentence:

• By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were of dangerously experimental design.

In this sentence the modifier ‘earning’ modifies the preceding clause. It provides us additional information about the clause. Also, this modifier makes sense with the subject of the clause since Jacqueline Cochran was the one who earned these records. So, this modifier is correctly used in the context of this sentence.

Hope this helps!
Deepak
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2016, 11:45
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2016, 12:37
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?

The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2016, 08:12
But, the verb-ed modifier when used with comma cannot modify the preceeding subject. Can you please explain that if it does ?

Thanks again
(in this case
sayantanc2k wrote:
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?

The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2016, 12:25
jjindal wrote:
But, the verb-ed modifier when used with comma cannot modify the preceeding subject. Can you please explain that if it does ?

Thanks again
(in this case
sayantanc2k wrote:
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?

The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.

No,verb-ed modifiers can't. I mentioned above present participle modifiers, i.e., verb-ing modifier.
Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen &nbs [#permalink] 21 Jun 2016, 12:25

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