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# City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne

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Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
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A. You dismiss a claim by relying on some scientific evidence related to that claim.

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Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
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Here is how I understood the question.

Resident:- Digital Billboards(DB) should be banned for light pollution

Spokesperson: No. They are actually better than the traditional Billboard(TB).

Flaw:- Even though the DB are better than TB, DB can still be banned for light pollution. Saying that DB is better than TB provides no ground for concluding that DB shouldnt be banned.

Things I looked for in an answer stem. :- Something that says A is better than B, hence A is good(or we should keep A).

Couldnt find anything similar on this front. Arrived at A using the force of elimination.
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Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
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gmatt1476 wrote:
City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banned for light pollution since they are much too bright.

Outdoor advertising spokesperson: No, that's not true. Testing with a sophisticated light meter shows that at night they throw off less light than traditional billboards that are reflectively lit. Your mistaken perception that they are brighter comes from looking directly at the light source—the screen itself.

The underlying strategy of the spokesperson's response to the resident is most analogous to the underlying strategy of which of the following?

A. A doctor dismisses a patient's claim to have had a heart attack, citing a cardiac enzyme blood test.

B. A politician rejects an accusation of perjury by denying the credibility of witness testimony.

C. An insurance agent rejects a claim, on the grounds that there is insufficient evidence to support the claimant's testimony.

D. An investigator casts doubt on the results of a lie detector, citing the subject's report of illness during the test.

E. A psychologist treats a mental illness by encouraging a patient to abandon inconsistent beliefs.

CR46521.01

Official Explanation

Argument Construction

This question requires us to identify the answer choice that that has an underlying reasoning strategy that is most analogous to the spokesperson's strategy.

The outdoor advertising spokesperson responds to the city resident by citing an objective test that shows the factual claims of the resident to be false.

A. Correct. This choice is the most closely analogous to the spokesperson's strategy: the doctor uses an objective test to show the factual claims of the patient to be false.

B. The politician does not use an objective test to reject the accusation of perjury. The politician merely denies the credibility of the witness; the basis for this denial is not stated.

C. The insurance agent does not use an objective test as justification for rejecting a claim or for suggesting that there is sufficient evidence for the claimant's testimony.

D. In this choice, the investigator rejects the results of what some might see as an objective test. However, the investigator does not use the results of an objective test to prove the factual claims of the subject to be incorrect.

E. This choice does not involve rejecting a claim, nor does it involve any sort of objective test.

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City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
A patient subjectively claims to have had heart attack.
A doctor cites objective test result to dismiss the claim.

City resident subjectively claims that the billboard is too bright.
Spokesperson cites objective report to dismiss the claim.

As I recall, dismiss means stop to consider something because it is unworthy. Does the spokesperson mention that the resident’s subjective perception is unworthy to consider? On the contrary, the spokesperson shows that the resident’s perception is ‘less objective’ than the testing report, and contend that the subjective perception can happen in certain condition. The subjective-objective is the backbone of the reasoning. Can you consider a thing and, at the same time, say it is unworthy to consider?

Medical tests are in general solid enough to confirm that the patient did not have heart attack. So the ‘dismiss’ in option (A) is reasonable. On the other hand, is the report the spokesperson cites solid enough to confirm that the resident’s subjective perception is false? Does the spokesperson put the resident in the MRI to analyze solid scientific data which may indicate that the billboard is not too bright to the resident?

I bet even elementary school student can draw better analogy than this set of question.
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Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
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I was stuck between option A and D. After reviewing the analysis, I have come through a solution.

City resident gives a claim. OAS rejects the claim, cites a test result and considers alternative reasoning for that claim.

Goal: Look for an option that will reject other claim by citing a test result.

Option D casts doubt on the findings and submits another findings. It does not go with our reasoning.
Option A matches with our goal. A doctor rejects a patient's claim by citing blood test.
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City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
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gmatt1476 wrote:
City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banned for light pollution since they are much too bright.

Outdoor advertising spokesperson: No, that's not true. Testing with a sophisticated light meter shows that at night they throw off less light than traditional billboards that are reflectively lit. Your mistaken perception that they are brighter comes from looking directly at the light source—the screen itself.

The underlying strategy of the spokesperson's response to the resident is most analogous to the underlying strategy of which of the following?
CR46521.01

Took me 4 mins to solve this one, but got it right. Below is how I approached it,

Structure of the conversation between the resident and the spokesperson
1. A claim is made by person X - These new digital electronic billboards should be banned for light pollution since they are much too bright
2. Factual evidence is presented by person Y to refute X's claim - Testing with a sophisticated light meter shows that at night they throw off less light than traditional billboards that are reflectively lit

A. A doctor dismisses a patient's claim to have had a heart attack, citing a cardiac enzyme blood test
A claim is made by person X - Patient claims that he/she had an heart attack
Factual evidence is presented by person Y to refute X's claim - Doctor refutes the claim by citing the results of the blood test

B. A politician rejects an accusation of perjury by denying the credibility of witness testimony
This option does not fit the 2nd point from the structure, as the politician does not provide any factual evidence to reject the accusation and rather questions the credibility of the witness's claim

C. An insurance agent rejects a claim, on the grounds that there is insufficient evidence to support the claimant's testimony
This option does not fit the 2nd point from the structure, as the agent does not provide any factual evidence to reject the claim

D. An investigator casts doubt on the results of a lie detector, citing the subject's report of illness during the test
This one is a tricky one to eliminate. But this one does not fit the 2nd point from the structure. In the original structure the spokesperson out-rightly rejects the resident's claim and does not doubt it, whereas in this option the investigator doubts rather than reject the results

E. A psychologist treats a mental illness by encouraging a patient to abandon inconsistent beliefs
This one is the easiest to eliminate as it is clear that it does not fit the structure mentioned above

Ans. A
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Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
The underlying strategy of the spokesperson's response to the resident is most analogous to the underlying strategy of which of the following?

A. A doctor dismisses a patient's claim to have had a heart attack, citing a cardiac enzyme blood test.

Best option after eliminating the rest.

B. A politician rejects an accusation of perjury by denying the credibility of witness testimony.

Nothing is discussed about credibility of the residents.

C. An insurance agent rejects a claim, on the grounds that there is insufficient evidence to support the claimant's testimony.

D. An investigator casts doubt on the results of a lie detector, citing the subject's report of illness during the test.

Not related is the reasoning.

E. A psychologist treats a mental illness by encouraging a patient to abandon inconsistent beliefs.

The spokesperson does not tell the residents to abandon the thought.

Therefore A is the best answer after eliminating the rest.
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City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
gmatt1476 wrote:
City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banned for light pollution since they are much too bright.

Outdoor advertising spokesperson: No, that's not true. Testing with a sophisticated light meter shows that at night they throw off less light than traditional billboards that are reflectively lit. Your mistaken perception that they are brighter comes from looking directly at the light source—the screen itself.

The underlying strategy of the spokesperson's response to the resident is most analogous to the underlying strategy of which of the following?

A. A doctor dismisses a patient's claim to have had a heart attack, citing a cardiac enzyme blood test.

B. A politician rejects an accusation of perjury by denying the credibility of witness testimony.

C. An insurance agent rejects a claim, on the grounds that there is insufficient evidence to support the claimant's testimony.

D. An investigator casts doubt on the results of a lie detector, citing the subject's report of illness during the test.

E. A psychologist treats a mental illness by encouraging a patient to abandon inconsistent beliefs.

CR46521.01

GMATNinja - boss, tell me how should one handle such questions? It get really confusing to pick answers in such questions. Can you please explain how would you approach this one?
TY
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Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
Hello GMATNinja

I can't see why (B) is incorrect,isn't this phrase "Your mistaken perception that they are brighter comes from looking directly at the light source" denying the credibility of witness testimony?
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Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
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Elyazid wrote:
Hello GMATNinja

I can't see why (B) is incorrect,isn't this phrase "Your mistaken perception that they are brighter comes from looking directly at the light source" denying the credibility of witness testimony?

The spokesperson doesn't just deny the resident's claim -- he disproves the claim by referencing "testing with a sophisticated light meter."

In other words, he has concrete evidence showing that the claim is inaccurate. If (B) had mentioned concrete evidence that undermined the credibility of the witness, well, that would seem pretty good. But simply denying the credibility without any reference to evidence? Nah.

Contrast that with (A), in which we have a blood test as proof that the patient is wrong. Pretty concrete evidence there. So it's a better answer.

I hope that helps!
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City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
gmatt1476 wrote:
City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banned for light pollution since they are much too bright.

Outdoor advertising spokesperson: No, that's not true. Testing with a sophisticated light meter shows that at night they throw off less light than traditional billboards that are reflectively lit. Your mistaken perception that they are brighter comes from looking directly at the light source—the screen itself.

The underlying strategy of the spokesperson's response to the resident is most analogous to the underlying strategy of which of the following?

Overall - let's make the argument simple.

Spokesperson REJECTS city resident's claim with evidence (one is a test and another is a point about incorrect perception). We can eliminate (E) because the verb of the answer choice needs to match the idea of objection. Let's tackle (A) - (D)

A. A doctor dismisses a patient's claim to have had a heart attack, citing a cardiac enzyme blood test.

Yes. Spokesperson rejects by citing a test - this answer choice is great.

B. A politician rejects an accusation of perjury by denying the credibility of witness testimony.

"Denying the credibility" = can't trust the city resident's words. But the spokesperson isn't denying the credibility of the resident's claim that he or she finds the light too bright. Spokesperson actually ADMITS that the light is bright, but make an objection by saying that the method of perception is mistaken (saying "yes the light is bright but only because you are looking DIRECTLY at it vs. no, the light is actually not bright, we can't trust your words given your history of cornea neuropathy"). Therefore, (B) is out.

C. An insurance agent rejects a claim, on the grounds that there is insufficient evidence to support the claimant's testimony.

This answer choice says there's no evidence - clearly incorrect.

D. An investigator casts doubt on the results of a lie detector, citing the subject's report of illness during the test.

The spokesperson doesn't point any flaw or illness with the city resident to reject the argument. If the city resident had said he or she had impaired vision and the spokesperson pointed out that fact, then this answer choice would be correct. None of that happens in this argument.

E. A psychologist treats a mental illness by encouraging a patient to abandon inconsistent beliefs.

CR46521.01
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Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
GMATNinja wrote:
mk96 wrote:
GMATNinja - boss, tell me how should one handle such questions? It get really confusing to pick answers in such questions. Can you please explain how would you approach this one?
TY
MK96

It's really rare to see a question like this on the modern-day GMAT (there are very few GMAT CR questions that ask for "analogous" strategies or parallel reasoning). So we wouldn't recommend developing an elaborate strategy to deal with this exact question type.

That being said, you can approach this question just like any other CR question: first, break down the structure of the passage. Since there are two speakers in this passage, break each section down separately:

City Resident
• The city resident concludes that the "new digital electronic billboards should be banned for light pollution."
• His/her evidence to support this conclusion is that the billboards "are much too bright."

• The OAS concludes that, "no, that's not true."
• The OAS's evidence to support this conclusion is that: "Testing with a sophisticated light meter shows that at night they throw off less light than traditional billboards that are reflectively lit."
• The OAS offers additional support by saying that "Your mistaken perception that they are brighter comes from looking directly at the light source—the screen itself."

Overall, we can see that the city resident and OAS disagree about whether digital billboards are too bright, and therefore whether these billboards should be banned. The OAS cites an objective test (results from the "sophisticated light meter") to undermine the city resident's evidence, and thus his/her conclusion.

Which answer choice captures this strategy?
Quote:
A. A doctor dismisses a patient's claim to have had a heart attack, citing a cardiac enzyme blood test.

Here, the doctor uses an objective test to undermine the patient's claim. Seems pretty close to the OAS's strategy, so keep (A) for now.

Quote:
B. A politician rejects an accusation of perjury by denying the credibility of witness testimony.

The politician doesn't offer any objective test or data to explain why witness testimony isn't credible. The objective test is key to the OAS's strategy, so (B) is pretty far off the mark.

Eliminate (B).

Quote:
C. An insurance agent rejects a claim, on the grounds that there is insufficient evidence to support the claimant's testimony.

The OAS doesn't say that there's insufficient evidence to support the city resident's claim -- instead, he/she brings NEW evidence that shows that the city resident's perception is off.

(C) is out.

Quote:
D. An investigator casts doubt on the results of a lie detector, citing the subject's report of illness during the test.

In (D), the investigator argues against the results of a test. In the passage, the OAS uses the results of a test to support his/her point.

Eliminate (D).

Quote:
E. A psychologist treats a mental illness by encouraging a patient to abandon inconsistent beliefs.

"Inconsistent beliefs" would be beliefs that don't match with one another -- for instance, if a person believes that it's both raining and not raining at the same time in the same place.

The OAS doesn't imply that the city resident has inconsistent, or conflicting, beliefs. Instead, he/she argues that the city resident's single belief is incorrect.

(E) is out, and (A) is the correct answer.

I hope that helps!

Hi GMATNinja,
As per sentence structure of answer option A, the doctor cited the test as an effect of dismissal of the patient's claim. But as per the original argument the OAS presented the test before making his conclusion. So in that case how this analogy works. Please clarify.
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Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
ujjalpatra3 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,
As per sentence structure of answer option A, the doctor cited the test as an effect of dismissal of the patient's claim. But as per the original argument the OAS presented the test before making his conclusion. So in that case how this analogy works. Please clarify.

Consider the logic of the initial exchange. The resident perceives that the billboard is too bright. The spokesperson then rebuts this perception by providing an objective test: a light meter.

This is the same dynamic we get in (A). The patient perceives that he's had a heart attack. The doctor then rebuts this perception by providing the enzyme test.

So the timing of the tests isn't what's important. It's that the tests were used as evidence against a faulty perception in both cases. (And no other answer choice gives us anything close to a scenario of a misconception being cleared up by a test.)

Even if you don't think (A) is perfect, it’s still the best of the bunch.

I hope that helps!
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Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
The underlying strategy of the spokesperson's response to the resident is most analogous to the underlying strategy of:

A. A doctor dismisses a patient's claim to have had a heart attack, citing a cardiac enzyme blood test.

In both scenarios, the spokesperson and the doctor are using objective measurements or evidence to challenge the subjective perception or claim of the other person. The spokesperson uses the results from the light meter testing to counter the resident's perception of the billboards being too bright, while the doctor uses the cardiac enzyme blood test to challenge the patient's claim of having had a heart attack. Both are relying on objective data to support their counter-arguments.
Re: City resident: These new digital electronic billboards should be banne [#permalink]
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