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# Companies, investors, and governments must relearn

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Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2012, 05:01
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Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend against future economic crises.

A. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend against future economic crises.
B. Companies, investors, along with governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if it is to defend against future economic crises.
C. Companies, as well as investors and governments, must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend from future economic crises.
D. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if these are to defend from future economic crises.
E. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if future economic crises are to be defended

I know correct idiom is defend against but isnt A wrong they can refer to "guiding principles" or "companies,investors and government"

Source -AristotlePrep
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Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2012, 06:06
Is it that the guiding principles are also likely to defend against future economic crises, while the investors, companies and the governments are going to be mere spectators?It isn't logical. In resolving pronoun ambiguity, logic is the supreme guiding principle
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Last edited by daagh on 24 Mar 2015, 09:59, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2012, 06:42
if u r a teacher ur tone could have been better.

Logically it is obvious that guiding principles wont be defending
but "they" is still ambiguous

in MGMAT SC
Researches claim to have developed new "nano-papers" incorporating tiny cellulose fibers, which THEY allege give THEM the strength of cast iron.

Manhattan guys have asked to remove both they and them as they are ambiguous.
For THEY logically only researchers are the antecedent , i guess "nano-papers" and cellulose fibers cant allege

Can u please explain why is THEY ambiguous in this MGMAT question
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2012, 06:55
rajcools wrote:
in MGMAT SC
Researches claim to have developed new "nano-papers" incorporating tiny cellulose fibers, which THEY allege give THEM the strength of cast iron.

Clearly the sentence is ambiguous and MGMAT has rightly suggested to replace the pronouns with corresponding nouns.

In the original question 'Companies, investors....':
'IF' is a subordinate conjunction and subject of the subordinate clause can logically refer to the subject of the main clause. So A is the correct answer and there is no ambiguity. Even MGMAT talks about this point in SC guide.
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2012, 07:20
I will not know why MGMAT says they and them are ambiguous. They, I mean, MGMAT are the best people to answer. I have the same doubt as you have. But, they are the same people who say logic is ultimate in pronoun reference; In this case all logic points to they referring to researchers. So this is a valid doubt that you can ask them and then publish clarification here

With regard to the pedagogic tone, like a fervent teacher, I wish to drive home some points forcefully. It is not to reflect upon your standing on the question. Hope you appreciate.
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2012, 08:03
Let me cite an interesting case. This is a question fro OG 12
SC Q 10

10. Carnivorous mammals can endure what would
otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they
have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain
from getting too hot.
(A) which kept
(B) that keeps
(C) which has kept
(D) that has been keeping
(E) having kept

The ununderlined portion has a pronoun they. What does it refer to? Mammals without doubt. Can we say they is referring to lethal levels just because that is also an eligible contender along with mammals?. As per MGMAT, they may be ambiguous. However, GMAT has passed it refrring to mammals

Another example ( it may be from GPREP)

In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large as or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.
A. most of them as large as or larger than Jupiter, which circle
B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling
C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

What does them refer to? Definitely not astronomers but logically only to the planets. The correct answer is C according to GMAT, accepting them as referring to planets, while we can argue that they can also refer to other eligible plural nouns.
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2012, 08:45
so what do u suggest
pronoun ambiguity should be handled on logical basis???
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2012, 15:10
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Found this in manhattan forum
"
as noted a few other times on this forum - most noticeably in the GMATPrep verbal folder, but in a couple places in the other verbal folders - pronoun ambiguity is not an absolute rule. in other words, the test will clearly tolerate a certain degree of pronoun ambiguity.

in general, we've found:
the gmat will tolerate pronoun ambiguity when both of the following are satisfied:
1. the intended referent makes much more sense than do the other possible referents,
and
2. the intended referent is PARALLEL TO THE PRONOUN, and the other possible referents are NOT parallel to the pronoun.

"
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2012, 19:51
OK good; The first point says crisply what I have maintained elaborately, I suppose. I haven't seen much of MGMAT, except for a few quotes like from contributors like you. . A kudo to you for all the pains you took to make this point clear for the benefit of other audience
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2012, 23:20
What exactly is the problem with option C if someone can explain it please ? Is it only the usage of defend from or some other issue as well ?
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2015, 17:27
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Companies, investors, and governments must relearn [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2015, 09:17
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Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend against future economic crises.

A. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend against future economic crises.

B. Companies, investors, along with governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if it is to defend against future economic crises.

C. Companies, as well as investors and governments, must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend from future economic crises.

D. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if these are to defend from future economic crises.

E. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if future economic crises are to be defended.
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 10:32
is it "E"...as in the other answers "they" and "it" do not have the clear reference
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 10:59
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I am surprised by the correct sentence seen here :
http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/corpor ... nst_crises
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 11:07
Here, correct form should be X,Y, and Z as the equal value is given to all 3.
So, B and C are out
A - not clear what 'they' is refering to
D - usage of 'these are to' is wrong

E looks correct
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 22:28
souvik101990 wrote:
Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend against future economic crises.

A. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend against future economic crises. I don't see anything wrong with this sentence

B. Companies, investors, along with governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if it is to defend against future economic crises."along with" is just a longer version of "and", inefficient

C. Companies, as well as investors and governments, must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend from future economic crises. same as above

D. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if these are to defend from future economic crises. awkward

E. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if future economic crises are to be defended.

I disagree with E, because it sounds like the companies, investors and governments are defending the crises, not avoiding them. My answer is A. I could be wrong but E doesn't sit right with me
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 22:46
Obviously the right choice is between A vs E where A is active voice but E is passive voice. In A, we may be tricked to think that 'they' is not having correct antecedent but if say X needs to defend against economic crises then it can't be guiding principles, it should be those investors etc who can learn principles to defend against crises. So i will go with A.
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2015, 12:42
NickHalden : Alright, so the answer is "A". Thank you !
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2015, 21:31
"they" is ambiguous in A. Its possibly modifying guiding principles which is illogical.
ManviSharma wrote:
NickHalden : Alright, so the answer is "A". Thank you !

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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2015, 21:59
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The correct idiom is to defend against. So C and D are out. B has subject pronoun error 'it'
A and E both seem right logically and grammatically but ' They' in A is pronoun for ' Companies +investors +governments' Or just one of them?? E tackles this ambiguity by using passive voice... Future economic crises.. defended (by companies, investors, governments)
So E is the best.

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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn   [#permalink] 11 Apr 2015, 21:59
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