All correct in 12 mins 10 seconds, including 5 mins to read.

Para 1- computer intelligence to theoretical mathematics- single-minded, literal-minded, and simpleminded

Para 2- even the most precise sciences normally work with approximations toward which scientists must maintain an appropriate skepticism. This very healthy skepticism is foreign to the mathematical approach.

Para 3- Mathematics- how mathematicians work, the danger that they may also persuade the scientists to take these axioms literally

Para 4- physicist rightly dreads precise argument

1. The author discusses computing machines in the first paragraph primarily in order to do which the following?B) Illustrate his views about the approach of mathematicians to problem-solving - Correct

Recognizing this, we should at the same time recognize that this single-mindedness, literal-mindedness, and simple-mindedness also characterizes theoretical mathematics, though to a lesser extent.

2. According to the passage, scientists are skeptical toward their equations because scientists (A) work to explain real, rather than theoretical or simplified, situations - Correct

Since science tries to deal with reality, even the most precise sciences normally work with more or less imperfectly understood approximations toward which scientists must maintain an appropriate skepticism. Thus, for instance, it may come as a shock to mathematicians to learn that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this atom, but only an approximation to a somewhat more correct equation taking account of spin, magnetic dipole, and relativistic effects; and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set of quantum field-theoretical equations.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists make which of the following assumptions about scientific arguments? (E) The premises on which the arguments are based may change.

The physicist rightly dreads precise argument, since an argument that is convincing only if it is precise loses all its force if the assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed, whereas an argument that is convincing though imprecise may well be stable under small perturbations of its underlying assumptions.

4. According to the passage, mathematicians present a danger to scientists for which of the following reasons? (C) Mathematicians may convince scientists that theoretical assumptions are facts.

The mathematicians turn the scientists' theoretical assumptions, that is, their convenient points of analytical emphasis, into axioms, and then take these axioms literally. This brings the danger that they may also persuade the scientists to take these axioms literally.

5. The author suggests that the approach of physicists to solving scientific problems is which of the following? (A) Practical for scientific purposes - Correct

(B) Detrimental to scientific progress - incorrect

(C) Unimportant in most situations - incorrect, the author does not state that its unimportant

(D) Expedient, but of little long-term value - incorrect

(E) Effective, but rarely recognized as such- incorrect, the author does not state that approach of physicists to solving scientific problems is rarely recognized

Physicists, looking at the original Schrodinger equation, learn to sense in it the presence of many invisible terms in addition to the differential terms visible, and this sense inspires an entirely appropriate disregard for the purely technical features of the equation.

6. The author suggests that a mathematician asked to solve a problem in an ill-defined situation would first attempt to do which of the following? (B) Simplify and define the situation

Give mathematicians a situation that is the least bit ill-defined, and they will make it well-defined, perhaps appropriately, but perhaps inappropriately.

7. The author implies that scientists develop a healthy skepticism because they are aware that (E) some factors in most situations must remain unknown-Correct

Thus, for instance, it may come as a shock to mathematicians to learn that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this atom, but only an approximation to a somewhat more correct equation taking account of spin, magnetic dipole, and relativistic effects; and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set of quantum field-theoretical equations. Physicists, looking at the original Schrodinger equation, learn to sense in it the presence of many invisible terms in addition to the differential terms visible, and this sense inspires an entirely appropriate disregard for the purely technical features of the equation. This very healthy skepticism is foreign to the mathematical approach.

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