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Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio

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Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2014, 07:22
4
10
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A
B
C
D
E

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  95% (hard)

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55% (02:06) correct 45% (02:09) wrong based on 458 sessions

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Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if she is made aware that even one of the company’s toys, used properly, has caused an injury, she temporarily stops production until the problem is fixed or permanently stops production of that toy. If that is true, then I assume that the reason Toiko has announced that it will stop production of its line of wooden puzzles for two months is that at least one individual using one of these puzzles properly has sustained an injury.

The flawed reasoning in the consumer advocate’s argument is most similar to the reasoning in which of the following choices?

A. Since the law states that every sales contract in this state must include a provision allowing purchasers 3 days in which to cancel a sale or renegotiate the terms of the contract, we can assume that local car dealers such as Auto Rex that do not include this provision in their contracts are not aware of this law.

B. Based on the guarantee that Hi-tone Books includes with all of its publications, if any of the books that the publishing company ships to customers is in any way damaged, Hi-Tone will either replace the book at no cost or, if the customer wishes, give a full refund. If so, then I assume I can be fully refunded for the cost of this Hi-Tone book, which arrived with a torn cover.

C. Frank, who was recently fired, must have made an offer to a client without first discussing this offer with one of his supervisors, since the company handbook clearly states that doing so is a justifiable reason for either suspension or termination of employment.

D. A nationwide plumbing company, Plumb Job, states on its website that if one of its parts either malfunctions or breaks completely within two years of installation, the company will repair the problem at no extra cost. Since Plumb Job recently installed new water heaters for a school at no cost, the company must have done work for the school in the past.

E.According to the rules of a card game, any player with a black card has the option of trading this card for a different card or returning the card to the deck. Since Allyson has a black card, she cannot choose to keep this card.
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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2014, 02:05
C fits the bill. It mentions the "temporary suspension or permanent discontinuation" clause which relates properly with the argument. Is this understanding correct?
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Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2014, 15:07
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Yep it is C.

From Argument:
Initial Premise Cause: Damage to Toys --> Effect: Stopping the Production
Conclusion is derived from Effect Cause: ? (Wooden puzzles Might be damaged) Effect: Stopping the production of Wooden Puzzles


Answer choice C
Initial Premise Cause: Without the approval of Superior --> Effect: Termination
Conclusion is derived from Effect Cause: ? (Frank might have offered with out consulting superior) Effect: Frank Terminated
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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2014, 08:16
Split between C and D.
Can anyone shed some light on this?
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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2014, 23:32
I think the main point to keep in mind is that the reason mentioned is NOT the ONLY reason. So the toy might have been discontinued for any other reason besides safety ( say profitability) similarly Frank might have been terminated for any other reason ( say poor attendance )
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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2014, 04:52
Right - D is tempting, however the reason that C is a better choice is that the conclusion of D is "Plumb Job must have done work for the school in the past" - logic that might not be right because we have no information regarding repeat business, but is not exactly the same as "the water heaters installed by Plumb Job must have broken in the first year" (a statement which would make D analogous to both C and the stem).
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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if sh [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2015, 01:21
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Nice question. +1 kudos to you.

Here, the argument is a classic case of concluding C based on premise P1, while assuming that no other premise P2 will lead to the same C.

In other words, the author assumes that P1 is the only possible case that can cause conclusion C.

Let's evaluate the options on this basis.

alphaseeker wrote:
Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if she is made aware that even one of the company’s toys, used properly, has caused an injury, she temporarily stops production until the problem is fixed or permanently stops production of that toy. If that is true, then I assume that the reason Toiko has announced that it will stop production of its line of wooden puzzles for two months is that at least one individual using one of these puzzles properly has sustained an injury.

The flawed reasoning in the consumer advocate’s argument is most similar to the reasoning in which of the following choices?

(A) Since the law states that every sales contract in this state must include a provision allowing purchasers 3 days in which to cancel a sale or renegotiate the terms of the contract, we can assume that local car dealers such as Auto Rex that do not include this provision in their contracts are not aware of this law. => Here, premise (P) states that EVERY car dealer must do something that Auto Rex is not doing. So, there is no question of a possible cause P2 because of which Auto Rex would have ignored the law. The use of 'every' makes P binding.

(B) Based on the guarantee that Hi-tone Books includes with all of its publications, if any of the books that the publishing company ships to customers is in any way damaged, Hi-Tone will either replace the book at no cost or, if the customer wishes, give a full refund. If so, then I assume I can be fully refunded for the cost of this Hi-Tone book, which arrived with a torn cover. => A classic misleading answer because it appears to talk of similar things compared to the question - viz. the guarantee on a product. However, it is misleading. Here, P will lead to C. There is no P2 which can lead to C directly, as P is stated as a uncontested fact (that the book got torn in transit). The author merely states that C will be the result, without stating that C cannot occur with any other P. This is different than the argument.

(C) Frank, who was recently fired, must have made an offer to a client without first discussing this offer with one of his supervisors, since the company handbook clearly states that doing so is a justifiable reason for either suspension or termination of employment. => This presupposes that Frank was not fired for any other reason, i.e. the P stated is the only possible reason that could lead to termination of the employee. This is most similar to the argument in the question.

(D) A nationwide plumbing company, Plumb Job, states on its website that if one of its parts either malfunctions or breaks completely within two years of installation, the company will repair the problem at no extra cost. Since Plumb Job recently installed new water heaters for a school at no cost, the company must have done work for the school in the past. =>Like (B), this is a classic misleading answer because it appears to talk of similar things compared to the question - viz. the guarantee on a product. However, it is misleading. There is absolutely no link between P and C in this case.

(E) According to the rules of a card game, any player with a black card has the option of trading this card for a different card or returning the card to the deck. Since Allyson has a black card, she cannot choose to keep this card. => Option is construed as a compulsion. This is not comparable to the given question. F => P1 or P2. Since F is true for Allyson, she must choose P1. This is not structurally similar to the argument, where no P2 is mentioned and in fact, it is assumed that there is no P2. Here, P2 is explicitly mentioned and P1 is chosen.

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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if sh [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2015, 10:27
I found it hard to decide between C and D.

What helped me was:

argument
if X (one of the company’s toys, used properly, has caused an injury)
then Y (she temporarily stops production until the problem is fixed)
OR Z (permanently stops production of that toy)
Z happened then the argument concludes wrongly that X must have happened

This is most similar to answer C:
if X (doing so-making an offer without discussing with his supervisors)
can lead to Y (justifiable reason for either suspension)
OR Z (termination of employment)
Z happened then the argument wrongly concludes that X must have happened

In answer D, "installed new water heaters" do not necessarily mean that they fixed heaters + there is only one outcome for the premise (If X then Y, no Z) so we are further away from the original statement.
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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2017, 07:06
The flaw reasoning in stimulus is > A --> B hence B ---> A.
C states the same but reverse order.
D states the same too but what i observe is that company parts are dmged it will repair. but we don't know who will install these parts not given. very tempting answer . But C is right.
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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2018, 23:17
anceer wrote:
Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if she is made aware that even one of the company’s toys, used properly, has caused an injury, she temporarily stops production until the problem is fixed or permanently stops production of that toy. If that is true, then I assume that the reason Toiko has announced that it will stop production of its line of wooden puzzles for two months is that at least one individual using one of these puzzles properly has sustained an injury.

The flawed reasoning in the consumer advocate’s argument is most similar to the reasoning in which of the following choices?

A. Since the law states that every sales contract in this state must include a provision allowing purchasers 3 days in which to cancel a sale or renegotiate the terms of the contract, we can assume that local car dealers such as Auto Rex that do not include this provision in their contracts are not aware of this law.

B. Based on the guarantee that Hi-tone Books includes with all of its publications, if any of the books that the publishing company ships to customers is in any way damaged, Hi-Tone will either replace the book at no cost or, if the customer wishes, give a full refund. If so, then I assume I can be fully refunded for the cost of this Hi-Tone book, which arrived with a torn cover.

C. Frank, who was recently fired, must have made an offer to a client without first discussing this offer with one of his supervisors, since the company handbook clearly states that doing so is a justifiable reason for either suspension or termination of employment.

D. A nationwide plumbing company, Plumb Job, states on its website that if one of its parts either malfunctions or breaks completely within two years of installation, the company will repair the problem at no extra cost. Since Plumb Job recently installed new water heaters for a school at no cost, the company must have done work for the school in the past.

E.According to the rules of a card game, any player with a black card has the option of trading this card for a different card or returning the card to the deck. Since Allyson has a black card, she cannot choose to keep this card.


VERITAS PREP OFFICIAL SOLUTION:



Answer: C

Explanation: The conclusion is that since Toiko stopped production of wooden puzzles for two months, someone got hurt using the puzzles properly. The evidence is that Toiko has a policy of stopping production of a toy – either temporarily or permanently – if someone was injured using the toy properly. However, it is possible that Toiko stopped puzzle production temporarily for a reason other than someone being injured. (Perhaps they wanted to improve the product, or use cheaper materials. . . ). In other words just because A causes B (or C), doesn’t mean that B was caused by A. This is the difference between a necessary condition and a sufficient condition. The injury is sufficient: it will definitely stop puzzle production; however, the injury is not necessary to stop production – other things can stop production. We can say that a stop in production is necessary: if there is an injury, then production stops. Be careful not to confuse necessity and sufficiency. The statement “If A then B” means that A is sufficient to cause B, and B is necessary when A exists (happens). The statement cannot be flipped to say B causes A. {In the explanation, you may want to say something about how the argument tries to flip sufficient and necessary conditions. This is the terminology Veritas uses, and it would help reinforce the principle.} Using the terms of this argument: just because someone getting hurt by using a toy would cause Toiko to temporarily stop production (or permanently stop it) doesn’t mean that a temporary stop was caused by someone getting hurt. Choice C parallels this logic. Just because someone making an offer without discussing the offer with a supervisor would cause this person to be fired (or suspended) does not mean that the firing of an employee was caused by someone making an unsupervised offer. Frank could have been fired for other reasons.

(A) This choice is flawed, though for different reasons. Auto Rex may actually know of this law, but has chosen to disobey it. Unlike the stimulus, there is no causation (A causes B) in this choice.

(B) This choice appears to mirror the reasoning in the stimulus except that it is NOT flawed. We are told that a damaged book “causes” a replacement or refund. Since this book IS damaged, it is logical to say that the price of the book can be refunded.

(D) This choice might appear to parallel the reasoning in the stimulus, and it is indeed flawed. However, the flaw is different. We are told that a malfunction or break will “cause” a no-cost fix. This is like saying that A or B causes C, which is different from the stimulus, which says that A causes B or C. We are then told that the company must have done work for the school because the company is doing work for free, but we are not told that this is repair work, just an installation.

(E) This choice is flawed, but not in the same manner as the stimulus. We are told that someone with a black card can trade the card or return it to the deck. We are not told that these are the only options for someone with a black card. Therefore, it is possible that Allyson, who has a black card, can keep it.
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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio   [#permalink] 23 May 2018, 23:17
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