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Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Aug 2019, 04:33
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 12th Edition, 2009

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 36 ~ 41
Page: 374

Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their experience, has encouraged scholars of women’s history to view the use of women’s oral narratives as the methodology, next to the use of women’s written autobiography, that brings historians closest to the “reality” of women’s lives. Such narratives, unlike most standard histories, represent experience from the perspective of women, affirm the importance of women’s contributions, and furnish present-day women with historical continuity that is essential to their identity, individually and collectively.

Scholars of women’s history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories. Oral narratives are no more likely than are written narratives to provide a disinterested commentary on events or people. Moreover, the stories people tell to explain themselves are shaped by narrative devices and storytelling conventions, as well as by other cultural and historical factors, in ways that the storytellers may be unaware of. The political rhetoric of a particular era, for example, may influence women’s interpretations of the significance of their experience. Thus a woman who views the Second World War as pivotal in increasing the social acceptance of women’s paid work outside the home may reach that conclusion partly and unwittingly because of wartime rhetoric encouraging a positive view of women’s participation in such work.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) contrasting the benefits of one methodology with the benefits of another
(B) describing the historical origins and inherent drawbacks of a particular methodology
(C) discussing the appeal of a particular methodology and some concerns about its use
(D) showing that some historians' adoption of a particular methodology has led to criticism of recent historical scholarship
(E) analyzing the influence of current feminist views on women's interpretations of their experience



2. According to the passage, which of the following shapes the oral narratives of women storytellers?

(A) The conventions for standard histories in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives
(B) The conventions of storytelling in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives
(C) A woman storyteller's experience with distinctive traditions of storytelling developed by the women in her family of origin
(D) The cultural expectations and experiences of those who listen to oral narratives
(E) A woman storyteller's familiarity with the stories that members of other groups in her culture tell to explain themselves



3. The author of the passage would be most likely to make which of the following recommendations to scholars of women's history?

(A) They should take into account their own life experiences when interpreting the oral accounts of women's historical experiences.
(B) They should assume that the observations made in women's oral narratives are believed by the intended audience of the story.
(C) They should treat skeptically observations reported in oral narratives unless the observations can be confirmed in standard histories.
(D) They should consider the cultural and historical context in which an oral narrative was created before arriving at an interpretation of such a narrative.
(E) They should rely on information gathered from oral narratives only when equivalent information is not available in standard histories.



4. Which of the following best describes the function of the last sentence of the passage?

(A) It describes an event that historians view as crucial in recent women's history.
(B) It provides an example of how political rhetoric may influence the interpretations of experience reported in women's oral narratives.
(C) It provides an example of an oral narrative that inaccurately describes women's experience during a particular historical period.
(D) It illustrates the point that some women are more aware than others of the social forces that shape their oral narratives.
(E) It identifies the historical conditions that led to the social acceptance of women's paid work outside the home.



5. According to the passage, scholars of women's history should refrain from doing which of the following?

(A) Relying on traditional historical sources when women's oral narratives are unavailable
(B) Focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women's perceptions to the exclusion of other equally important factors
(C) Attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell
(D) Assuming that the conventions of women's written autobiographies are similar to the conventions of women's oral narratives
(E) Accepting women's oral narratives less critically than they accept women's written histories

Inference

Answering this question requires recognizing which option is directly inferable from information in the passage. After describing in the first paragraph why oral narratives are appealing to historians, the passage begins the second paragraph by imploring scholars of women’s history to be as cautious about accepting oral narratives ... as ... written memories (lines 12–14). The passage then goes on to describe potential bias in oral narratives, suggesting that scholars should be as critical of them as they are of written sources.

(A) The passage does not claim that traditional historical sources should be avoided by scholars.

(B) The passage mentions the influence of political rhetoric merely as one example of potential bias.

(C) The passage suggests that scholars should attempt to be aware of cultural and historical factors.

(D) The passage does not discuss the conventions of women’s written autobiographies.

(E) Correct. The passage implies that written histories and oral narratives should receive the same level of critical scrutiny by scholars.

The correct answer is E.


6. According to the passage, each of the following is a difference between women's oral narratives and most standard histories EXCEPT:

(A) Women's oral histories validate the significance of women's achievements.
(B) Women's oral histories depict experience from the point of view of women.
(C) Women's oral histories acknowledge the influence of well-known women.
(D) Women's oral histories present to day's women with a sense of their historical relationship to women of the past.
(E) Women's oral histories are crucial to the collective identity of today's women.



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Originally posted by carcass on 22 Aug 2012, 09:46.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 10 Aug 2019, 04:33, edited 4 times in total.
Updated complete topic (102).
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Re: Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2015, 19:13
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anupamadw wrote:
For question 36 - I was confused between C and D, could you explain?

Hi anupamadw,

I'd be happy to help. Let's look at the question again, from the top:

36. According to the passage, each of the following is a difference between women's oral narratives and most standard histories EXCEPT:

(A) Women's oral histories validate the significance of women's achievements.
(B) Women's oral histories depict experience from the point of view of women.
(C) Women's oral histories acknowledge the influence of well-known women.
(D) Women's oral histories present today's women with a sense of their historical relationship to women of the past.
(E) Women's oral histories are crucial to the collective identity of today's women.


This is a Detail EXCEPT question. Detail except questions almost always draw on a part of a passage involving a list of characteristics. Here, this Detail EXCEPT question is asking us for differences between oral and written narratives, except one. In paragraph 1, we get this list of differences: “. Such narratives, unlike most standard histories, represent experience from the perspective of women, affirm the importance of women’s contributions, and furnish present-day women with historical continuity that is essential to their identity, individually and collectively”.

A) Yes That’s mentioned. This option paraphrases “affirm the importance of women’s contributions”
B) Yes “represent experience from the perspective of women”
C) No. Acknowledge the influence, yes, but of well-known women, specifically? No. Because this isn’t listed as a reason, it’s our right answer in this EXCEPT question.
D) Yes. The passage says “furnish present-day women with historical continuity that is essential to their identity”. Spot on match, so get rid of it.
E) Yes As we discussed in D, the passage says “and furnish present-day women with historical continuity that is essential to their identity”. E is mentioned, so it’s gone too.

C is the only option not mentioned, making it the exception, and thus the right option.
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Re: Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2019, 02:26
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Official Explanation



Q1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. contrasting the benefits of one methodology with the benefits of another
B. describing the historical origins and inherent drawbacks of a particular methodology
C. discussing the appeal of a particular methodology and some concerns about its use
D. showing that some historians’ adoption of a particular methodology has led to criticism of recent historical scholarship
E. analyzing the influence of current feminist views on women’s interpretations of their experience
Main idea
This question asks for an abstract view of what the passage as a whole is primarily doing. The passage introduces a particular methodology that scholars of women’s history have been encouraged to employ, explaining why the use of the methodology is supported. The passage then goes on to raise some concerns about the use of the methodology and cites one example in which caution is needed.
A. The passage is primarily concerned with only one methodology.
B. The passage mentions why the methodology had been encouraged but does not give the history of its origins; while it cautions historians to employ the methodology carefully, it is not concerned with drawbacks of its proper use.
C. Correct. The passage discusses why the use of a methodology is being encouraged and then offers some concerns about its use.
D. The passage does not discuss any criticism of recent scholarship in women’s history.
E. There is no mention in the passage that feminist theory is influencing how women in general think about their experiences.
The correct answer is C.

Q2. According to the passage, which of the following shapes the oral narratives of women storytellers?
A. The conventions for standard histories in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives
B. The conventions of storytelling in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives
C. A woman storyteller’s experience with distinctive traditions of storytelling developed by the women in her family of origin
D. The cultural expectations and experiences of those who listen to oral narratives
E. A woman storyteller’s familiarity with the stories that members of other groups in her culture tell to explain themselves
Supporting ideas
This question asks for an identification of specific information provided by the passage. In the second paragraph, the passage describes certain concerns about using oral narratives. One of these concerns is that the stories people tell to explain themselves are shaped by . . . storytelling conventions (lines 17–19) and other influences tied to the teller’s cultural and historical context.
A. The passage uses standard histories (line 7) to refer to the usual work of scholars and not to something that influences oral narratives.
B. Correct. The passage raises as a concern that oral narratives may be influenced by storytelling conventions present in the culture of the speaker.
C. The passage does not mention the family of origin of women storytellers.
D. The passage does not mention the expectations of the listeners of oral narratives.
E. The passage does not discuss women storytellers’ familiarity with the oral narratives belonging to other groups of women.
The correct answer is B.

Q3. The author of the passage would be most likely to make which of the following recommendations to scholars of women’s history?
A. They should take into account their own life experiences when interpreting the oral accounts of women’s historical experiences.
B. They should assume that the observations made in women’s oral narratives are believed by the intended audience of the story.
C. They should treat skeptically observations reported in oral narratives unless the observations can be confirmed in standard histories.
D. They should consider the cultural and historical context in which an oral narrative was created before arriving at an interpretation of such a narrative.
E. They should rely on information gathered from oral narratives only when equivalent information is not available in standard histories.
Application
Answering this question involves recognizing what the author believes about oral narratives and then applying this belief to a hypothetical situation in which the author makes recommendations to scholars of women’s history. While acknowledging the appeal of oral narratives to these scholars, in the second paragraph the author urges caution when using these narratives as sources of disinterested commentary (line 16). The passage then states that people’s oral narratives are shaped by cultural and historical factors (line 20), which presumably relate to the cultural and historical context within which the narratives are spoken.
A. The passage does not mention the personal life experiences of scholars.
B. The passage does not mention the intended audiences of oral narratives.
C. The passage mentions standard histories (line 7) only as a reference to scholarly works that often have shortcomings.
D. Correct. The passage cautions that oral narratives may be biased due to cultural and historical factors, and it is therefore reasonable to suppose that the author would recommend that scholars consider this when using such information.
E. The passage does not refer to oral narratives as being valuable only for filling a gap in the available historical record.
The correct answer is D.

Q4. Which of the following best describes the function of the last sentence of the passage?
A. It describes an event that historians view as crucial in recent women’s history.
B. It provides an example of how political rhetoric may influence the interpretations of experience reported in women’s oral narratives.
C. It provides an example of an oral narrative that inaccurately describes women’s experience during a particular historical period.
D. It illustrates the point that some women are more aware than others of the social forces that shape their oral narratives.
E. It identifies the historical conditions that led to the social acceptance of women’s paid work outside the home.
Evaluation
This question requires recognizing how a particular part of the passage is related to the overall reasoning in the passage. The first paragraph introduces a methodology and describes the methodology’s appeal. The second paragraph then raises concerns about the use of the methodology, drawing attention to the cultural and historical bias that may be present in oral narratives. In line 21, the passage refers specifically to the influence political rhetoric may have on a woman’s understanding of her experience. In the final sentence, the passage provides a specific hypothetical example of a woman at the time of the Second World War to illustrate this concern.
A. The last sentence employs a hypothetical example and does not describe a particular event as being important to historians.
B. Correct. After contending that political rhetoric may influence oral narratives, the passage uses the example of the Second World War in the final sentence to support this claim.
C. The last sentence does not provide a particular example of an oral narrative.
D. The passage does not claim that some women are more aware than others of the social forces that may bear on them.
E. The passage does not claim that social conditions during the Second World War led to acceptance of women in the workplace.
The correct answer is B.

Q5. According to the passage, scholars of women’s history should refrain from doing which of the following?
A. Relying on traditional historical sources when women’s oral narratives are unavailable
B. Focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women’s perceptions to the exclusion of other equally important factors
C. Attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell
D. Assuming that the conventions of women’s written autobiographies are similar to the conventions of women’s oral narratives
E. Accepting women’s oral narratives less critically than they accept women’s written histories
Inference
Answering this question requires recognizing which option is directly inferable from information in the passage. After describing in the first paragraph why oral narratives are appealing to historians, the passage begins the second paragraph by imploring scholars of women’s history to be as cautious about accepting oral narratives … as … written memories (lines 12–14). The passage then goes on to describe potential bias in oral narratives, suggesting that scholars should be as critical of them as they are of written sources.
A. The passage does not claim that traditional historical sources should be avoided by scholars.
B. The passage mentions the influence of political rhetoric merely as one example of potential bias.
C. The passage suggests that scholars should attempt to be aware of cultural and historical factors.
D. The passage does not discuss the conventions of women’s written autobiographies.
E. Correct. The passage implies that written histories and oral narratives should receive the same level
of critical scrutiny by scholars.
The correct answer is E.

Q6. According to the passage, each of the following is a difference between women’s oral narratives and most standard histories EXCEPT:
A. Women’s oral histories validate the significance of women’s achievements.
B. Women’s oral histories depict experience from the point of view of women.
C. Women’s oral histories acknowledge the influence of well-known women.
D. Women’s oral histories present today’s women with a sense of their historical relationship to women of the past.
E. Women’s oral histories are crucial to the collective identity of today’s women.
Supporting ideas
This question asks for information that is stated in the passage, and it requires a process of elimination. In line 7, oral narratives are presented as being unlike most standard histories, and the passage then goes on in lines 7–11 to list characteristics of oral histories that most standard histories do not have. The answer to this question will therefore contain a characteristic of women’s oral histories that is not described in lines 7–11.
A. The passage states that, unlike most standard histories, women’s oral histories affirm the importance of women’s contributions (lines 8–9).
B. The passage states that, unlike most standard histories, women’s oral histories represent experience from the perspective of women (lines 7–8).
C. Correct. The passage does not mention the influence of well-known women on women’s oral histories.
D. The passage states that, unlike most standard histories, women’s oral histories furnish present-day women with historical continuity (lines 9–10).
E. The passage states that, unlike most standard histories, women’s oral histories furnish a historical sense that is essential to their identity, individually and collectively (line 11).
The correct answer is C.
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Re: Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2012, 15:25
My answers are CBDBEC. As everything else matches, let me try to explain why I answered D for 3

The author of the passage would be most likely to make which of the following recommendations to
scholars of women’s history?


(A) They should take into account their own life experiences when interpreting the oral accounts
of women’s historical experiences.
i dont think the author intended this, what he/she intended was to take it in perpective (historical and cultural)

(B) They should assume that the observations made in women’s oral narratives are believed by the
intended audience of the story.

(C) They should treat skeptically observations reported in oral narratives unless the
observations can be confi rmed in standard histories.
yes, we should treat skeptically, but did not mention that standard histories have to confirm this
(D) They should consider the cultural and historical context in which an oral narrative was created
before arriving at an interpretation of such a narrative.
yes, this is what the author says
Quote:
Moreover, the stories people tell to
explain themselves are shaped by narrative devices
and storytelling conventions, as well as by other
cultural and historical factors

(E) They should rely on information gathered from oral narratives only when equivalent information
is not available in standard histories.
it does not say that author feels the oral narratives are secondary
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Re: Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2012, 22:13
5
Got the fifth question wrong.

According to the passage, scholars of women’s history should refrain from doing which of the following?


The answer to the fifth question lies in this part:
Scholars of women’s history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories.

If they are supposed to be as cautious in interpreting written memories as the oral narratives, that means that they should not less critical towards either one of them.

(A) Relying on traditional historical sources when women’s oral narratives are unavailable NO mention of using either one.
(B) Focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women’s perceptions to the exclusion of other equally important factors NO mention of using one factor over another when assesing perceptions.
(C) Attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell The passage suggests that we SHOULD discover the underlying factors.This is a opposite answer.
(D) Assuming that the conventions of women’s written autobiographies are similar to the conventions of women’s oral narratives There is mention of convention in oral narratives but no mention of convention in writter autobiographies. This is a partially correct answer.
(E) Accepting women’s oral narratives less critically than they accept women’s written histories CORRECT
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Re: Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2015, 21:19
akrish1982 wrote:
My answers are CBDBEC. As everything else matches, let me try to explain why I answered D for 3

The author of the passage would be most likely to make which of the following recommendations to
scholars of women’s history?


(A) They should take into account their own life experiences when interpreting the oral accounts
of women’s historical experiences.
i dont think the author intended this, what he/she intended was to take it in perpective (historical and cultural)

(B) They should assume that the observations made in women’s oral narratives are believed by the
intended audience of the story.

(C) They should treat skeptically observations reported in oral narratives unless the
observations can be confi rmed in standard histories.
yes, we should treat skeptically, but did not mention that standard histories have to confirm this
(D) They should consider the cultural and historical context in which an oral narrative was created
before arriving at an interpretation of such a narrative.
yes, this is what the author says
Quote:
Moreover, the stories people tell to
explain themselves are shaped by narrative devices
and storytelling conventions, as well as by other
cultural and historical factors

(E) They should rely on information gathered from oral narratives only when equivalent information
is not available in standard histories.
it does not say that author feels the oral narratives are secondary


The passage does use the word Cautious in the sentence "Scholars of women’s history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories." So I picked C
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Re: Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2015, 16:31
2
Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their experience, has encouraged scholars of women’s history to view the use of women’s oral narratives as the methodology, next to the use of women’s written autobiography, that brings historians closest to the “reality” of women’s lives. Such narratives, unlike most standard histories, represent experience from the perspective of women, affirm the importance of women’s contributions, and furnish present-day women with historical continuity that is essential to their identity, individually and collectively.

Scholars of women’s history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories. Oral narratives are no more likely than are written narratives to provide a disinterested commentary on events or people. Moreover, the stories people tell to explain themselves are shaped by narrative devices
and storytelling conventions, as well as by other cultural and historical factors, in ways that the storytellers may be unaware of. The political rhetoric of a particular era, for example, may influence women’s interpretations of the significance of their experience. Thus a woman who views the Second World War as pivotal in increasing the social acceptance of women’s paid work outside the home may reach that conclusion partly and unwittingly because of wartime rhetoric encouraging a positive view of women’s participation in such work.
3l. The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) contrasting the benefits of one methodology with the benefits of another
(B) describing the historical origins and inherent drawbacks of a particular methodology
(C) discussing the appeal of a particular methodology and some concerns about its use
(D) showing that some historians' adoption of a particular methodology has led to criticism of recent historical scholarship
(E) analyzing the influence of current feminist views on women's interpretations of their experience


32. According to the passage, which of the following shapes the oral narratives of women storytellers?
(A) The conventions for standard histories in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives
(B) The conventions of storytelling in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives
(C) A woman storyteller's experience with distinctive traditions of storytelling developed by the women in her family of origin
(D) The cultural expectations and experiences of those who listen to oral narratives
(E) A woman storyteller's familiarity with the stories that members of other groups in her culture tell to explain themselves


33. The author of the passage would be most likely to make which of the following recommendations to scholars of women's history?
(A) They should take into account their own life experiences when interpreting the oral accounts of women's historical experiences.
(B) They should assume that the observations made in women's oral narratives are believed by the intended audience of the story.
(C) They should treat skeptically observations reported in oral narratives unless the observations can be confirmed in standard histories.
(D) They should consider the cultural and historical context in which an oral narrative was created before arriving at an interpretation of such a narrative.
(E) They should rely on information gathered from oral narratives only when equivalent information is not available in standard histories.


34. Which of the following best describes the function of the last sentence of the passage?
(A) It describes an event that historians view as crucial in recent women's history.
(B) It provides an example of how political rhetoric may influence the interpretations of experience reported in women's oral narratives.
(C) It provides an example of an oral narrative that inaccurately describes women's experience during a particular historical period.
(D) It illustrates the point that some women are more aware than others of the social forces that shape their oral narratives.
(E) It identifies the historical conditions that led to the social acceptance of women's paid work outside the home.


35. According to the passage, scholars of women's history should refrain from doing which of the following?
(A) Relying on traditional historical sources when women's oral narratives are unavailable
(B) Focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women's perceptions to the exclusion of other equally important factors
(C) Attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell
(D) Assuming that the conventions of women's written autobiographies are similar to the conventions of women's oral narratives
(E) Accepting women's oral narratives less critically than they accept women's written histories


36. According to the passage, each of the following is a difference between women's oral narratives and most standard histories EXCEPT:
(A) Women's oral histories validate the significance of women's achievements.
(B) Women's oral histories depict experience from the point of view of women.
(C) Women's oral histories acknowledge the influence of well-known women.
(D) Women's oral histories present to day's women with a sense of their historical relationship to women of the past.
(E) Women's oral histories are crucial to the collective identity of today's women.



EMPOWERgmat Enhanced Explanation:

This passage was retained in the OG 2016.


Notes:
1 = Oral vs Written Narratives. Oral benefits
2 = Oral Narrative has risks. Be cautious

Analysis:
I love this passage because it’s a truth teller about how well one reads. There’s a distinction drawn in paragraph 1 that many people who read this passage miss: the distinction between oral narratives, and written autobiographies. “history to view the use of women’s oral narratives as the methodology, next to the use of women’s written autobiography, that brings historians closest to the “reality” of women’s lives”, so current theory values the use of the oral narrative. Those who catch that central distinction will find this passage and its questions remarkably easier to take down.

Paragraph 2 issues caution about oral narratives. These oral narratives can be shaped by factors such as storytelling conventions, and other cultural and historical factors. In other words, the author is saying that cultural and historical narratives can be of value, but issues caution about taking them at face value.
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Re: Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2015, 10:03
EMPOWERgmatMax wrote:
Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their experience, has encouraged scholars of women’s history to view the use of women’s oral narratives as the methodology, next to the use of women’s written autobiography, that brings historians closest to the “reality” of women’s lives. Such narratives, unlike most standard histories, represent experience from the perspective of women, affirm the importance of women’s contributions, and furnish present-day women with historical continuity that is essential to their identity, individually and collectively.

Scholars of women’s history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories. Oral narratives are no more likely than are written narratives to provide a disinterested commentary on events or people. Moreover, the stories people tell to explain themselves are shaped by narrative devices
and storytelling conventions, as well as by other cultural and historical factors, in ways that the storytellers may be unaware of. The political rhetoric of a particular era, for example, may influence women’s interpretations of the significance of their experience. Thus a woman who views the Second World War as pivotal in increasing the social acceptance of women’s paid work outside the home may reach that conclusion partly and unwittingly because of wartime rhetoric encouraging a positive view of women’s participation in such work.
3l. The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) contrasting the benefits of one methodology with the benefits of another
(B) describing the historical origins and inherent drawbacks of a particular methodology
(C) discussing the appeal of a particular methodology and some concerns about its use
(D) showing that some historians' adoption of a particular methodology has led to criticism of recent historical scholarship
(E) analyzing the influence of current feminist views on women's interpretations of their experience


32. According to the passage, which of the following shapes the oral narratives of women storytellers?
(A) The conventions for standard histories in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives
(B) The conventions of storytelling in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives
(C) A woman storyteller's experience with distinctive traditions of storytelling developed by the women in her family of origin
(D) The cultural expectations and experiences of those who listen to oral narratives
(E) A woman storyteller's familiarity with the stories that members of other groups in her culture tell to explain themselves


33. The author of the passage would be most likely to make which of the following recommendations to scholars of women's history?
(A) They should take into account their own life experiences when interpreting the oral accounts of women's historical experiences.
(B) They should assume that the observations made in women's oral narratives are believed by the intended audience of the story.
(C) They should treat skeptically observations reported in oral narratives unless the observations can be confirmed in standard histories.
(D) They should consider the cultural and historical context in which an oral narrative was created before arriving at an interpretation of such a narrative.
(E) They should rely on information gathered from oral narratives only when equivalent information is not available in standard histories.


34. Which of the following best describes the function of the last sentence of the passage?
(A) It describes an event that historians view as crucial in recent women's history.
(B) It provides an example of how political rhetoric may influence the interpretations of experience reported in women's oral narratives.
(C) It provides an example of an oral narrative that inaccurately describes women's experience during a particular historical period.
(D) It illustrates the point that some women are more aware than others of the social forces that shape their oral narratives.
(E) It identifies the historical conditions that led to the social acceptance of women's paid work outside the home.


35. According to the passage, scholars of women's history should refrain from doing which of the following?
(A) Relying on traditional historical sources when women's oral narratives are unavailable
(B) Focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women's perceptions to the exclusion of other equally important factors
(C) Attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell
(D) Assuming that the conventions of women's written autobiographies are similar to the conventions of women's oral narratives
(E) Accepting women's oral narratives less critically than they accept women's written histories


36. According to the passage, each of the following is a difference between women's oral narratives and most standard histories EXCEPT:
(A) Women's oral histories validate the significance of women's achievements.
(B) Women's oral histories depict experience from the point of view of women.
(C) Women's oral histories acknowledge the influence of well-known women.
(D) Women's oral histories present to day's women with a sense of their historical relationship to women of the past.
(E) Women's oral histories are crucial to the collective identity of today's women.



For question 36 - I was confused between C and D, could you explain?
EMPOWERgmat Enhanced Explanation:

This passage was retained in the OG 2016.


Notes:
1 = Oral vs Written Narratives. Oral benefits
2 = Oral Narrative has risks. Be cautious

Analysis:
I love this passage because it’s a truth teller about how well one reads. There’s a distinction drawn in paragraph 1 that many people who read this passage miss: the distinction between oral narratives, and written autobiographies. “history to view the use of women’s oral narratives as the methodology, next to the use of women’s written autobiography, that brings historians closest to the “reality” of women’s lives”, so current theory values the use of the oral narrative. Those who catch that central distinction will find this passage and its questions remarkably easier to take down.

Paragraph 2 issues caution about oral narratives. These oral narratives can be shaped by factors such as storytelling conventions, and other cultural and historical factors. In other words, the author is saying that cultural and historical narratives can be of value, but issues caution about taking them at face value.
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New post 26 Aug 2015, 10:39
Hi Experts,

Please help me for Q 35

35. According to the passage, scholars of women's history should refrain from doing which of the following?
(A) Relying on traditional historical sources when women's oral narratives are unavailable
(B) Focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women's perceptions to the exclusion of other equally important factors
(C) Attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell
(D) Assuming that the conventions of women's written autobiographies are similar to the conventions of women's oral narratives
(E) Accepting women's oral narratives less critically than they accept women's written histories

As per passage :
Scholars of women’s history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories. Oral narratives are no more likely than are written narratives to provide a disinterested commentary on events or people.

The author says that oral narratives are less likely than written narratives to provide balanced / Neutral commentary . So I marked option D thinking that Oral Narratives are not same as written narratives .

Please let me know where I am going wrong and how I can avoid doing such mistakes .

Many Thanks
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New post 26 Aug 2015, 17:10
abhinav008 wrote:
Hi Experts,

Please help me for Q 35

35. According to the passage, scholars of women's history should refrain from doing which of the following?
(A) Relying on traditional historical sources when women's oral narratives are unavailable
(B) Focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women's perceptions to the exclusion of other equally important factors
(C) Attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell
(D) Assuming that the conventions of women's written autobiographies are similar to the conventions of women's oral narratives
(E) Accepting women's oral narratives less critically than they accept women's written histories

As per passage :
Scholars of women’s history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories. Oral narratives are no more likely than are written narratives to provide a disinterested commentary on events or people.

The author says that oral narratives are less likely than written narratives to provide balanced / Neutral commentary . So I marked option D thinking that Oral Narratives are not same as written narratives .

Please let me know where I am going wrong and how I can avoid doing such mistakes .

Many Thanks


Hi abhinav008,

I'd be happy to help. Here's the relevant slice from the passage:

Scholars of women’s history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories. Oral narratives are no more likely than are written narratives to provide a disinterested commentary on events or people.[fraction][/fraction]

For one thing, I think your interpretation of "no more likely" led you astray: Is no more likely = less likely?

Those are two entirely different relationships. No more likely = up to or equal. Therefore, option D is patently false. In fact, allow me to share the full explanation of question 35:

35. According to the passage, scholars of women's history should refrain from doing which of the following?
(A) Relying on traditional historical sources when women's oral narratives are unavailable
(B) Focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women's perceptions to the exclusion of other equally important factors
(C) Attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell
(D) Assuming that the conventions of women's written autobiographies are similar to the conventions of women's oral narratives
(E) Accepting women's oral narratives less critically than they accept women's written histories

This is a detail question about what the author would suggest to scholars of women’s history. Well, we know that the author would suggest that those historians should be careful to factor in the context of oral narratives and to not take them at face value.
A) Would the author tell historians to refrain from the use of traditional historical sources? No way. This is an absurd option. When people select this option it’s because they lost context of the question itself.
B) A 180 option. This option says that the author would tell scholars of women’s history to REFRAIN FROM focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women’s perceptions… Well we know that the author is specifically saying that scholars NEED to consider that influence.
C) Scholars should refrain from attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell. Another 180 designed to punish those who lost sight of the question.
D) How can we say that the author would advise women’s historians to refrain from assuming the conventions of women’s written autobiographies are similar to that of oral narratives? The author never addressed the similarities or differences in the conventions between the two.
E) Yes, the author would tell scholars to refrain from accepting oral narratives less critically than they accept written histories. That’s perfect. The author issues caution about accepting oral narratives at face value, so this option is spot on.
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New post Updated on: 30 Nov 2016, 11:50
maddala wrote:
Hi,

What is the minimum & maximum time we can devote for this passage.

I took 10 min..


Hi maddala,

I'd be happy to help. The standard average range to read an RC passage is 3.5-4 minutes. Mind you though that an average is just that. Some passages will take longer, while others shorter. Additionally, each GMAT experience usually delivers at least one passage that is generally reader-friendly, and at least one passage that is dense and replete with run-on sentences. You should feel comfortable investing time to allow yourself to engage the passage because skimming = bad news. There is no alternative to proper active reasoning.

If you'd like to read more about active RC reading, here's a GMAT Club Verbal Advantage article by me on that exact subject!
verbal-advantage-learn-to-destroy-reading-comp-boost-verbal-pacing-202403.html#p1554145
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Originally posted by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 31 Aug 2015, 15:50.
Last edited by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 30 Nov 2016, 11:50, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2016, 02:03
1
Took 8 mins and 40 seconds , including 2 mins to read .

-The author talks about how historians should adopt a particular research methodology
-He then shares some concerns about methodology and warns historians against making some mistakes while implementing the methodology
- He also points out certain differences between one methodology and the another

1. (C) discussing the appeal of a particular methodology and some concerns about its use

2.
(B) The conventions of storytelling in the culture in which a woman storyteller lives

3.
"Moreover, the stories people tell to explain themselves are shaped by narrative devices and storytelling conventions, as well as by other cultural and historical factors, in ways that the storytellers may be unaware of."
(D) They should consider the cultural and historical context in which an oral narrative was created before arriving at an interpretation of such a narrative.

4.
"The political rhetoric of a particular era, for example, may influence women's interpretations of the significance of their experience. Thus a woman who views the Second World War as pivotal in increasing the social acceptance of women's paid work outside the home may reach that conclusion partly and unwittingly because of wartime rhetoric encouraging a positive view of women's participation in such work."
Answer B

5.
“Scholars of women's history should, however, be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories"
Option (E) is clearly what the scholars should refrain from

6.
"Such narratives, unlike most standard histories, represent experience from the perspective of women, affirm the importance of women's contributions"
Since there is no mention of the contribution by important women particularly, option (C) is the correct answer.
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New post 30 Nov 2016, 11:35
Hi EMPOWERgmatMax,

The link you shared for the article takes me to my own profile.

Please check. I wish to read the article you mentioned.

Thanks,


EMPOWERgmatMax wrote:
maddala wrote:
Hi,

What is the minimum & maximum time we can devote for this passage.

I took 10 min..


Hi maddala,

I'd be happy to help. The standard average range to read an RC passage is 3.5-4 minutes. Mind you though that an average is just that. Some passages will take longer, while others shorter. Additionally, each GMAT experience usually delivers at least one passage that is generally reader-friendly, and at least one passage that is dense and replete with run-on sentences. You should feel comfortable investing time to allow yourself to engage the passage because skimming = bad news. There is no alternative to proper active reasoning.

If you'd like to read more about active RC reading, here's a GMAT Club Verbal Advantage article by me on that exact subject!
ucp.php?i=164
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New post 30 Nov 2016, 11:52
ajay2121988 wrote:
Hi EMPOWERgmatMax,

The link you shared for the article takes me to my own profile.

Please check. I wish to read the article you mentioned.

Thanks,



Hi ajay2121988,

Updated, and posted here as well for your convenience:
verbal-advantage-learn-to-destroy-reading-comp-boost-verbal-pacing-202403.html#p1554145
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New post 26 May 2017, 17:16
Hi Experts,
My query is for Q#35, in which OA is E and I selected A.
Reason for choosing A:Since women's oral narratives are biased by traditional historic events, so scholars should refrain . . . . (as per Q stem)
Reason for eliminating E: In very first line, it follows that oral narratives follows next in line after use of written autobiographies. Then how is this option correct?
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Re: Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2017, 13:59
6
Quote:
35. According to the passage, scholars of women's history should refrain from doing which of the following?
(A) Relying on traditional historical sources when women's oral narratives are unavailable
(B) Focusing on the influence of political rhetoric on women's perceptions to the exclusion of other equally important factors
(C) Attempting to discover the cultural and historical factors that influence the stories women tell
(D) Assuming that the conventions of women's written autobiographies are similar to the conventions of women's oral narratives
(E) Accepting women's oral narratives less critically than they accept women's written histories

adkikani wrote:
Hi Experts,
My query is for Q#35, in which OA is E and I selected A.
Reason for choosing A:Since women's oral narratives are biased by traditional historic events, so scholars should refrain . . . . (as per Q stem)
Reason for eliminating E: In very first line, it follows that oral narratives follows next in line after use of written autobiographies. Then how is this option correct?

First, the passage does not state that women's oral narratives are always biased but rather that oral narratives (in general) are no more likely than are written narratives to provide a disinterested commentary on events or people. This implies that written narratives and oral narratives are equally likely to be biased.

Regardless, choice (A) does not state that scholars should refrain from using women's oral narratives; rather, it states that scholars should refrain from relying on traditional historical sources when women's oral narratives are unavailable. There is nothing in the passage implying what scholars should or should not do when women's oral narratives are unavailable, so choice (A) can be eliminated.

As for choice (E), the passage states that scholars of women’s history should use women’s oral narratives next to the use of women’s written autobiography. Regardless of which source is given a higher priority, the passage suggests that BOTH need to be examined critically because BOTH might be biased. According to the passage, scholars must "be as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face value as they already are about written memories" and thus should refrain from "accepting women's oral narratives less critically than they accept women's written histories." Choice (E) is correct.

I hope this helps!
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New post 08 May 2018, 00:33
2
Scholars of women’s history should, however, be
as cautious about accepting oral narratives at face
value as they already are about written memories.



Can youu explain meaning of above sentence which is first line of 2nd para.

my understanding is:

1.scholars need to catious about accepting oral narratives as accepting written memories

2.scholars need to catious about accepting oral narratives as already written memories are accepted
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New post 08 May 2018, 00:43
2
It took for me 20min to read and answer questions as I am used to writing notes small summaries without which I am unable to concentrate or involve. Any suggestions how to reduce my time on rc. Tia

Posted from my mobile device
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New post 20 Jul 2018, 00:15
3. The author of the passage would be most likely to make which of the following recommendations to scholars of women's history?

(A) They should take into account their own life experiences when interpreting the oral accounts of women's historical experiences.
(B) They should assume that the observations made in women's oral narratives are believed by the intended audience of the story.
(C) They should treat skeptically observations reported in oral narratives unless the observations can be confirmed in standard histories.
(D) They should consider the cultural and historical context in which an oral narrative was created before arriving at an interpretation of such a narrative.

(E) They should rely on information gathered from oral narratives only when equivalent information is not available in standard histories.

i am confused between c and d can anyone please help??
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New post 23 Jul 2018, 03:27
JarvisR

Cam you please explain the 3rd Q ?
I marked the OA as C
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Re: Current feminist theory, in validating women’s own stories of their   [#permalink] 23 Jul 2018, 03:27

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