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Dallol Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places with a recorded

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New post 11 Jan 2019, 13:24
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A
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Project SC Butler: Day 66 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than in any other country on earth.

A) which is higher than in

B) which is higher than it is

C) and higher than that of

D) higher than that of

E) higher than in


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New post 12 Jan 2019, 21:32
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 66 Sentence Correction (SC1)



Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than in any other country on earth.

A) which is higher than in
B) which is higher than it is
C) and higher than that of
D) higher than that of
E) higher than in

Note: The OE from the source has a strange error that I am going to rewrite. Small portions of the OE in the source are verbatim.

The sentence is supposed to compare the average temperature in Ethiopia to the average temperatures of other countries

• Options A and E compare the average temperature in Ethiopia to other countries.
average temperature is different from a country.

In options A and E, the temperature itself is "higher" than any other country.
The temperature is not higher than any other country.

The temperature needs to be "higher" than a temperature in any other country.
Eliminate A and E.

• choices C and D differ only in that C incorrectly uses and to introduce a contrast.
Eliminate C.

EDIT
Between B and D,
(1) option B is missing the preposition IN, and
(2) D is more concise

Option (B) in the sentence :
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than it is [IN] any other country on earth.

That sentence is silly.

If in doubt, replace the pronoun it with the noun.
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, [which temperature] is higher than the temperature is ____ any other country on earth.

The last part of the sentence is incorrect: . . . [higher than] the temperature is any other country on earth.
The temperature IS any other country on earth? No. Nonsense.
Eliminate B

• OPTION D - using the pronoun THAT to "make a copy" of temperature

We need the sentence to say:
Dalloi is one of the world's hottest places, with an annual temperature of 94° F, higher than [the annual temperature of/in] any other country.

We can make a "copy" of temperature by using the pronoun that, as is the case in option D.

Dalloi's temperature is hotter than the temperature of all other countries.
Dalloi's temperature is hotter than THAT OF of all other countries.

D) in the sentence
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, higher than that of any other country on earth.

The word WHICH in A and B is not necessarily a problem - which refers to temperature
-- We can use a relative pronoun, which, to refer to temperature

-- The word which can modify the immediately preceding noun or the main noun in a noun phrase
An essential modifier always trumps a nonessential modifier and creates an exception to the "touch" rule.

The Modifier Touch Rule says that a modifier should be next to (should "touch") the noun it modifies.
There are exceptions to this rule.
The most common exception arises from the difference between essential and nonessential modifiers.

An essential modifier always takes priority over a nonessential modifier and can come in between a noun and a nonessential modifier.

-- The prepositional phrase of 94 degrees Fahrenheit is an essential modifier [with a temperature of HOW MANY DEGREES?], so it is placed right after the noun temperature.
-- The modifier [comma + which] is nonessential. It can be placed second.
-- Both of 94° F and which modify temperature.
-- In this kind of sentence, which modifies the closest preceding main noun or "head noun" in the noun phrase consisting of [noun + prepositional phrase]. I give you a link to one similar official example below.
-- Spoiler alert! If you open the link, three incorrect answers to an important official question are revealed.
One official question is HERE


Option D is correct.

COMMENTS

This question is a challenge. Option B seems pretty good but lacks the word IN. (B) is not grammatical.
-- I doubt that pronoun ambiguity exists in A and B. The logical referent is "temperature."
That antecedent itself is fine, although the which-clause (without THAT OF) in option A may seem to refer to 94 degrees Fahrenheit. Yet again, (D) is the best option.
-- The word which is allowed to "reach over" a prepositional phrase (of 94 degrees Fahrenheit) in order to modify the word temperature. This exception to the touch rule is the most common of such exceptions.

Answer D

pikolo2510 wrote the best answer. Kudos!
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New post 11 Jan 2019, 23:16
Which should be used to refer to 94 degree Fahrenheit other wise it would be an independent clause after the comma, which is incorrect.
That eliminates options C,D and E.

Option B doesn't convey the correct meaning.It doesn't compare temperaturea between the two countries.

So option A correctly does that and is Correct.

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Dallol Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places with a recorded  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 12 Jan 2019, 01:40
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than in any other country on earth.

Meaning of the sentence is pretty clear. We just have to pay close attention to the modifiers and entities they modify.
Basic rule of "which" modifiers:
- they modify the noun that precedes the comma or if to be more accurately, "which" can modify noun+prepositional phrase that immediately precedes the comma.

Please see more about "which" in Ron's video (perfect explanation)

In the given sentence only "which" correctly modifies prededing noun+pp "annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit", so we are perfectly fine with it.

POE

A) which is higher than in
(as we discussed "which" is fine, "higher that" correct constraction for comparison, "in" preposition of a place - we are comparing temperature in Ethiopia and in other parts of the world, so comparison is also clear)

B) which is higher than it is
("it" -? - refers to? -"Ethiopia"? "Temperature"?, pronoun ambiguity is not a catastrophic disaster on GMAT SC but we don't need a IC (independent clause) here, moreover which has already started dependedt clause)

C) and higher than that of
("and" //ism marker and indicator of the presence of the list, but there is no conctraction to be made //, "that of any other country on earth"-illogical, we need "in" place preposition)

D) higher than that of
(,+higher - is not a better option to start IC or DC whatever, that of any other country on earth"-illogical, we need "in" place preposition)

E) higher than in
(,+higher - is not a better option to start IC or DC whatever, "in" is fine)

A is the answer
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Originally posted by GKomoku on 12 Jan 2019, 00:16.
Last edited by GKomoku on 12 Jan 2019, 01:40, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 12 Jan 2019, 01:33
IMO D

Comparison is between recorded annual temp of Ethiopia with recorded temp of any other country

Higher than .....Noun modifier...correctly modifying the 94 degree Fahrenheit

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Re: Dallol Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places with a recorded  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2019, 09:55
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Meaning Analysis : -

- The author wants to convey that Dallol has the highest temperature as compared to any other place in the world
- We are comparing temperature in dallol vs all other paces

Now lets see the options

Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than in any other country on earth.

A) which is higher than in---> Incorrect. The option is comparing the temperature to all other places

B) which is higher than it is---> Incorrect. What does it refer to?

C) and higher than that of---> Incorrect. This option does compare the temperature in dallol vs the temperature in all other places. But the "and" in the sentence is not connecting two independent clauses

D) higher than that of ---> Correct. bingo! now the comparison is correct.

E) higher than in---> Incorrect. The option makes the same mistake as option A
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New post 12 Jan 2019, 23:59
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 66 Sentence Correction (SC1)



Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than in any other country on earth.

A) which is higher than in
B) which is higher than it is
C) and higher than that of
D) higher than that of
E) higher than in


OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Note: The OE from the source has a strange error that I am going to rewrite. The typeface in blue is mine.

The sentence is supposed to compare the average temperature in Ethiopia to the average temperatures of other countries

• Options A and E compare the average temperature in Ethiopia to other countries.
average temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit is different from a country.

In options A and E, the temperature itself is "higher" than any other country.
The temperature is not higher than any other country.

The temperature needs to be "higher" than a temperature in any other country
.

• choices C and D differ only in that C incorrectly uses and to introduce a contrast.
Eliminate C.

• Between B and D, D is more concise and is therefore correct.

We need the sentence to say:
E is one of the world's hottest places, with an annual temperature of 94° F, higher than [the annual temperature of/in] any other country.

• We can use a relative pronoun, which, to refer to "temperature of . . ." followed by a verb, as is the case in option B.

B) in the sentence
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than it is any other country on earth.

• We can make a "copy" of temperature with the pronoun that, as is the case in option D.

E's temperature is hotter than the temperature of all other countries.
E's temperature is hotter than THAT OF of all other countries.

D) in the sentence
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, higher than that of any other country on earth.

Option D is better.


COMMENTS

This question is a challenge. Option B is not wrong.
Option B is not as good as option D.
(No pronoun ambiguity exists in B. The logical referent is "average temperature." That antecedent is fine.)

pikolo2510 wrote the best answer. Kudos!


Thank you generis
I've learned alot from it :thumbup:
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New post 13 Jan 2019, 10:32
GKomoku wrote:

Thank you generis
I've learned alot from it :thumbup:

GKomoku , thanks for the feedback. I am glad to know that my analysis was helpful. :)
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Re: Dallol Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places with a recorded  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2019, 09:56
generis
Please address my query:
In option A, why cant we construct the below statement, by use of SAE, substitution and ellipsis:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which[annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit] is higher than [annual temperature]in any other country on earth.

This, to me, makes the comparison correct.
My questions are:
#1 Is the above construction correct ? - if not then how to use SAE, basically ellipses part where optional text can be omitted
#2 can relative pronoun - which/that/who/whom/whose - take up a Noun Phrase or do they take just a Noun word ?
#3 Option: D (correct answer) has this structure:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, higher than that[annual temperature] of any other country on earth

My questions for this particular choice are:
#3.1: 'with the...Fahhrenheit' this is a modifier - non-essentionl modifier ?
#3.2: how is 'higher than that of any country on earth' attached to this. What type of modifier is this ? As in option A, 'which' makes it a Relative pronoun clause attached at the tail refering to temperature just before the comma. I am not able to understand , how this modifier ('higher than that of ...') attached in choice D
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New post 11 Aug 2019, 19:52
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 66 Sentence Correction (SC1)



Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than in any other country on earth.

A) which is higher than in
B) which is higher than it is
C) and higher than that of
D) higher than that of
E) higher than in


Hi,
In A and B what is "which" referring to ? Is it 94 degrees Fahrenheit or average temperature ?
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Re: Dallol Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places with a recorded  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2019, 21:20
abhishek893rai wrote:
generis
Please address my query:
In option A, why cant we construct the below statement, by use of SAE, substitution and ellipsis:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which[annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit] is higher than [annual temperature]in any other country on earth.

This, to me, makes the comparison correct.
My questions are:
#1 Is the above construction correct ? - if not then how to use SAE, basically ellipses part where optional text can be omitted
#2 can relative pronoun - which/that/who/whom/whose - take up a Noun Phrase or do they take just a Noun word ?
#3 Option: D (correct answer) has this structure:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, higher than that[annual temperature] of any other country on earth

My questions for this particular choice are:
#3.1: 'with the...Fahhrenheit' this is a modifier - non-essentionl modifier ?
#3.2: how is 'higher than that of any country on earth' attached to this. What type of modifier is this ? As in option A, 'which' makes it a Relative pronoun clause attached at the tail refering to temperature just before the comma. I am not able to understand , how this modifier ('higher than that of ...') attached in choice D


Hi,

I'd try to resolve your query. Correct me if I'm wrong VeritasKarishma GMATNinja egmat daagh

Ellipsis is possible only if the same word is used earlier in the sentence. Here, using ellipsis gives us two different answers -


Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than (annual temperature) in any other country on earth

OR


Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than (annual temperature of 94 degrees F) in any other country on earth.

Therefore, this option is incorrect. (Same error in E)

In option B, "it" is used for Annual temperature of 94 degree F -> incorrect.

In option D, "that" -> demonstrative pronoun generates a copy. Hence, we can use that to refer to annual temperature.

Thanks.
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New post 11 Aug 2019, 21:39
578vishnu wrote:
abhishek893rai wrote:
generis
Please address my query:
In option A, why cant we construct the below statement, by use of SAE, substitution and ellipsis:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which[annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit] is higher than [annual temperature]in any other country on earth.

This, to me, makes the comparison correct.
My questions are:
#1 Is the above construction correct ? - if not then how to use SAE, basically ellipses part where optional text can be omitted
#2 can relative pronoun - which/that/who/whom/whose - take up a Noun Phrase or do they take just a Noun word ?
#3 Option: D (correct answer) has this structure:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, higher than that[annual temperature] of any other country on earth

My questions for this particular choice are:
#3.1: 'with the...Fahhrenheit' this is a modifier - non-essentionl modifier ?
#3.2: how is 'higher than that of any country on earth' attached to this. What type of modifier is this ? As in option A, 'which' makes it a Relative pronoun clause attached at the tail refering to temperature just before the comma. I am not able to understand , how this modifier ('higher than that of ...') attached in choice D


Hi,

I'd try to resolve your query. Correct me if I'm wrong VeritasKarishma GMATNinja egmat daagh

Ellipsis is possible only if the same word is used earlier in the sentence. Here, using ellipsis gives us two different answers -


Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than (annual temperature) in any other country on earth

OR


Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than (annual temperature of 94 degrees F) in any other country on earth.

Therefore, this option is incorrect. (Same error in E)

In option B, "it" is used for Annual temperature of 94 degree F -> incorrect.

In option D, "that" -> demonstrative pronoun generates a copy. Hence, we can use that to refer to annual temperature.

Thanks.


In option D, "that" -> demonstrative pronoun generates a copy. Hence, we can use that to refer to annual temperature. ---> Why not "annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit" ?
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The two modifiers in questions are nested modifiers, the first modifying the main clause and the second modifying the first modifier. A modifier modifies the the previous clause or the noun in front or another modifier is legal. After all, modifiers true to their name have to modify something.
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Re: Dallol Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places with a recorded  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2019, 18:34
nkhl.goyal wrote:
578vishnu wrote:
abhishek893rai wrote:
generis
Please address my query:
In option A, why cant we construct the below statement, by use of SAE, substitution and ellipsis:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which[annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit] is higher than [annual temperature]in any other country on earth.

This, to me, makes the comparison correct.
My questions are:
#1 Is the above construction correct ? - if not then how to use SAE, basically ellipses part where optional text can be omitted
#2 can relative pronoun - which/that/who/whom/whose - take up a Noun Phrase or do they take just a Noun word ?
#3 Option: D (correct answer) has this structure:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, higher than that[annual temperature] of any other country on earth

My questions for this particular choice are:
#3.1: 'with the...Fahhrenheit' this is a modifier - non-essentionl modifier ?
#3.2: how is 'higher than that of any country on earth' attached to this. What type of modifier is this ? As in option A, 'which' makes it a Relative pronoun clause attached at the tail refering to temperature just before the comma. I am not able to understand , how this modifier ('higher than that of ...') attached in choice D


Hi,

I'd try to resolve your query. Correct me if I'm wrong VeritasKarishma GMATNinja egmat daagh

Ellipsis is possible only if the same word is used earlier in the sentence. Here, using ellipsis gives us two different answers -


Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than (annual temperature) in any other country on earth

OR


Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than (annual temperature of 94 degrees F) in any other country on earth.

Therefore, this option is incorrect. (Same error in E)

In option B, "it" is used for Annual temperature of 94 degree F -> incorrect.

In option D, "that" -> demonstrative pronoun generates a copy. Hence, we can use that to refer to annual temperature.

Thanks.


In option D, "that" -> demonstrative pronoun generates a copy. Hence, we can use that to refer to annual temperature. ---> Why not "annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit" ?


If that refers to "annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit", it is not generating a copy. It's talking about the same annual temperature.
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New post 12 Aug 2019, 19:30
Quote:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than in any other country on earth.

A) which is higher than in

B) which is higher than it is

C) and higher than that of

D) higher than that of

E) higher than in

abhishek893rai wrote:
generis
Please address my query:
In option A, why cant we construct the below statement, by use of SAE, substitution and ellipsis:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which[annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit] is higher than [annual temperature]in any other country on earth.

This, to me, makes the comparison correct.
My questions are:
#1 Is the above construction correct ? - if not then how to use SAE, basically ellipses part where optional text can be omitted


abhishek893rai , in order to prevent taking this topic thread into a subject whose discussion often mushrooms far from the original question, I will point you to this thread: HERE
Use logic and choose the clearest answer.
What two things are being compared?
The annual temperature in Ethiopia and the annual temperature in every other country in the world. The thread I just linked to discusses how to handle comparisons and ellipsis—and what not to do. I would read Ron Purewal's posts about strategy. I also like this post about how to treat comparisons.

Which option makes that fact about two compared temperatures the clearest?
In option D, the words "that of" make it clear that we are comparing the annual temperature of Ethiopia to the annual temperature in any [every] country on earth.

There will be disagreement about what "which" modifies.
I will amend my OE to account for that disagreement.
Some people will say that "which" in options A and B seems to modify 94 degrees Fahrenheit.
Other people will say that "which" modifies temperature.

EDIT: You may want to look at the official question upon which this question is based. That official question is HERE.

In addition, this official question here has answer choices almost identical to those in this question.
-- higher than that of is the best answer.
-- which is higher than in is not the correct answer.

That thread also contains very sophisticated discussion.

Can you make the argument that (A) is superior to (D)? That (D) contains error?

Quote:
#2 can relative pronoun - which/that/who/whom/whose - take up a Noun Phrase or do they take just a Noun word ?

I edited and rearranged my OE. Now discussion of what which can modify is in its own bullet point, near the bottom of the post.

By "take up," do you mean "stand for"? I assume so.
Which can modify either the prepositional object or the main noun in [noun + prepositional phrase].
If which modifies the object of the preposition, often we have an easier time analyzing the comparison.
If which modifies the main noun in a noun phrase, that analysis may be harder.

In this case, as is the case in the official question to which I linked, I suppose we could argue that "which" seems to refer to 94° Fahrenheit, a reference that creates a comparison that is even worse than "temperature."
At the least, we could argue that the reference is not clear and thus (D) is the answer.

I'm not sure that avenue is necessary.
Both linking verbs ("IS") create subject complements that are different (hottest country on earth and higher than [___?] in any other country).
THAT OF creates a copy of temperature that makes the comparison clearer.
And in D, THAT cannot refer to 94° Fahrenheit.
Quote:
#3 Option: D (correct answer) has this structure:
Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, higher than that[annual temperature] of any other country on earth

My questions for this particular choice are:
#3.1: 'with the...Fahhrenheit' this is a modifier - non-essentionl modifier ?

Does this fact matter? Why?
(I am trying to prevent this thread from heading into territory that would be better covered in GMATNinja 's "Ask me Anything" thread that you can find here
Quote:
#3.2: how is 'higher than that of any country on earth' attached to this. What type of modifier is this ? As in option A, 'which' makes it a Relative pronoun clause attached at the tail refering to temperature just before the comma. I am not able to understand , how this modifier ('higher than that of ...') attached in choice D

higher than that of any country on earth is a modifier of temperature.

-- The names don't matter. This refrain is constant in SC: hyper-focus on parts of speech is not the way to do well on SC.
-- Does higher than seem to be anything other than a modifier of temperature?
If higher were an adverb, it would need to modify a verb. There isn't one in the preceding phrase.

The phrase is probably a reduced relative (adjectivial) clause (jargon!!!).
Here's how such clauses work.

This is probably the clause that was probably reduced, though I am just guessing): which is higher than that of any other country on earth.
We can reduce (shorten) clauses to phrases, especially when the clauses contain a relative pronoun and a TO BE verb.
Reduced relative clauses are very common on the GMAT.

To reduce a relative clause to an adjective phrase:
(1) Remove the relative pronoun (WHICH)
(2) Remove the "to be" verb (IS)
(3) Place the adjective after the noun it modifies

Example: I could not stop eating the plump and inviting cherries, which were more luscious than any other fruit I'd eaten in a long time.
(1) remove the relative pronoun (WHICH)
(2) remove the TO BE verb (were)
(3) place the adjective after the noun it modifies

Result, relative clause reduced to adjective phrase modifying "cherries":
I could not stop eating the plump and inviting cherries, more luscious than any other fruit I'd eaten in a long time.

You can get a very quick overview of reduced relative clauses here.

I may be wrong, but this level of questioning typically indicates that you have mastered SC pretty well.
If I am correct that you are doing well, then may I suggest that you shift your focus?

Study official examples only. Make flashcards. Watch for patterns.
For example, GMAC does not like WITH to express causality. At all.
Or notice that many correct answers are written in the allegedly taboo passive voice.

It is very easy to lose sight of the bigger picture.
That picture consists of GMAC-originated questions in which patterns and the best answer (not the perfect answer) rule the day.

If I have not answered your questions, please take your queries to GMATNinja 's Ask Me Anything thread. (I do not want this topic to expand geometrically into an ellipsis and substitution discussion. I think there are better ways to handle comparisons. :) )
Again, that thread is HERE

I hope that helps. :)
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New post 12 Aug 2019, 19:48
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578vishnu wrote:
nkhl.goyal wrote:

In option D, "that" -> demonstrative pronoun generates a copy. Hence, we can use that to refer to annual temperature. ---> Why not "annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit" ?


If that refers to "annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit", it is not generating a copy. It's talking about the same annual temperature.

578vishnu , I do not know upon what basis you make that assertion.

The pronoun that creates a new and different copy of the same noun.
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New post 12 Aug 2019, 19:57
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abhishek893rai , nkhl.goyal , and 578vishnu

I just recalled the official question upon which I think this one is based.
You may want to take a look HERE.

The issues and questions are nearly identical to those in this question.
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New post 13 Aug 2019, 05:04
generis wrote:
578vishnu wrote:
nkhl.goyal wrote:

In option D, "that" -> demonstrative pronoun generates a copy. Hence, we can use that to refer to annual temperature. ---> Why not "annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit" ?


If that refers to "annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit", it is not generating a copy. It's talking about the same annual temperature.

578vishnu , I do not know upon what basis you make that assertion.

The pronoun that creates a new and different copy of the same noun.


Hi,

That's exactly what I meant. New & different. "it" and "they" refer to the "same" noun used before.

Thanks.
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New post 13 Aug 2019, 07:48
Quote:
Dallol, Ethiopia(subject) is(verb) one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than in any other country on earth.


Hi Folks,
The original sentence ends at hottest places. Rest of the sentence is just modifier-additional information.
Since only the modifiers are underlined, lets take a look at both individually.
Modifier 1: with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit,- no problem clearly and its not underlined as well.
Modifier 2: which is higher than in any other country on earth. - there is some kind of comparison going on between 94 degrees F and something in any other country but what?
Lets look at answer choices and see what fits here best.

Quote:
A) which is higher than in
Incorrect for the reason stated above.
Quote:
B) which is higher than it is
Higher than it IS any other country? does not make any sense. Incorrect
Quote:
C) and higher than that of
AND higher than that of? AND makes things parallel. We do not want that. Plus, it will not make any sense to do so. Incorrect
Quote:
D) higher than that of
This looks ok. Replace that with temperature and re-read it. It does make sense. Keep it.
Quote:
E) higher than in
[/quote] Same error as that of Option A. Incorrect
Hence, D is correct.
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Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than in any other country on earth.


Antecedents of pronouns, touch rule of relative pronouns and ellipsis.

When we deal with any of the above points, it will be prudent to keep logic and reasoning as the top priority and we must settle for the most precise noun and not lengthy nested modifiers.
1. Dallol, Ethiopia is one of the world's hottest places, with a recorded annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit, which is higher than in any other country on earth.

A) which is higher than in

B) which is higher than it is

A) What is 'which' referring to seems to be an eternal debate because we think that it can modify both the short 'annual temperature' and the longer 'annual temperature of 94 degrees Fahrenheit'. Structurally or technically, there is no harm in thinking like that. However, logically we are inclined to prefer the shorter version . After all, the 94 degrees F., is yet another prepositional modifier of the annual temperature. Therefore, one need not be apologetic about discarding it.

Let us also see it from another angle. Let us replace the 'which' with what it sensibly intends to modify.

A. 1. Annual temperature is higher than in any other country.

A.2. Annual temperature of 94 degrees F is higher than in any other country.

You can now see that 94 degrees is higher in Dallol than 94 degrees in any other country. How stupid!

Therefore let us rest assured that 'which' does refer to the annual temperature. In addition, A is faulty because the wrong preposition 'in'.

Now let us come to the pronoun 'it'. The thumb rule is that the prerogative of a pronoun is to refer to the subject first. This leads to an absurd context that Dallol is higher than any other country. Even the reference of annual temperature is irrelevant because we are comparing a temperature with any other country. The pronoun is neither an expletive here since expletives are mostly used for starting a sentence and in the middle of a sentence. it is always used to refer to either a subject or an object

Let us now delve into D.

D) Higher than that of

'That' here replaces the annual temp., as we saw in the case of 'which' and together with the correct preposition 'of' , is perfectly idiomatic. That is the reason D is the correct choice.
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