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Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves

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Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2011, 09:32
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Question Stats:

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Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, is going to force currency trading to increase.

(A) the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, is

(B) which investors use as financial vehicles to hedge against to get through the bear market, is

(C) the financial vehicle which is hedged against by investors to get through the bear market is

(D) which investors use as financial vehicles to hedge against to get through the bear market, are

(E) the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, are

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Does anyone have an explanation? I realized you can eliminate A B C because they use "is" and you need "are" to keep it plural. I know that D sounds a but funny having "to hedge against to get through" however I chose D because I wanted to use which because without that part of the sentance the santence would still make sense?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2011, 09:48
But E is also correct.
"...,the financial vehicles...market, is an appositive, which provides additional infomation about the noun.

Also, in D, "to hedge against" seems that requires an object. It sounds ackward, isn't it?
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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2011, 11:47

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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2011, 10:59
Baten80 wrote:
D is altering intent of the sentence.


how? could you please explain?

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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2011, 16:02
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First split "is/are". d and e left. In d "which" is a spoiler. It refers to bonds

E remains.

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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2011, 22:19
MeinKampf wrote:
Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, is going to force currency trading to increase.

a.) the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, is (subject-verb disagree , values (plural) is the subject , so 'is' cant be used )

b.) which investors use as financial vehicles to hedge against to get through the bear market, is ( awkward construction , the usage of 'to' twice )

c.) the financial vehicle which is hedged against by investors to get through the bear market is ( 'which is hedge against' becomes passive' , not preferred on the GMAT)

d.) which investors use as financial vehicles to hedge against to get through the bear market, are ( again awkward )

e.) the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, are


Does anyone have an explanation? I realized you can eliminate A B C because they use "is" and you need "are" to keep it plural. I know that D sounds a but funny having "to hedge against to get through" however I chose D because I wanted to use which because without that part of the sentance the santence would still make sense?



'which' is also used in E , and there is nothing wrong with the usage of ' which' in E. so whats the confusion in this SC ?
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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, is going to force currency trading to increase.
a.) the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, is
b.) which investors use as financial vehicles to hedge against to get through the bear market, is
c.) the financial vehicle which is hedged against by investors to get through the bear market is
d.) which investors use as financial vehicles to hedge against to get through the bear market, are
e.) the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, are

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Does anyone know why the answers is "e" instead of "d"?

Last edited by carcass on 09 Aug 2015, 16:02, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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In the option D, "which" refers to "Declining values for bonds" rather than referring to Bonds.
This does not makes sense as the investors use the bonds as the financial vehicles, not the declining values of bonds.

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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2015, 20:22
We can simply dispense with A, B and C for using the singular verb ‘is’ rather than ‘are’. Between D and E,

d.) which investors use as financial vehicles to hedge against to get through the bear market, are –Here although the pronoun 'which’ refers to the bonds technically, logically it refers to the 'declining values' that the investors are using as a hedge. It makes no sense to say that a declining value is used as a hedge.

e.) the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, are --- The appositive modifier sets the tone correct by directly referring to the bonds that are used as hedge.

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New post 22 Oct 2015, 17:30
OptimusPrepJanielle wrote:
In the option D, "which" refers to "Declining values for bonds" rather than referring to Bonds.
This does not makes sense as the investors use the bonds as the financial vehicles, not the declining values of bonds.


Doesnt "which" refer to "bonds" only, as it is the word right before comma?

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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2015, 21:06
On second thoughts, the reason for D’s exclusions seems to be for more deep than apparent. While in regard to the referent for ‘which’ in D, it makes more sense to say that the phrase ‘the financial vehicle’ does stand for the bonds more eligibly than for the declining values, technically as well as logically. After all, bonds are financial vehicles and the noun sits smugly before the pronoun ‘which’. Logically a declining value can never be a financial instrument or a hedge.

There is an element of redundancy inherent in D. When we use something to get through something, the usage itself is known as hedging. There is no need to say again ‘use to hedge’ as in ‘D’. The simultaneous usage that ‘use the bonds to hedge’ is redundant. We can as well avoid the phrase ‘to hedge’ in D.

E subtly avoids redundancy and is a better choice. This is an example of how deep the GMAT can get.
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New post 23 Oct 2015, 00:45
because sc test meaning, if the meaning is too specialized in some fields, the sentence becomes unfair to person outside the field. the similar case is for reading passage. it reading passage is about a specific field, the person working in that field will be favored and the test becomes unfair.

in this sentence, some persons working in finance field will be favored.
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New post 15 Nov 2016, 22:16
OA has "which" without a comma before it, which rarely is correct. On top of the fact the structure of which - being so far away from its antecedent - makes it not very clear.

I'd still take D over this. Given that this is a MGMAT question and not an official one, I'm not sure how much weight we should be putting forth into this discussion. There's a lot of iffy grammar (such as preposition at the end for D), but the same could be said for E. Awkwardly structured and not well articulated at all.

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vivgmat wrote:
Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, is going to force currency trading to increase.

a.) the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, is

b.) which investors use as financial vehicles to hedge against to get through the bear market, is

c.) the financial vehicle which is hedged against by investors to get through the bear market is

d.) which investors use as financial vehicles to hedge against to get through the bear market, are

e.) the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, are


Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, are going to force currency trading to increase.

1. Declining Values ----->Are
2. Declining values of bonds --->against which investors hedge


Hence, (E) is the best...


Similar question to practice - declining-values-for-farm-equipment-and-land-the-collateral-129205.html
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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 11:05
Dear Mod
Reason why D is not the answer is still not clear. Could you please give some insight.
Thanks for your help.

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 21:03
Experts please elaborate why D is wrong....i did not find any grammatical error in both D& E

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New post 13 Mar 2017, 01:08
d.) which investors use as financial vehicles to hedge against to get through the bear market, are

e.) the financial vehicles against which investors hedge to get through the bear market, are

Well, in my opinion, E says that bonds are the financial vehicles against which investors hedge (the financial vehicles... is a modifier describing bonds), while D says that investors use them as financial vehicles. It's not exactly the same.

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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2017, 10:35
spradhan wrote:
Experts please elaborate why D is wrong....i did not find any grammatical error in both D& E


The difference between D and E has already been explained by kivalo above, though in my opinion, this difference is not a solid reason to eliminate D. Other than this slight change in meaning, I do not see any problem with option D.

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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2017, 04:39
IMO "Declining Values" is phrase, so the subject should be singular. "A" should be correct in this way. Please clarify

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Re: Declining values for bonds, the financial vehicles against which inves   [#permalink] 18 Nov 2017, 04:39
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