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# Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral

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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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17 Mar 2012, 02:24
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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through
the harvest season, is
going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Between D and E.....

E modifies the whole clause "Declining values for farm equipment and land".....which i think is inappropriate
where as which in D refers to farm equipment and land (used as collateral) ....so this must be correct...

experts please throw some light on this.....
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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17 Mar 2012, 04:08
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In this question the placement of commas is very important and it makes life tedious when the question is not underlined. Please underline the wrong part the next time you post a question.

We require a plural are, So A,B, C are out.

In both D and E, I will not say there are modifier errors as in both cases they make clear references. The issue in D is the preposition 'Which', which stays away from the noun collateral and makes it wordy. In E prep against stays close to the noun collateral.

which farmers use as collateral to borrow....
And
the collateral against which farmers borrow....
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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17 Mar 2012, 05:54
E is the winner.

D has modifier error as which seems to modify land.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2012, 09:40
E seems to be the answer in my opinion
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2012, 07:07
It's a good thing I looked at the OA/OE in this thread. I was racking my brain over-and-over when I saw the OA of A pop up on the GMAT Toolkit Application.

"Declining values for farm equipment and land..., are..." appears correct.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2012, 11:08
shikhar wrote:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through
the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Between D and E.....

E modifies the whole clause "Declining values for farm equipment and land".....which i think is inappropriate
where as which in D refers to farm equipment and land (used as collateral) ....so this must be correct...

experts please throw some light on this.....

I'm trying to figure out the question you brought up where answer choice E modifies the whole clause "declining values for farm equipment and land." I know someone already pointed out the noun-preposition issues where "against" should be close to "collateral." But the modifier is correct when we say collateral modifies "declining values?"
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2012, 00:09
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The level of credibility of A, B and C is seemingly out of doubt, so we should concentrane on D and E in the first 10 seconds after reading the sentence. In my native language the translated phrase " the collateral against which farmers borrow" sounds perfectly correct, so I would definitely go with that version. On the other hand, borrow against in D, sounds implausible, maybe "bet against" or "insure against", but not "borrow against" because it doesen't make sense.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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26 May 2012, 01:59
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through
the harvest season, is
going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

My two cents, between D and E,
As someone already mentioned, there's no modifier error. However,

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are

There's redundancy in the meaning, because without 'use as' the meaning of the sentence is still clear.

Please correct my reasoning if wrong.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2013, 12:27
uledssul wrote:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through
the harvest season, is
going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

My two cents, between D and E,
As someone already mentioned, there's no modifier error. However,

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are

There's redundancy in the meaning, because without 'use as' the meaning of the sentence is still clear.

Please correct my reasoning if wrong.

In D which is absolutely wrong. A, B and C goes as they do not agree with plural subject values. Only option left is E which is correct and precise.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2013, 17:31
hi,

since the non underline part is starting with Verbing participle so it has to modify the subject of the sentence so if you think the declining values has to modify collateral hence the answer is E in D there is no proper use of which
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2013, 01:25
abhishekkhosla wrote:
hi,

since the non underline part is starting with Verbing participle so it has to modify the subject of the sentence so if you think the declining values has to modify collateral hence the answer is E in D there is no proper use of which

Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2013, 06:28
honchos wrote:
Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?

It is not used as a gerund (noun) here; it is used as an "adjective" ("-ing" form of verb, used as an adjective, is called participle).
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2013, 06:31
EducationAisle wrote:
honchos wrote:
Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?

It is not used as a gerund (noun) here; it is used as an "adjective" ("-ing" form of verb, used as an adjective, is called participle).

Thanks can you guide me how to distinguish between gerund and adjectives?
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2013, 23:33
shikhar wrote:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through
the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

"Which" modifies noun/ pronoun before it.

(D)Declining values for farm equipment and land, which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are Incorrect
(E)Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are... Correct

In E, "the collateral" is "farm equipment and land" and "which" properly modifies "the collateral"..
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2013, 17:00
Dear Friends,
In all answer choices, the "collareal" is in singular, while there are two collaterals(land and eqiupment)? is there any expalanation?
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2013, 03:53
EducationAisle wrote:
honchos wrote:
Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?

It is not used as a gerund (noun) here; it is used as an "adjective" ("-ing" form of verb, used as an adjective, is called participle).

Hi Ashish,

Please explain why is D incorrect and E correct.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2013, 04:24
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Choosing between D and E is certainly tricky here. D is redundant. To "use [something] as collateral" is "to borrow against" that thing. You can say one or the other in a sentence (and D goes with the "borrow against" version) but, if you use both, you're saying the same thing twice! Most people miss that on this one - tough one.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2013, 04:50
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sahilchaudhary wrote:
EducationAisle wrote:
honchos wrote:
Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?

It is not used as a gerund (noun) here; it is used as an "adjective" ("-ing" form of verb, used as an adjective, is called participle).

Hi Ashish,

Please explain why is D incorrect and E correct.

Answer D is incorrect because it repeats the same information in two phrases: "use (something) as collateral" and "borrow against (something)." It is enough to use only one of these expressions. Thus answer D is redundant. Moreover, the preposition "against" should not be placed at the end of the modifier. It should be close to the noun that it refers to ( "collateral").
Answer E corrects both mistakes. It uses the less wordy modifier "the collateral against which farmers borrow...". In addition, the preposition "against" is placed at the beginning of the modifying clause, near the noun "collateral" and not at the end of the clause.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2013, 23:45
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sahilchaudhary wrote:
Hi Ashish,

Please explain why is D incorrect and E correct.

Couple of issues with D:

a) At the very least, "which" is ambiguous, since it is not clear whether "which" is modifying "land" or "equipment and land". In fact, for the most part, "which" is not likely to ever modify a "list" ("equipment and land" in this case).

b) "which farmers use as collateral to borrow against" does not conform with GMAT‘s stylistic preference. Modifier clauses (especially relative clauses) should not end with a preposition. Here, this clause ends in a preposition "against".
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2014, 08:25
Maybe a naive doubt, In option 'E' doesn't THE COLLATERAL refer to DECLINING VALUES (i.e. the Subject of the Previous clause) ??? I had this Doubt while choosing option E. If sumone could Enlighten me on this.. Would be very helpful.. I had even chosen option D earlier as I thought WHICH is correctly modifying Land and Equipments .
Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral   [#permalink] 20 Jan 2014, 08:25

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# Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral

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