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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against

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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2011, 00:10
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 140
Page: 674

Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is

(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is

(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are

(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

https://www.nytimes.com/1983/01/16/us/in-farm-belt-fear-of-foreclosures-rises.html

Bankers here say that loan delinquencies, already triple what they were a year ago, could reach 10 times normal levels. Meanwhile, declining values for farm equipment and land - the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season - is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

Question1:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

In E what does the appositive "collateral" really modify - "declining values..." or "farm equipment and land".

Question2:
If I changed (D) to the below

(D) which farmers use as collateral to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Now from the above two which would you choose as the answer?

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2013, 04:50
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sahilchaudhary wrote:
EducationAisle wrote:
honchos wrote:
Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?


It is not used as a gerund (noun) here; it is used as an "adjective" ("-ing" form of verb, used as an adjective, is called participle).


Hi Ashish,

Please explain why is D incorrect and E correct.


Answer D is incorrect because it repeats the same information in two phrases: "use (something) as collateral" and "borrow against (something)." It is enough to use only one of these expressions. Thus answer D is redundant. Moreover, the preposition "against" should not be placed at the end of the modifier. It should be close to the noun that it refers to ( "collateral").
Answer E corrects both mistakes. It uses the less wordy modifier "the collateral against which farmers borrow...". In addition, the preposition "against" is placed at the beginning of the modifying clause, near the noun "collateral" and not at the end of the clause.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 27 Feb 2014, 00:38
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234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land. :?:

Originally posted by devinawilliam83 on 05 Mar 2012, 21:22.
Last edited by ankurgupta03 on 27 Feb 2014, 00:38, edited 1 time in total.
underlined the question
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2012, 19:51
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2012, 03:50
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ENAFEX wrote:
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is


Declining values for farm equipment and land,---------, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring

therefore it should be 'are' not 'is' (Declining values is plural).

correct me if i am wrong.

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2012, 00:09
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The level of credibility of A, B and C is seemingly out of doubt, so we should concentrane on D and E in the first 10 seconds after reading the sentence. In my native language the translated phrase " the collateral against which farmers borrow" sounds perfectly correct, so I would definitely go with that version. On the other hand, borrow against in D, sounds implausible, maybe "bet against" or "insure against", but not "borrow against" because it doesen't make sense.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2013, 17:31
hi,

since the non underline part is starting with Verbing participle so it has to modify the subject of the sentence so if you think the declining values has to modify collateral hence the answer is E in D there is no proper use of which
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2013, 01:25
abhishekkhosla wrote:
hi,

since the non underline part is starting with Verbing participle so it has to modify the subject of the sentence so if you think the declining values has to modify collateral hence the answer is E in D there is no proper use of which



Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2013, 06:28
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honchos wrote:
Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?


It is not used as a gerund (noun) here; it is used as an "adjective" ("-ing" form of verb, used as an adjective, is called participle).
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2013, 03:53
EducationAisle wrote:
honchos wrote:
Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?


It is not used as a gerund (noun) here; it is used as an "adjective" ("-ing" form of verb, used as an adjective, is called participle).


Hi Ashish,

Please explain why is D incorrect and E correct.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2013, 04:24
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Choosing between D and E is certainly tricky here. D is redundant. To "use [something] as collateral" is "to borrow against" that thing. You can say one or the other in a sentence (and D goes with the "borrow against" version) but, if you use both, you're saying the same thing twice! Most people miss that on this one - tough one.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2013, 23:45
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sahilchaudhary wrote:
Hi Ashish,

Please explain why is D incorrect and E correct.

Couple of issues with D:

a) At the very least, "which" is ambiguous, since it is not clear whether "which" is modifying "land" or "equipment and land". In fact, for the most part, "which" is not likely to ever modify a "list" ("equipment and land" in this case).

b) "which farmers use as collateral to borrow against" does not conform with GMAT‘s stylistic preference. Modifier clauses (especially relative clauses) should not end with a preposition. Here, this clause ends in a preposition "against".
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2014, 09:56
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devinawilliam83 wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land. :?:


I think option B, D which refers to "declining values". So declining values cannot be used as a collateral. Hence both of them are eliminated.

A, B, C can be eliminated - Subject verb agreement of "farm equipment and land" and "is" is incorrect.

E stays as the best answer.

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2014, 23:13
Can't we consider "Declining values for farm equipment and land" as a participle phrase?

And as per rules , phrases and clauses when acting as a subject are considered singular.

Declining values for farm equipment and land....................................is going to force many lenders.

It is the whole idea of the phrase which is GOING to FORCE not just "declining values".

Plz Advise !
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2014, 08:33
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TGC wrote:
Can't we consider "Declining values for farm equipment and land" as a participle phrase?

And as per rules , phrases and clauses when acting as a subject are considered singular.

Declining values for farm equipment and land....................................is going to force many lenders.

It is the whole idea of the phrase which is GOING to FORCE not just "declining values".

Plz Advise !


Hi - received a PM regarding your inquiry.

DECLINING -- is not used as a typical participial phrase. This different from: "Knowing everything, James aced the test."

Look for what's after the COMMA -- and see if it makes sense that the noun can be modified by the DECLINING phrase.

Can COLLATERAL be declining values? Doesn't make sense. COLLATERAL can be DECLINING IN VALUE -- but it can't be declining value. So you know this can't be a participial phrase.

Instead, DECLINING VALUES are simply processes that are happening. These declining values... ARE going to force...

We refrain from user fancy "gerund phrase" or other terminology because that's not how we think through these questions. Hope the above was useful.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2014, 09:27
GMATPill wrote:
TGC wrote:
Can't we consider "Declining values for farm equipment and land" as a participle phrase?

And as per rules , phrases and clauses when acting as a subject are considered singular.

Declining values for farm equipment and land....................................is going to force many lenders.

It is the whole idea of the phrase which is GOING to FORCE not just "declining values".

Plz Advise !


Hi - received a PM regarding your inquiry.

DECLINING -- is not used as a typical participial phrase. This different from: "Knowing everything, James aced the test."

Look for what's after the COMMA -- and see if it makes sense that the noun can be modified by the DECLINING phrase.

Can COLLATERAL be declining values? Doesn't make sense. COLLATERAL can be DECLINING IN VALUE -- but it can't be declining value. So you know this can't be a participial phrase.

Instead, DECLINING VALUES are simply processes that are happening. These declining values... ARE going to force...

We refrain from user fancy "gerund phrase" or other terminology because that's not how we think through these questions. Hope the above was useful.



How about considering the phrase as an idea.

"Declining values for farm equipment and land"

So, when phrase acts as an idea, wouldn't it be singular and take singular verb (is)?
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2014, 21:42
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Dear TGC,

In such questions, you can apply the following trick. Replace the word you are confused about with its antonym(s), and then verify which of the interpretations makes sense.

Let's do that for the two interpretations above.
1) Rising/Increasing values are forcing blah-blah.
2) Accepting values is forcing blah-blah.

The first interpretation makes sense. Changes in the values might force the lenders to take corrective action.

Now review the second interpretation. Why would someone decline, i.e., reject, or accept a value? Rejecting a request makes sense -- but rejecting values for farm equipment and land? The 2nd interpretation suggests that the lenders are rejecting the values, i.e. fact, and that their rejection of those values is forcing them to curtail their lending. (This essentially says that the lenders' denial of reality is forcing them to curtail their expenses.) This interpretation does not make sense.

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2015, 04:31
Will any lender take a declining value as the collateral? The collateral should always be a solid physical asset.

For the altered question, let me point out that collaterals are used in order to borrow to get through some tight period and not just get through a harvest season. Why would any one use the collateral, if one is not going to borrow. D is wrong because of changed meaning. E is ok.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2016, 21:36
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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through
the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.


(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Declining values so it should be "are"

Ron explanation:-

one real problem with choice (d) is the modifier “to borrow against”, which ends with a preposition. modifiers are not allowed to end with prepositions.
this is a very common form in spoken language, but it's incorrect in the written language.
examples:

wrong: "the restaurant (that) we ate at on friday was crowded."
right: "the restaurant at which we ate on friday was crowded."

wrong: "the person joe spoke to yesterday told him that ..."
right: "the person to whom joe spoke yesterday told him that ..."

wrong: "now that i've moved, i need to find a new grocery store to shop at."
right: "now that i've moved, i need to find a new grocery store at which to shop.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2017, 19:39
Hi sayantanc2k
I have few doubts and would be happy if you can clarify..
In the above sentence, I understand that, the collateral is defined for values (which are declining) of farm equipment and land, and the same acts as Resumptive Modifier. Please correct this, if it is wrong. I got the understanding about Resumtpive modifier from - a-group-of-paleontologists-recently-announced-that-a-site-in-89765.html#p1700111

Now, I found a similar post of Manhantten Verbal Legend - RON, which describes similar concept about concrete noun and abstract noun.(https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... tml#p35386)
The terminologies used in the post and mentioned for Resumptive modifier are similar and thus, I am not able to differentiate between two. Can you please explain this with few examples and also in a given sentence, how can I figure out that some term is a resumptive modifier or an abstract noun?

Thanks in Advance
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against &nbs [#permalink] 05 Jan 2017, 19:39

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