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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2014, 21:42
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Dear TGC,

In such questions, you can apply the following trick. Replace the word you are confused about with its antonym(s), and then verify which of the interpretations makes sense.

Let's do that for the two interpretations above.
1) Rising/Increasing values are forcing blah-blah.
2) Accepting values is forcing blah-blah.

The first interpretation makes sense. Changes in the values might force the lenders to take corrective action.

Now review the second interpretation. Why would someone decline, i.e., reject, or accept a value? Rejecting a request makes sense -- but rejecting values for farm equipment and land? The 2nd interpretation suggests that the lenders are rejecting the values, i.e. fact, and that their rejection of those values is forcing them to curtail their lending. (This essentially says that the lenders' denial of reality is forcing them to curtail their expenses.) This interpretation does not make sense.

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2015, 04:31
Will any lender take a declining value as the collateral? The collateral should always be a solid physical asset.

For the altered question, let me point out that collaterals are used in order to borrow to get through some tight period and not just get through a harvest season. Why would any one use the collateral, if one is not going to borrow. D is wrong because of changed meaning. E is ok.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2015, 06:57
I'm not sure I still fully understand the issue with D - I mean, if I am served up another question with this same problem in it, i'm not sure i'll pick the right option. As far as i know, you can borrow against collateral, so i'm not sure i really understand what in the underlying grammar is wrong.

On a side note, is this really sub-600?
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2015, 09:02
vinod332002 wrote:
I'm not sure I still fully understand the issue with D

which always modifies the nearest grammatically eligible word preceding it. That word is land in D, leading to an incorrect meaning.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the usage of which, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2015, 10:15
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vinod332002 wrote:
Thanks for the reply, but I dont quite follow how "which" leads to an incorrect meaning in D - which modifies the word (noun) closest.. here cant farm equipment and land be what "which" refers to?

Hi Vinod, GMAT exhibits a preference for that, when the intent is to refer to a list (such as farm equipment and land in this case). Hence, in this sentence, which would refer to land only, and this is an issue here.

Quote:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

Actually there is another issue with this. As a matter of (what we call) writing preference, you would never find any correct sentence on GMAT where the clause ends in a preposition. So, the clause which farmers use as collateral to borrow against would not be correct, because this clause ends with a preposition against.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2016, 21:36
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1
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through
the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.


(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Declining values so it should be "are"

Ron explanation:-

one real problem with choice (d) is the modifier “to borrow against”, which ends with a preposition. modifiers are not allowed to end with prepositions.
this is a very common form in spoken language, but it's incorrect in the written language.
examples:

wrong: "the restaurant (that) we ate at on friday was crowded."
right: "the restaurant at which we ate on friday was crowded."

wrong: "the person joe spoke to yesterday told him that ..."
right: "the person to whom joe spoke yesterday told him that ..."

wrong: "now that i've moved, i need to find a new grocery store to shop at."
right: "now that i've moved, i need to find a new grocery store at which to shop.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2017, 19:39
Hi sayantanc2k
I have few doubts and would be happy if you can clarify..
In the above sentence, I understand that, the collateral is defined for values (which are declining) of farm equipment and land, and the same acts as Resumptive Modifier. Please correct this, if it is wrong. I got the understanding about Resumtpive modifier from - a-group-of-paleontologists-recently-announced-that-a-site-in-89765.html#p1700111

Now, I found a similar post of Manhantten Verbal Legend - RON, which describes similar concept about concrete noun and abstract noun.(https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... tml#p35386)
The terminologies used in the post and mentioned for Resumptive modifier are similar and thus, I am not able to differentiate between two. Can you please explain this with few examples and also in a given sentence, how can I figure out that some term is a resumptive modifier or an abstract noun?

Thanks in Advance
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2017, 15:28
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RMD007 wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k
I have few doubts and would be happy if you can clarify..
In the above sentence, I understand that, the collateral is defined for values (which are declining) of farm equipment and land, and the same acts as Resumptive Modifier. Please correct this, if it is wrong. I got the understanding about Resumtpive modifier from - a-group-of-paleontologists-recently-announced-that-a-site-in-89765.html#p1700111

Now, I found a similar post of Manhantten Verbal Legend - RON, which describes similar concept about concrete noun and abstract noun.(https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... tml#p35386)
The terminologies used in the post and mentioned for Resumptive modifier are similar and thus, I am not able to differentiate between two. Can you please explain this with few examples and also in a given sentence, how can I figure out that some term is a resumptive modifier or an abstract noun?

Thanks in Advance


Understanding the difference between the following two types of modifiers would hopefully clarify your doubt:

1. Appositive modifier: A noun used to modify another noun:

Marc, my best FRIEND, will come tomorrow.
Here the noun "friend" modifies another noun "Marc" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "my best" is an adjectival phrase that modifies the appositive "friend" in turn).
Now consider option E and compare with the above:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, THE COLLATERAL against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
Here the noun "the collateral" modifies another noun phrase"farm equipment and land" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season" is a relative clause modifier that modifies the appositive"the collateral" in turn).

2. Absolute phrase modifier: A noun + noun modifier structure used to refer to a clause as a whole. (The following example is from Manhattan SC guide)

Scientists have found high levels of iridium in certain geological formations around the world, results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier = that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause.

2a. Resumptive modifier: A special case of Absolute phrase modifier - the noun within the absolute phrase is a repetition of another noun already used in the clause.
Scientists presented the results of their research , results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier: that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause. THe noun "results" is repeated.

Abstract noun is something else altogether and bears no relation with the above discussion. A noun that cannot be touched, but can only be felt is an abstract noun. Examples: love, faith, trust, pain etc. (You may go through any high school grammar book to recapitulate the different types of nouns).

Please note that the noun within the absolute phrase modifier (or resumptive modifier) need not be an abstract noun -
After decades of hard work, the workers built the monument, the monument that we all have read about in the history book.
The noun within the resumptive modifier ("The monument") is NOT an abstract noun, but a common noun.


Please let me know if you still have doubts.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2017, 16:11
sayantanc2k wrote:
RMD007 wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k
I have few doubts and would be happy if you can clarify..
In the above sentence, I understand that, the collateral is defined for values (which are declining) of farm equipment and land, and the same acts as Resumptive Modifier. Please correct this, if it is wrong. I got the understanding about Resumtpive modifier from - a-group-of-paleontologists-recently-announced-that-a-site-in-89765.html#p1700111

Now, I found a similar post of Manhantten Verbal Legend - RON, which describes similar concept about concrete noun and abstract noun.(https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... tml#p35386)
The terminologies used in the post and mentioned for Resumptive modifier are similar and thus, I am not able to differentiate between two. Can you please explain this with few examples and also in a given sentence, how can I figure out that some term is a resumptive modifier or an abstract noun?

Thanks in Advance


Understanding the difference between the following two types of modifiers would hopefully clarify your doubt:

1. Appositive modifier: A noun used to modify another noun:

Marc, my best FRIEND, will come tomorrow.
Here the noun "friend" modifies another noun "Marc" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "my best" is an adjectival phrase that modifies the appositive "friend" in turn).
Now consider option E and compare with the above:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, THE COLLATERAL against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
Here the noun "the collateral" modifies another noun phrase"farm equipment and land" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season" is a relative clause modifier that modifies the appositive"the collateral" in turn).

2. Absolute phrase modifier: A noun + noun modifier structure used to refer to a clause as a whole. (The following example is from Manhattan SC guide)

Scientists have found high levels of iridium in certain geological formations around the world, results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier = that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause.

2a. Resumptive modifier: A special case of Absolute phrase modifier - the noun within the absolute phrase is a repetition of another noun already used in the clause.
Scientists presented the results of their research , results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier: that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause. THe noun "results" is repeated.

Abstract noun is something else altogether and bears no relation with the above discussion. A noun that cannot be touched, but can only be felt is an abstract noun. Examples: love, faith, trust, pain etc. (You may go through any high school grammar book to recapitulate the different types of nouns).

Please note that the noun within the absolute phrase modifier (or resumptive modifier) need not be an abstract noun -
After decades of hard work, the workers built the monument, the monument that we all have read about in the history book.
The noun within the resumptive modifier ("The monument") is NOT an abstract noun, but a common noun.


Please let me know if you still have doubts.



Thanks for wonderful explanation. I had a similar doubt.

1. Can resumptive modifier refer to other type of the noun (other than abstract).?

I gave her a squared bowl, a bowl that can only be found in Russia. ---is it the correct usage of resumptive modifier?

2.In the below sentence, can we say that modifier -- a consultant in los angeles-- is an appositive modifier?

I went to the bar with john smith, a consultant in los angeles.

------------

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2017, 19:29
AR15J wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
RMD007 wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k
I have few doubts and would be happy if you can clarify..
In the above sentence, I understand that, the collateral is defined for values (which are declining) of farm equipment and land, and the same acts as Resumptive Modifier. Please correct this, if it is wrong. I got the understanding about Resumtpive modifier from - a-group-of-paleontologists-recently-announced-that-a-site-in-89765.html#p1700111

Now, I found a similar post of Manhantten Verbal Legend - RON, which describes similar concept about concrete noun and abstract noun.(https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... tml#p35386)
The terminologies used in the post and mentioned for Resumptive modifier are similar and thus, I am not able to differentiate between two. Can you please explain this with few examples and also in a given sentence, how can I figure out that some term is a resumptive modifier or an abstract noun?

Thanks in Advance


Understanding the difference between the following two types of modifiers would hopefully clarify your doubt:

1. Appositive modifier: A noun used to modify another noun:

Marc, my best FRIEND, will come tomorrow.
Here the noun "friend" modifies another noun "Marc" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "my best" is an adjectival phrase that modifies the appositive "friend" in turn).
Now consider option E and compare with the above:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, THE COLLATERAL against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
Here the noun "the collateral" modifies another noun phrase"farm equipment and land" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season" is a relative clause modifier that modifies the appositive"the collateral" in turn).

2. Absolute phrase modifier: A noun + noun modifier structure used to refer to a clause as a whole. (The following example is from Manhattan SC guide)

Scientists have found high levels of iridium in certain geological formations around the world, results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier = that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause.

2a. Resumptive modifier: A special case of Absolute phrase modifier - the noun within the absolute phrase is a repetition of another noun already used in the clause.
Scientists presented the results of their research , results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier: that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause. THe noun "results" is repeated.

Abstract noun is something else altogether and bears no relation with the above discussion. A noun that cannot be touched, but can only be felt is an abstract noun. Examples: love, faith, trust, pain etc. (You may go through any high school grammar book to recapitulate the different types of nouns).

Please note that the noun within the absolute phrase modifier (or resumptive modifier) need not be an abstract noun -
After decades of hard work, the workers built the monument, the monument that we all have read about in the history book.
The noun within the resumptive modifier ("The monument") is NOT an abstract noun, but a common noun.


Please let me know if you still have doubts.



Thanks for wonderful explanation. I had a similar doubt.

1. Can resumptive modifier refer to other type of the noun (other than abstract).?

I gave her a squared bowl, a bowl that can only be found in Russia. ---is it the correct usage of resumptive modifier?

2.In the below sentence, can we say that modifier -- a consultant in los angeles-- is an appositive modifier?

I went to the bar with john smith, a consultant in los angeles.

------------

+1 Kudos if you like the post :)


1. Yes, your understating is correct. Resumptive modifiers are not limited to just abstract nouns.
2. Yes, your understanding is correct . It is an appositive - the noun "consultant" modifies another noun "John Smith".
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2018, 05:51
youtube solution

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAkDXp-rsZA
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2019, 08:50
confused between option D & E. Please help!
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2019, 02:07
Manat wrote:
confused between option D & E. Please help!
The use of both borrow against and use as introduces redundancy.

... use as collateral to borrow against...

If someone borrows against X, he or she is using it as collateral.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2019, 04:28
How can "which" be used without a comma preceding it on the gmat? Also, If you use ",which" on the other answer choices, ",which" is ambiguous. "Which" could modify either land or equipment. The Gmat Test writers slacked off on this question.
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New post 26 Oct 2019, 20:25
GMATNinja,GMATNinja2,daagh: I would appreciate your help on this question
I chose D, due to the below triggers:
1. which - since which modifies the noun preceding the which
2.is/are- since values is plural, the verb chosen is are.
Please help me understand flaw in my reasoning or alternative approach to solve this question correctly.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2019, 21:18
gcantre3 wrote:
How can "which" be used without a comma preceding it on the gmat? Also, If you use ",which" on the other answer choices, ",which" is ambiguous. "Which" could modify either land or equipment. The Gmat Test writers slacked off on this question.


Hi gcantre, I see the comma is present before which in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Also which refers to noun preceding it (equipment and land), why do you think it is ambiguous?
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2019, 09:52
gcantre3 wrote:
How can "which" be used without a comma preceding it on the gmat?

Hi gcantre3, I am assuming you are referring to option E here.

Well, one would expect a comma before which on GMAT. However, there is an important exception to this: whenever which appears as part of prepositional phrase (against which in this case), there would not be a comma before which.

For example, following sentence is correct:

This is the car in which the perpetrators arrived at the crime scene.

Again, which appears as part of prepositional phrase (in which in this case); hence, there would not be a comma before which.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2019, 06:06
Quote:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.


(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is

Equipment & land – plural, we need ‘are’. Out.

(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is

Equipment & land – plural, we need ‘are’. Out.

(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
Equipment & land – plural, we need ‘are’. Out.

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are

Looks like both equipment and land are considered as ‘collateral’, so in this case (D), ‘which’ means only land, which is not ok. Also, ‘collateral to borrow against’ sounds redundant. Out.

(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
Seems ok, resolves everything above.
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New post 26 Nov 2019, 08:35
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against   [#permalink] 26 Nov 2019, 08:35

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