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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2017, 15:28
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RMD007 wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k
I have few doubts and would be happy if you can clarify..
In the above sentence, I understand that, the collateral is defined for values (which are declining) of farm equipment and land, and the same acts as Resumptive Modifier. Please correct this, if it is wrong. I got the understanding about Resumtpive modifier from - a-group-of-paleontologists-recently-announced-that-a-site-in-89765.html#p1700111

Now, I found a similar post of Manhantten Verbal Legend - RON, which describes similar concept about concrete noun and abstract noun.(https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... tml#p35386)
The terminologies used in the post and mentioned for Resumptive modifier are similar and thus, I am not able to differentiate between two. Can you please explain this with few examples and also in a given sentence, how can I figure out that some term is a resumptive modifier or an abstract noun?

Thanks in Advance


Understanding the difference between the following two types of modifiers would hopefully clarify your doubt:

1. Appositive modifier: A noun used to modify another noun:

Marc, my best FRIEND, will come tomorrow.
Here the noun "friend" modifies another noun "Marc" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "my best" is an adjectival phrase that modifies the appositive "friend" in turn).
Now consider option E and compare with the above:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, THE COLLATERAL against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
Here the noun "the collateral" modifies another noun phrase"farm equipment and land" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season" is a relative clause modifier that modifies the appositive"the collateral" in turn).

2. Absolute phrase modifier: A noun + noun modifier structure used to refer to a clause as a whole. (The following example is from Manhattan SC guide)

Scientists have found high levels of iridium in certain geological formations around the world, results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier = that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause.

2a. Resumptive modifier: A special case of Absolute phrase modifier - the noun within the absolute phrase is a repetition of another noun already used in the clause.
Scientists presented the results of their research , results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier: that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause. THe noun "results" is repeated.

Abstract noun is something else altogether and bears no relation with the above discussion. A noun that cannot be touched, but can only be felt is an abstract noun. Examples: love, faith, trust, pain etc. (You may go through any high school grammar book to recapitulate the different types of nouns).

Please note that the noun within the absolute phrase modifier (or resumptive modifier) need not be an abstract noun -
After decades of hard work, the workers built the monument, the monument that we all have read about in the history book.
The noun within the resumptive modifier ("The monument") is NOT an abstract noun, but a common noun.


Please let me know if you still have doubts.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2017, 16:11
sayantanc2k wrote:
RMD007 wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k
I have few doubts and would be happy if you can clarify..
In the above sentence, I understand that, the collateral is defined for values (which are declining) of farm equipment and land, and the same acts as Resumptive Modifier. Please correct this, if it is wrong. I got the understanding about Resumtpive modifier from - a-group-of-paleontologists-recently-announced-that-a-site-in-89765.html#p1700111

Now, I found a similar post of Manhantten Verbal Legend - RON, which describes similar concept about concrete noun and abstract noun.(https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... tml#p35386)
The terminologies used in the post and mentioned for Resumptive modifier are similar and thus, I am not able to differentiate between two. Can you please explain this with few examples and also in a given sentence, how can I figure out that some term is a resumptive modifier or an abstract noun?

Thanks in Advance


Understanding the difference between the following two types of modifiers would hopefully clarify your doubt:

1. Appositive modifier: A noun used to modify another noun:

Marc, my best FRIEND, will come tomorrow.
Here the noun "friend" modifies another noun "Marc" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "my best" is an adjectival phrase that modifies the appositive "friend" in turn).
Now consider option E and compare with the above:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, THE COLLATERAL against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
Here the noun "the collateral" modifies another noun phrase"farm equipment and land" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season" is a relative clause modifier that modifies the appositive"the collateral" in turn).

2. Absolute phrase modifier: A noun + noun modifier structure used to refer to a clause as a whole. (The following example is from Manhattan SC guide)

Scientists have found high levels of iridium in certain geological formations around the world, results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier = that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause.

2a. Resumptive modifier: A special case of Absolute phrase modifier - the noun within the absolute phrase is a repetition of another noun already used in the clause.
Scientists presented the results of their research , results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier: that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause. THe noun "results" is repeated.

Abstract noun is something else altogether and bears no relation with the above discussion. A noun that cannot be touched, but can only be felt is an abstract noun. Examples: love, faith, trust, pain etc. (You may go through any high school grammar book to recapitulate the different types of nouns).

Please note that the noun within the absolute phrase modifier (or resumptive modifier) need not be an abstract noun -
After decades of hard work, the workers built the monument, the monument that we all have read about in the history book.
The noun within the resumptive modifier ("The monument") is NOT an abstract noun, but a common noun.


Please let me know if you still have doubts.



Thanks for wonderful explanation. I had a similar doubt.

1. Can resumptive modifier refer to other type of the noun (other than abstract).?

I gave her a squared bowl, a bowl that can only be found in Russia. ---is it the correct usage of resumptive modifier?

2.In the below sentence, can we say that modifier -- a consultant in los angeles-- is an appositive modifier?

I went to the bar with john smith, a consultant in los angeles.

------------

+1 Kudos if you like the post :)
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Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 3031
Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2017, 19:29
AR15J wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
RMD007 wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k
I have few doubts and would be happy if you can clarify..
In the above sentence, I understand that, the collateral is defined for values (which are declining) of farm equipment and land, and the same acts as Resumptive Modifier. Please correct this, if it is wrong. I got the understanding about Resumtpive modifier from - a-group-of-paleontologists-recently-announced-that-a-site-in-89765.html#p1700111

Now, I found a similar post of Manhantten Verbal Legend - RON, which describes similar concept about concrete noun and abstract noun.(https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... tml#p35386)
The terminologies used in the post and mentioned for Resumptive modifier are similar and thus, I am not able to differentiate between two. Can you please explain this with few examples and also in a given sentence, how can I figure out that some term is a resumptive modifier or an abstract noun?

Thanks in Advance


Understanding the difference between the following two types of modifiers would hopefully clarify your doubt:

1. Appositive modifier: A noun used to modify another noun:

Marc, my best FRIEND, will come tomorrow.
Here the noun "friend" modifies another noun "Marc" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "my best" is an adjectival phrase that modifies the appositive "friend" in turn).
Now consider option E and compare with the above:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, THE COLLATERAL against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
Here the noun "the collateral" modifies another noun phrase"farm equipment and land" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season" is a relative clause modifier that modifies the appositive"the collateral" in turn).

2. Absolute phrase modifier: A noun + noun modifier structure used to refer to a clause as a whole. (The following example is from Manhattan SC guide)

Scientists have found high levels of iridium in certain geological formations around the world, results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier = that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause.

2a. Resumptive modifier: A special case of Absolute phrase modifier - the noun within the absolute phrase is a repetition of another noun already used in the clause.
Scientists presented the results of their research , results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier: that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause. THe noun "results" is repeated.

Abstract noun is something else altogether and bears no relation with the above discussion. A noun that cannot be touched, but can only be felt is an abstract noun. Examples: love, faith, trust, pain etc. (You may go through any high school grammar book to recapitulate the different types of nouns).

Please note that the noun within the absolute phrase modifier (or resumptive modifier) need not be an abstract noun -
After decades of hard work, the workers built the monument, the monument that we all have read about in the history book.
The noun within the resumptive modifier ("The monument") is NOT an abstract noun, but a common noun.


Please let me know if you still have doubts.



Thanks for wonderful explanation. I had a similar doubt.

1. Can resumptive modifier refer to other type of the noun (other than abstract).?

I gave her a squared bowl, a bowl that can only be found in Russia. ---is it the correct usage of resumptive modifier?

2.In the below sentence, can we say that modifier -- a consultant in los angeles-- is an appositive modifier?

I went to the bar with john smith, a consultant in los angeles.

------------

+1 Kudos if you like the post :)


1. Yes, your understating is correct. Resumptive modifiers are not limited to just abstract nouns.
2. Yes, your understanding is correct . It is an appositive - the noun "consultant" modifies another noun "John Smith".
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2018, 11:03
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

The main subject of this sentence is "declining values" and need a plural verb.
Eliminate A, B, and C.
In option D, it's not clear whether which is modifying land or equipment. Also, "use as" and "collatral" are redundant. Eliminate.
E is correct.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is

(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is

(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are

(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against &nbs [#permalink] 18 Apr 2018, 11:03

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