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Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2017, 03:12
PathFinder007 wrote:
Hi experts mikemcgarry

Could you please provide your comments for option E? how do we know that action is completed. According to statement given in question no where we know that action is completed. We can also say action is going on and dollor is to reach its highest level in six years against the German mark.

Thanks

sondenso wrote:
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

I see "it" so awkard, but .... :roll:


In option E verbs are not in parallel form. 'is'+ ing , and 'to verb'. infinitive verb can be parallel to another infinitive.
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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2017, 04:09
Choices A, B, and C use the wrong idiom ‘effort at restraining’; the correct idiom is ‘effort to restrain’.
Also, choice A has no verb at all in the overall sentence.

B is wrong because "to reach" should be "reaching" to represent the result of the action in the preceding clause (cause-effect). B is also wrong because the "it" in the first phrase refers to "rise" in the following clause (misplaced modifier).

C is wrong because it uses ‘and it reached’ even when the two actions are not independent; in this case, the second action can’t happen without the first. In such a case, ‘and it reached’ construction is wrong. This is a clear cause-and-effect sequence. Here, the second (dependent) action has to be written in ‘verb-ing’ form.

E is wrong because "and to reach" is trying to be parallel with "to restrain", which can’t be the case, as the subjects are different in the two cases - ‘the restraining’ is done by “the policymakers”, whereas the word ‘reach’ refers to the dollar. As a result, the parallel construction distorts the meaning. Also, "is continuing" doesn't make sense either because the action is completed. Furthermore, continuous tenses describe an action at a particular moment, not a period.
E is not parallel. We can write
1) Subject is x-ing and y-ing.
or
2) Subject wants to x and to y

In E we have Subject is x-ing and to y.

D. Correct … it uses the cause and effect logic correctly by using ‘verb-ing’ for the effect.
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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 07:27
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching - Missing verb ; idiom issue - at restraining it
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach - Modifier issue ; idiom issue - at restraining it
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached - idiom issue - at restraining it ; usage of and changes the meaning
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching - Correct
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach - Parallelism issue

Answer D
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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr   [#permalink] 03 Sep 2017, 07:27

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Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr

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