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Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr

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Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

[Reveal] Spoiler:
I see "it" so awkard, but .... :roll:
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2008, 02:35
sondenso wrote:
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

I see "it" so awkard, but .... :roll:



IMO D is the answer here

ya i agree that 'It' is awkward here and as a pronoun it just might have the antecedent of "policymakers" and "Atlantic"
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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2008, 02:38
D for me.

I believe the correct idiom is "efforts to" so that takes out A,B, and C.

"Defying" sets a progressive present tense, so "reaching" its matches up just fine. In E, "and to reach" is awkward. If E had "and reached" then perhaps that would be OK. But I like the ll with defying/reaching.

sondenso wrote:
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

I see "it" so awkard, but .... :roll:

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2008, 07:15
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sondenso wrote:
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

I see "it" so awkard, but .... :roll:


D.."efforts to" is correct. "and to reach" in E is wrong.

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2008, 17:18
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First of all remove the fluff:
Defying efforts at restraining it or Defying efforts to restrain it. Obviously the later option is better, so A, B, and C is out.
Two parallel activities "defying" and "reaching" is correctly parallel in D but E break this parallelism.

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2010, 06:21
How can dollar continue its rise?
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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2010, 09:22
Hi ykaiim, A, B and C are out because the idiom is "efforts to restrain"

Only D and E remain of which E is very bad option.

only D remains.

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2011, 07:20
Answer D. Efforts --- to is correct usage. E is wordy.

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2011, 21:29
+1 D

"efforts....to"

"reaching..." must be a modifier.
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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2014, 00:13
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Answer:

Defying efforts to restrain it OR
Defying efforts at restraining it.

Logic: Any wish,will, intention and desire is followed by "to+verb" Eg: Intention to get a good score, Plan to murder etc.

So A,B and C are eliminated.

Next between D and E,
E. The United States Dollar is continuing to rise, and to reach (Not Parallel).
D. The United States dollar continued its rise, reaching- reaching is an offshoot of the dollar's rise or put in another way -the rise of the dollar is 'the cause' and reaching its highest level is 'the effect'. So in cause and effect, you use "ING".

Hope I am clear.

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2014, 01:00
sondenso wrote:
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

I see "it" so awkard, but .... :roll:


A. efforts to not efforts at; no main verb, continuing, reaching
B. like A, the rise of US dollar can't compared with the German mank
C. like A, reaching cant compared with the mark
E. is continuing is wrong
D is my choice. Please correct if there is anything I mentioned wrong. Thanks!

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2015, 02:15
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
>> missing verb
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
>>IS there any grammatical error here, apart from idiom issue?
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

1: Defying efforts at Vs Defying efforts to achieve something.
2: The USA dollar continued to rise, reaching its blah blah [participle modifier presenting the result of the action in main clause.]
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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2015, 05:07
Yes , in option B the sentence formation is incorrect. There is an unnecessary comma after continued. In some sense the sentence tries to say that those countries tried to restrain dollar from rising but option b says that they tried to stop the rise from reaching its zenith.
There is also a modifier error. The opening modifier is intended to modify dollar and not rise.
However, i took more than 115 seconds to realize why option B is wrong
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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2015, 23:31
Thanks WaterFlowsUp.
Any quick way to identify what "Defying" is modifying? To me even the "The rise" sounds correct.
I ruled out B based upon the idiom error and the way sentence structure was formed.
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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2015, 10:00
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach




(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching

1. Read the sentence in this way --Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at

The correct idiom is Efforts---- to -----------not efforts at .

2. Read the sentence in this way----------- the United States dollar,continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

The united states dollar is subject that require verb ---but " Reaching " is not active verb . it is Gerund ----hence verb is not in the sentence . to make it active verb one needs is / am / are was were before gerund -- " reaching "


(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach

The correct idiom is Efforts----- to -----------not efforts at .

The united states dollar is subject -----not " the rise "

reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark----- is modify the -----the united state dollar ------not " the rise "


How can " the rise " can reach its highest level


(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached


The correct idiom is Efforts ------to -----------not efforts at .


no need to use of " it " after ---and----- in the above sentence . " it " is a pronoun refers to preceding noun , which is united state dollar that is already mention . use of " it " is redundant , therefore no need of " it "




(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching

Correct idiom -----efforts --to ,


reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark---- correctly modifying ----- the United States dollar continued its rise


(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

correct idiom ----- efforts ----to


but is continuing -----------, and --------- to reach ------not ||

is continuing --( active verb ) --------- while ---- to reach ---( infinity verb )



correct answer is D

Last edited by vijayshree on 10 Jul 2015, 09:57, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2015, 02:07
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach




(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching

1. Read the sentence in this way --Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at

The correct idiom is Efforts---- to -----------not efforts at .

2. Read the sentence in this way----------- the United States dollar,continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

The united states dollar is subject that require verb ---but " Reaching " is not active verb . it is Gerund ----hence verb is not in the sentence . to make it active verb one needs is / am / are was were before gerund -- " reaching "


(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach

The correct idiom is Efforts----- to -----------not efforts at .

The united states dollar is subject -----not " the rise "

reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark----- is modify the -----the united state dollar ------not " the rise "


How can " the rise " can reach its highest level


(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached


The correct idiom is Efforts ------to -----------not efforts at .


no need to use of " it " after ---and----- in the above sentence . " it " is a pronoun refers to preceding noun , which is united state dollar that is already mention . use of " it " is redundant , therefore no need of " it "




(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching

Correct idiom -----efforts --to ,


reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark---- correctly modifying ----- the United States dollar continued its rise

(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

correct idiom ----- efforts ----to


but is continuing -----------, and --------- to reach ------not ||

is continuing --( active verb ) --------- while ---- to reach ---( infinity verb )



correct answer is D

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2015, 17:02
A, B, and C out - idiom of effort...to.

E is out because the last part following the conjunction, and, is not a complete thought.

D is correct, with a complete thought sandwiched between two absolute phrases.

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2016, 01:52
Is Defying a participle acting like an adjective or a verb.

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2016, 06:13
sondenso wrote:
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

I see "it" so awkard, but .... :roll:

Hi sondenso, when a pronoun (in this case it) appears as part of the introductory modifier (as is the case here, where the sentence starts with a participial phrase), the rule is that this pronoun refers to the noun immediately after (in this case the United States dollar) the introductory modifier. So, here, it refers to the United States dollar.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses cases where pronoun appears before the antecedent, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2017, 00:19
Hi experts mikemcgarry

Could you please provide your comments for option E? how do we know that action is completed. According to statement given in question no where we know that action is completed. We can also say action is going on and dollor is to reach its highest level in six years against the German mark.

Thanks

sondenso wrote:
Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching its highest level in six years against the German mark.

(A) at restraining it, the United States dollar, continuing its rise, reaching
(B) at restraining it, the rise of the United States dollar continued, to reach
(C) at restraining it, the United States dollar continued rising, and it reached
(D) to restrain it, the United States dollar continued its rise, reaching
(E) to restrain it, the United States dollar is continuing its rise, and to reach

I see "it" so awkard, but .... :roll:

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Re: Defying efforts by policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic at restr   [#permalink] 24 Jan 2017, 00:19

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